Geomagnetism: Salvaging the Wreckage

Geomagnetism Salvaging the Wreckage

The wheels have fallen off the myopic bipolar view of Geomagnetism that has been nurtured by Western academia for the last 175 years.

The culprit responsible for this academic car wreck is Mother Nature.

In other words, the “settle science” of Geomagnetism is being bitten in the butt by reality as a weakening magnetic pole heads out of Canada, across the Artic Ocean, towards Siberia.

The Earth’s magnetic north pole is drifting from northern Canada towards Siberia with a presently accelerating rate – 10 km per year at the beginning of the 20th century, up to 40 km per year in 2003, and since then has only accelerated.

Magnetic Defection

Western academics are worried [although panicked is probably a better world] that their reputations and funding will implode when compass needles [in the Western world] start pointing East.

Unsurprisingly, academics perceive this imminent reversal of fortunes as a very scary scenario.

At present, the overall geomagnetic field is becoming weaker; the present strong deterioration corresponds to a 10–15% decline over the last 150 years and has accelerated in the past several years; geomagnetic intensity has declined almost continuously from a maximum 35% above the modern value achieved approximately 2,000 years ago.

Unsurprisingly, Wikipedia isn’t promoting the good news that the Earth’s “quadrupolar component has strengthened”.

From 1800 to the present, the dipolar component of the field has weakened at 6.3 percent per century and the quadrupolar component has strengthened.

Measurements of the magnetism of rocks indicate that the dipole’s decrease has persisted for at least 2,000 years. If it continued to decrease at the present rate, it would vanish in 1,600 years.

The Magnetic Universe – J B Zirker – 2009

Therefore, agile academics are advised to review the history of Geomagnetism to see what can be salvaged from the bipolar wreckage.

However, agile academics should anticipate antagonism from a Western mainstream that still clings to the forlorn hope that the compass was [independently] invented in the Western World.

There is a debate over the diffusion of the compass after its first appearance with the Chinese. At present, according to Kreutz, scholarly consensus is that the Chinese invention predates the first European mention by 150 years.

However, there are questions over diffusion, because of the apparent failure of the Arabs to function as possible intermediaries between East and West because of the earlier recorded appearance of the compass in Europe (1190) than in the Muslim world (1232, 1242, and 1282).

Unfortunately, for Western academics, the “first clear account of magnetic declination” indicates that the Chinese navigated by compass at least 300 years before the compass arrived in Europe.

The first clear account of magnetic declination occurs in the Kuan Shih Ti Li Chih Meng (“Mr. Kuan’s Geomantic Instructor”), dating to 880.

Another text, the Chiu Thien Hsuan Nu Chhing Nang Hai Chio Ching (“Blue Bag Sea Angle Manual”) from around the same period, also has an implicit description of magnetic declination.

It has been argued that this knowledge of declination requires the use of the compass.

A reference to a magnetized needle as a “mysterious needle” appears in 923-926 in the Chung Hua Ku Chin Chu text written by Ma Kao.

The same passage is also attributed to the 4th century AD writer Tshui Pao, although it is postulated that the former text is more authentic.

The shape of the needle is compared to that of a tadpole, and may indicate the transition between “lodestone spoons” and “iron needles.”

Humiliatingly, for Western academics, the Chinese realised that their compasses pointed towards the stronger magnetic pole [which happens to be located in the Southern hemisphere].

The earliest reference to a specific magnetic direction finder device for land navigation is recorded in a Song Dynasty book dated to 1040-44.

There is a description of an iron “south-pointing fish” floating in a bowl of water, aligning itself to the south.

The device is recommended as a means of orientation “in the obscurity of the night.”

This is the very embarrassing reason why the Western mainstream [contradictorily] calls the Earth’s magnetic north pole the “Magnetic South Pole” and the Earth’s magnetic south pole the “Magnetic North Pole”.

Unsurprisingly, Wikipedia tries to explain away this epic failure of Western academia.

All magnets have two poles that are distinguished by the direction of the magnetic flux. These poles could have any names, for example, “+” and “−”; but the convention in early compasses was to call the end of the needle pointing to the Earth’s North Magnetic Pole the “north pole” (or “north-seeking pole”) and the other end the “south pole” (the names are often abbreviated to “N” and “S”).

Because opposite poles attract, this definition implies that the Earth’s North Magnetic Pole is a magnetic south pole and the Earth’s South Magnetic Pole is a magnetic north pole.

Magnetic Field Lines - Colour Coded

However, the Western World did show some early promise in the field of Geomagnetism.

Sir Edmond Halley published the first map [in Europe] of magnetic deviation in 1702.

The first map of deviation was published in 1701 following an exhaustive voyage by the English astronomer Sir Edmond Halley (1656-1742).

It was no coincidence that this map covered the Atlantic Ocean, good navigation being of great importance for England at that time, for both economic and military reasons.

