The fundamental basis of mainstream Gravitational Theory is that physical bodies generate an attractive “force proportional to their masses”.
Gravitation, or gravity, is the natural phenomenon by which physical bodies appear to attract each other with a force proportional to their masses.
The mainstream gravitational theory is proudly based upon the mathematics of Sir Isaac Newton’s Universal Law of Gravitation which was published in 1687.
Newton’s law of universal gravitation states that every point mass in the universe attracts every other point mass with a force that is directly proportional to the product of their masses and inversely proportional to the square of the distance between them.
However, nearly a century later, the first untethered flight of a “hot air balloon” in 1782 clearly demonstrated the real world phenomenon where “hot air rises”.
On November 21, 1783, in Annonay, France, the first untethered manned flight was performed by Jean-François Pilâtre de Rozier and François Laurent d’Arlandes in a hot air balloon created on December 14, 1782 by the Montgolfier brothers.
This real world phenomenon clearly falsifies Newton’s mathematical law of universal gravitation because [as Wikipedia clearly acknowledges] the “hot air balloon” overcomes the effects of gravity by changing its density – not by changing its mass.
The heated air inside the envelope makes it buoyant since it has a lower density than the relatively cold air outside the envelope.
Unfortunately, the mainstream [again] chooses to ignore real world observations and persist with Newton’s mathematical [heuristics] theory of gravity by deflecting the reader with the theory of buoyancy and Archimedes’ principle.
Increasing the air temperature inside the envelope makes it lighter than the surrounding (ambient) air. The balloon floats because of the buoyant force exerted on it. This force is the same force that acts on objects when they are in water and is described by Archimedes’ principle.
Sadly, for the mainstream, this just further undermines their Newtonian heuristics by clearly showing that Archimedes falsified their theory in 212 BC when he realised buoyancy was determined by an object’s density based upon the objects mass [“weight”] and volume [“fluid displaced”].
Archimedes’ principle is named after Archimedes of Syracuse, who first discovered this law in 212 B.C. For more objects, floating and sunken, and in gases as well as liquids (i.e. a fluid), Archimedes’ principle may be stated thus in terms of forces:
Any object, wholly or partially immersed in a fluid, is buoyed up by a force equal to the weight of the fluid displaced by the object.
Archimedes of Syracuse
Should the reader wish to confirm that the force of “gravity” experienced by an object is determined by its density [not its mass] then they simply need to open their eyes and see how “gravity” structures the [real] world.
The structure of our Earthly domain is very clearly structured by density:
Each layer [in its turn] ordered by density.