Tektites: 3 – Still Waters Run Deep

Still Waters Run Deep

In a previous posting the Gulf of Mexico was identified a “hypervelocity” impact site that produced the Texan Bediasite and Ivory Coast tektites about 180 million years ago.

An extreme “hypervelocity” impact event occurred about 180 million years ago which formed the Gulf of Mexico and produced the Texan Bediasite and Ivory Coast tektites.

The “hypervelocity” impact object travelled through the Earth and exited in the region of Indochina at a “high velocity” and produced the Indochinites and the unique Muong Nong Tektites.

The Tale of the Tektites

The Gulf of Mexico impact triggered the second “wave” of oxygen outgassing and an associated “wave” of seafloor stretching that initiated the break-up of Pangaea.

The obvious next step is to identify the site of the “hypervelocity” impact that triggered the third “wave” of oxygen outgassing and the associated “wave” of seafloor stretching about 120 million years ago.

The first clue is the relative size of the seafloor stretching event initiated about 120 million years ago. The visual clue suggests that impact crater will be bigger than the Gulf of Mexico.

Safloor Crust Expansion

The second clue is provided by the seafloor age map because any impact crater will most probably be located next to a band of “green” seafloor that started stretching about 120 million years ago.

In the southern hemisphere there is evident “green” period stretching but no obvious crater.

Seafloor Stretching - Southern Hemisphere

In the northern hemisphere there is evident “green” period stretching but no obvious crater.

Seafloor Stretching - Northern Hemisphere

However, there is an obvious crater in the Artic Ocean where the seafloor age was not surveyed [probably due to sea ice] and this area of the ocean floor merges into a subsequent period of symmetrical “yellow” and “orange” seafloor stretching along the Lomonosov Ridge.

This strongly suggests that the seafloor of the uncharted Beaufort Sea [in the Artic Ocean] falls into the preceding “green” period of stretching 120 million years ago and the bathymetry clearly illustrates the size of the main impact crater bordering the north coast of Alaska.

Artic Ocean

The devastation caused by the impact is clearly observable in the bathymetry of the Artic Ocean and the topology of the surrounding land masses above sea level.

A huge amount of material has been scooped out [to a depth of around 4,000 metres] at the main impact site [the Canada Basin] and the wider outer circle of the Artic Ocean down to 1,000 metres.

Barrow Point

Point Barrow – Alaska – Google Maps

The main trajectory of the impact blasted material forwards towards [primarily] Russia, Finland and Norway whilst the lateral blast damage can be clearly identified between Canada and Greenland.

Canada Basin Impact Crater - Main Triage Trajectory
The 188,000 lakes in Finland clearly attest to the Beaufort Sea impact site.

Finland is a country of thousands of lakes and islands—about 188,000 lakes (larger than 500 m2 or 0.12 acre) and 179,000 islands. Its largest lake, Saimaa, is the fourth largest in Europe. The area with most lakes is called Finnish Lakeland. The greatest concentration of islands is found in the southwest in the Archipelago Sea between continental Finland and the main island of Åland.



Finland – Google Maps

The 21,000 ponds [reminiscent of the Carolina Bays http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Carolina_bays ] in the Czech Republic [especially South Bohemia] and the Moldavite Tektites attest to the Beaufort Sea impact site.

In the Czech Republic a total of about 21,000 ponds.


Czech Republic

Czech Republic – Google Maps



Ultimately, the cluster of impact craters centred on the Baltic Sea may well represent secondary impact sites [from the primary Beaufort Sea impact].

Baltic Impact Sites

Steven Dutch, Natural and Applied Sciences, University of Wisconsin – Green Bay


Lena River Delta - Secondary Triage

The Canada Basin is strangely “isolated from the world oceans by the Lomonosov Ridge”.

Arctic Ocean bathymetric features


An empirical model of carbon flux and 14C-derived ages of the water in the Canada Basin of the Arctic Ocean as a function of depth was used to estimate the long-term rate of primary production within this region.

An estimate can be made because the deep waters of the Canadian Basin are isolated from the world oceans by the Lomonosov Ridge (sill depth about 1500 meters). Below the sill, the age of the water correlates with increased nutrients and oxygen utilization and thus provides a way to model the average flux of organic material into the deep basin over a long time period.

The 14C ages of the deep water in the Canada Basin were about 1000 years, the carbon flux across the 1500-meter isobath was 0.3 gram of carbon per square meter per year, and the total production was 9 to 14 grams of carbon per square meter per year. Such estimates provide a baseline for understanding the role of the Arctic Ocean in global carbon cycling.

Age of Canada Basin Deep Waters: A Way to Estimate Primary Production for the Arctic Ocean – R. W. MACDONALD, E. C. CARMACK
Science 29 November 1991

Furthermore, the observed heat flow anomaly in the Canada Basin indicates that the impact force was sufficient to “crack” the Earth’s crust and initiate seafloor spreading via exothermic outgassing.

Twenty heat-flow measurements were made from drifting ice in a 100-km equidimensional region on the boundary between the Alpha rise and the Canada basin in the central Arctic Ocean.

The heat flow in the basin is uniform (1.41±4% μcal/cm2 sec) over a distance of at least 75 km from the boundary.

On the flank of the rise, six consecutive measurements confirm a decrease in heat flow to a minimum of 0.77 in a distance of less than 25 km.

The anomaly cannot be explained in terms of superficial effects relating to water circulation, sedimentary processes, or topography.

Uniformity of heat flow in the basin and the rapid change on the rise preclude credible explanations in terms of source distributions, mantle convection, phase change, or recent tectonic movements.

The anomaly can be explained in terms of relatively low-conductivity rock extending to a depth of 10 or 20 km, either locally under the low heat-flow zone or generally under the entire rise. In the latter case, a projection would extend 50 or more kilometers under the adjacent basin at depth. In either case, low heat flow would occur only at the periphery of the rise.

It is unlikely that conductivity contrasts in the crust and upper mantle would ever cause an appreciable surface heat-flow anomaly whose width exceeds 100 km. This is less than the spacing of most heat-flow stations, which therefore yield little information on the subject. Empirical formulas based on water content underestimate sediment conductivity by 10 to 20% on the rise and 5 to 10% in the basin.

Heat flow through the Arctic Ocean floor: The Canada Basin-Alpha Rise Boundary
Arthur H. Lachenbruch, B. Vaughn Marshall
Journal of Geophysical Research – Volume 71, Issue 4, pages 1223–1248, 15 February 1966

However, the one mystery associated with the Beaufort Sea impact event is that there is no major extinction event found in the fossil record around 120 million years ago.

There is a transient dip in biodiversity around 145 million years ago before biodiversity begins to accelerate away exponentially after 100 million years ago. This mystery will be resolved shortly…


Geologic Clock

Gallery | This entry was posted in Catastrophism, Earth, Solar System. Bookmark the permalink.

6 Responses to Tektites: 3 – Still Waters Run Deep

  1. malagabay says:

    Special thanks to Luboš Motl for his very generous assistance whilst researching the “ponds” of South Bohemia in the Czech Republic. Thank you.

    Luboš Motl – The Reference Frame

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