Furthermore, in the course of the 17th century, it became apparent that the magnetic field was not constant and that the deviation changed slightly from year to year, and therefore it became important, not only to map the magnetic field, but also to keep the maps up to date.

The Road to the Magnetic North Pole – Truls Lynne Hansen – University of Tromsø

Halley - Compass Variations - 1702

Sir Edmond Halley also recognised the Earth’s magnetic field was quadrupolar.

As data accumulated, Halley noticed how the line of zero declination drifted westward.
Apparently the whole pattern of Earth’s magnetism was creeping toward the west at a pace that would complete a circuit in a couple thousand years.

To explain this curiosity, Halley proposed that the Earth has two north and two south magnetic poles.

Two of these poles lay on the surface, the other two lay on an inner sphere about 800 km deep. By cleverly adjusting the slow westerly rotation of this inner sphere, he could reproduce the observed variations to some extent.

The Magnetic Universe – J B Zirker – 2009

The Norwegian Christopher Hansteen also concluded [in his treatise that was finally published in 1819] that “one magnet was insufficient to describe the Earth’s field, two being required, giving four magnetic poles in all, the two new poles being located north of Siberia and in the south-easterly Pacific.”

One of those who delivered an answering treatise was the young Norwegian Christopher Hansteen (b. 1784) who’s answer drew considerable attention and contributed to his professorship of the University of Christiania (later Oslo) in 1816.

Hansteen became well known in international as well as Norwegian research circles and made many contributions to the Norwegian community right up to his death in 1873.

The treatise answering the Danish challenge was published in 1819 in an expanded form under the title Untersuchungen über den Magnetismus der Erde (Investigations of the Earth’s magnetism).

Assembled here are almost all observations of the magnetic field up to that time along with maps and the attempt to build a mathematical model in which the observations might be reproduced by a system of magnets within the Earth.

The conclusion was that one magnet was insufficient to describe the Earth’s field, two being required, giving four magnetic poles in all, the two new poles being located north of Siberia and in the south-easterly Pacific.

The original strong poles were located in the American far north and in eastern Antarctica.

The magnetic conditions in Siberia interested Hansteen greatly and he undertook an long trip there in the years 1826-8; regrettably, his measurements from this trip were never analysed.

The Road to the Magnetic North Pole – Truls Lynne Hansen – University of Tromsø

Sadly, western academia abrogated science and displayed its preference for mathematical heuristics.

Sadly, western academia surrendered to the expedient heuristics of Carl Friedrich Gauss just like it surrendered to the gravitational heuristics of Sir Isaac Newton.

Hansteen’s description, however, did not survive long: the great German mathematician, Carl Friedrich Gauss (1777-1855), attacked the problem with characteristic elegance, and, in 1838, presented a mathematical description which is still in use today.

Gauss did not speculate about what might have to exist in the Earth’s interior, rather, he developed a purely empirical model which merely described the observations best.

In Gauss model, the two additional poles of Hansteen’s model were dispensed with and are replaced by significant irregularities in the bipolar field.

The Road to the Magnetic North Pole – Truls Lynne Hansen – University of Tromsø

Needless to say, mathematicians have [well and truly] milked their heuristic cash cow.

Current mathematical models of the Earth’s field employ as many as 168 “multipoles” to achieve the required accuracy.

Glatzmaier developed a huge computer code that incorporates the most detailed information available on the rotation, composition, temperature, and density of the core.

The code is so big and so complex that it can only run on 256 processors working in parallel.

Even so, a typical calculation can take six months to run.

The Magnetic Universe – J B Zirker – 2009

Thus, the Earth has turned [and its magnetic field has evolved] whilst mainstream Geomagnetism has learnt nothing [except how to cover its tracks and milk the system] whilst playing with their heuristic models.

300 Years of Geomagnetism

A wonderful example of mainstream modelling madness is embodied within North American Magnetic Pole position reconstructions.

The observational data [1831 thru 2001] show a [slightly wobbly] straight line northerly trajectory.
This straight line trajectory appears to have been continuous since [at least] 1702 when Sir Edmond Halley published his declination map.

However, the mainstream model inexplicably has the pole performing a 180 degree pirouette prior to the first observational data point in 1831.

Magnetic North Pole Positions

Unfortunately, there is nothing meaningful that can be salvaged from these bipolar models.

However, by referencing the fossil record, it is very easy to envisage an “Old Dipole World” which has been broken-up [by inflation] to form our present quadrupolar magnetic field.

All the evidence indicates that the Earth’s magnet field is reorganising itself after the “break-up”.

Pangea Magnetism

In all probability we will just have to wait to see:

a) Where the magnetic “chips” finally come to rest.
b) Whether the Earth’s magnetic field is actually externally driven [like Uranus and Neptune].

Uranu and Neptune

The Magnetic Universe – J B Zirker – 2009

The Magnetic Universe - J B Zirker

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