The previous posting on Gloger’s Rule concluded:
1. The concept has not been well tested.
2. Limited testing has yielded mixed results.
The concept, therefore, should be downgraded to become:
Prolonged exposure to strong sunlight results in heavy levels of pigmentation in the “outer layer” of warm-blooded animals.
Prolonged exposure to weak sunlight results in light levels of pigmentation in the “outer layer” of warm-blooded animals.
However, there is one species that is deemed to spectacularly conform to Gloger’s Rule-of-Thumb: Homo Sapiens.
There is a correlation between the geographic distribution of UV radiation (UVR) and the distribution of indigenous skin pigmentation around the world.
Human Skin Colour Distribution based upon Von Luschan’s chromatic scale.
Native population data [prior to 1940]: Renato Biasutti.
Skin colours according to von Luschan’s chromatic scale
Homo sapiens are Primates with a lineage that may go back million years.
A primate is a mammal of the order Primates which contains prosimians and simians.
Primates arose from ancestors that lived in the trees of tropical forests; many primate characteristics represent adaptations to life in this challenging three-dimensional environment. All but a few primate species remain at least partly arboreal.
With the exception of humans, who inhabit every continent, most primates live in tropical or subtropical regions of the Americas, Africa and Asia.
The bonobo is probably the closest extant relative to humans.
The bonobo, Pan paniscus, formerly called the pygmy chimpanzee and less often, the dwarf or gracile chimpanzee, is a great ape and one of the two species making up the genus Pan; the other is Pan troglodytes, or the common chimpanzee.
Initial genetic studies characterised the DNA of chimpanzees and bonobos as being as much as 98% (99.4% in one study) identical to that of Homo sapiens.
The bonobo is popularly known for its high levels of sexual behavior.
Sex functions in conflict appeasement, affection, social status, excitement, and stress reduction. It occurs in virtually all partner combinations and in a variety of positions. This is a factor in the lower levels of aggression seen in the bonobo when compared to the common chimpanzee and other apes.
Bonobos are capable of passing the mirror-recognition test for self-awareness.
They communicate primarily through vocal means, although the meanings of their vocalizations are not currently known. However, most humans do understand their facial expressions and some of their natural hand gestures, such as their invitation to play.
Two bonobos at the Great Ape Trust, Kanzi and Panbanisha, have been taught how to communicate using a keyboard labeled with lexigrams (geometric symbols) and they can respond to spoken sentences. Kanzi’s vocabulary consists of more than 500 English words and he has comprehension of around 3,000 spoken English words.
Unfortunately, there is little fossil evidence to chart the rise of the human race and dating is primarily based upon the estimated time required for the observed DNA mutations.
Family tree showing the extant hominoids:
genus Homo: humans
genus Pan: chimpanzees and bonobos
genus Gorilla: gorillas
genus Pongo: orangutans
The splitting date between human and chimpanzee lineages is placed around 4–8 million years ago during the late Miocene epoch.
There is little fossil evidence for the divergence of the gorilla, chimpanzee and hominin lineages.
The mainstream vaguely dates the split of the tribe Hominini [into humans and chimpanzees] at 4-8 million years ago whilst the DNA evidence suggests “the bonobo and common chimpanzee species separated from each other less than one million years ago”.
DNA evidence suggests the bonobo and common chimpanzee species separated from each other less than one million years ago (similar in relation between Homo sapiens and Neanderthals).
However, it appears that humans, bonobos and chimpanzees are so closely related that they really belong to the same genus.
Scientists such as Jared Diamond in The Third Chimpanzee, and Morris Goodman of Wayne State University in Detroit suggest that the bonobo and common chimpanzee are so closely related to humans that their genus name also should be classified with the human genus Homo: Homo paniscus, Homo sylvestris, or Homo arboreus.
An alternative philosophy suggests that the term Homo sapiens is the misnomer rather, and that humans should be reclassified as Pan sapiens.
Therefore, it appears fairly certain [contrary to the mainstream claims of “4-8 million years ago”] that Homo Sapiens have not been around for very long.
If the chimpanzee/bonobo split happened “less than one million years ago” and the closest living relation of the human is the bonobo then the human race is less than 200,000 years old.
The earliest fossils of anatomically modern humans are from the Middle Paleolithic, about 200,000 years ago such as the Omo remains of Ethiopia and the fossils of Herto sometimes classified as Homo sapiens idaltu.
However, it appears that some form of catastrophe occurred about 100,000 years ago and “the human population was reduced to a small number of breeding pairs” in Africa.
The variation in human DNA is minute compared to that of other species, possibly suggesting a population bottleneck during the Late Pleistocene (ca. 100,000 years ago), in which the human population was reduced to a small number of breeding pairs.
However, the colonisation of the India and Australia [by human beings from Africa] is estimated to have begun 70,000 years ago.
This migration out of Africa is estimated to have begun about 70,000 years BP.
Modern humans subsequently spread globally, replacing earlier hominins (either through competition or hybridization). They inhabited Eurasia and Oceania by 40,000 years BP, and the Americas at least 14,500 years BP.
Map of human migrations [with the North Pole at the centre].
Africa, harbouring the start of the migration, is at the top left and South America at the far right. Migration patterns are based on studies of mitochondrial (matrilinear) DNA.
Dashed lines are hypothetical migrations.
Numbers represent thousand years before present.
The blue line represents area covered in ice or tundra during the last great ice age.
The letters are the mitochondrial DNA haplogroups (pure motherly lineages);
Haplogroups can be used to define genetic populations and are often geographically oriented.
For example, the following are common divisions for mtDNA haplogroups:
African: L, L1, L2, L3
Near Eastern: J, N
Southern European: J, K
General European: H, V
Northern European: T, U, X
Asian: A, B, C, D, E, F, G (note: M is composed of C, D, E, and G)
Native American: A, B, C, D, and sometimes X
We have now reached the point [in the history of the human race] where the mainstream appears to go “off the rails” regarding our African origins.
Firstly, we have the mainstream saying:
“The earliest fossils of anatomically modern humans are from… about 200,000 years ago”.
Secondly, we have the mainstream saying:
“Homo sapiens… began to exhibit full behavioral modernity around 50,000 years ago”.
The mainstream really is in denial when it claims that “full behavioral modernity” did not exist in Africa during the first 150,000 years of the human races existence.
The mainstream much prefers [see the migration map above] to claim that humans migrated to Western Europe between 40 and 50,000 years ago and [only then] “began to exhibit full behavioral modernity”.
Unsurprisingly, [see the diagrams below] this mainstream claim is bogus.
The Earth was in the middle of an ice age 50,000 years ago and a northerly migration [out of Africa] into Western Europe was not a sensible survival option because large areas of Western Europe were covered in ice which was surrounded by polar desert, tundra and steppe climatic zones.
Minimum (interglacial, black) and maximum (glacial, grey) – Northern hemisphere.
The next posting will further examine human migration using Gloger’s Rule-of-Thumb…