An overview of European climate [from 1960] using data from 18 locations was introduced in a previous posting.
This posting reviews those individual locations and compares the 1960 data with the latest climate information available in Wikipedia.
Theoretically, an overall rise in temperatures for the larger urban areas may be observed because of an increased Urban Heat Island effect which “raise night-time temperatures more than daytime temperatures”.
UHI is most noticeable during the summer and winter.
The main cause of the urban heat island effect is from the modification of land surfaces, which use materials that effectively store short-wave radiation.
Waste heat generated by energy usage is a secondary contributor.
As a population center grows, it tends to expand its area and increase its average temperature.
Not all cities have a distinct urban heat island.
The IPCC stated that “it is well-known that compared to non-urban areas urban heat islands raise night-time temperatures more than daytime temperatures.”
For example, Barcelona, Spain is 0.2 °C (0.4 °F) cooler for daily maxima and 2.9 °C (5.2 °F) warmer for minima than a nearby rural station.
The extra heat provided by the UHI leads to greater upward motion, which can induce additional shower and thunderstorm activity.
Additionally, the mainstream theory of Global Warming indicates that an overall increase in temperatures of about 0.5 C has occurred since 1960.
However, such a small increase [over the 50 year study period] will be very difficult to detect and isolate from the changes caused by the Urban Heat Island effect and natural variability.
Global warming refers to an unequivocal and continuing rise in the average temperature of Earth’s climate system.
Since 1971, 90% of the warming has occurred in the oceans.
Since the early 20th century, the global air and sea surface temperature has increased about 0.8 °C (1.4 °F), with about two-thirds of the increase occurring since 1980.
Regrettably, evidence of data tampering is also anticipated where inconvenient data is omitted, data prior to 1965 is adjusted downwards and data after 1965 is adjusted upwards.
The January and March low temperatures have risen a few degrees to produce a smoother curve.
Precipitation has increased [by nearly an inch] with small rises in February and March.
The high temperatures in July and August seem to have crept up a couple of degrees.
Precipitation has increased by two inches and the pattern is now level from October to January.
The high and low temperatures in July and August have increased by about three degrees.
Precipitation has increased by nearly two inches [spread through October to December].
The high and low temperatures in December and January have dropped by two or three degrees while the high temperatures in July and August have risen by about one degree.
Precipitation has decreased by 3.5 inches mainly between December and February.
The high temperatures in December, January and February have risen by two degrees and the temperatures in July and August show a similar rise. Precipitation has fallen by just over an inch.
The low temperatures in July and August seem to have increased by about three degrees.
Precipitation has risen by about half an inch.
Temperatures during July and August seem to have crept up by a couple of degrees and Precipitation has increased by nearly an inch and the annual pattern is smoother.
High temperatures in July and August have increased by around two degrees.
Precipitation has increased by nearly four inches mainly in the October to January period.
July high temperatures have risen by about two degrees and precipitation has risen by just over eight and a half inches and is spread mainly from September through December.
Unfortunately, according to Wikipedia, Milan has not experienced weather since 1990.
However, is interesting to note that July temperatures dropped by a couple of degrees and precipitation dropped by one and a half inches by 1990.
High temperatures in July and August have risen by two degrees and January seems to be a couple of degrees warmer. Precipitation has generally increased by just over three inches.
The temperatures changes in Palermo are very strange and very striking.
The low temperatures appear to be generally unchanged while the high summer temperatures have risen by about ten degrees. Precipitation has generally decreased by over five and a half inches.
Unfortunately, according to Wikipedia, Bergen has not experienced weather since 1990.
However, is interesting to note that temperatures had hardly changed whilst precipitation had increased by over fifteen inches in 1990.
The high temperatures in July and August have increased by about three degrees whilst precipitation has fallen by nearly three inches to form a smoother annual pattern.
The high temperatures in July and August have increased by about two degrees whilst precipitation has declined by less than half an inch.
The high temperature in July appears to have increased by about two degrees whilst precipitation has generally increased by just over seven inches.
The high temperatures in July and August have increased by two or three degrees and the low temperatures have increased by two or three degrees.
Precipitation has generally increased by nearly seven inches.
Temperatures and precipitation in Bucharest appear virtually unchanged.
The expected increase in the Urban Heat Island effect which “raise night-time temperatures more than daytime temperatures” is only clearly evident in Madrid.
However, it is arguable that an increase in the Urban Heat Island has generally contributed to the increased high temperatures in the capital cities such as Athens, Berlin, Lisbon, London and Moscow.
The 0.5 C of Global Warming that is claimed to have occurred since 1960 is impossible to detect especially “since 1971, 90% of the warming has occurred in the oceans”.
However, this review does highlight the triviality of a change of 0.5 C in average temperatures [over 50 years] within the context of the daily temperature ranges, the annual temperature ranges, the longer history of climate data and natural variability.
The hysteria regarding Global Warming is best described as Global Alarmism.
Regrettably, the latest climate data does provide evidence of very clumsy data tampering.
The termination of weather [and therefore new climate data] in 1990 for Bergen and Milan is clear evidence of data tampering by exclusion where long standing locations are inexplicably dropped from the mainstream climate datasets.
Too many locations display crude additions to the average high temperatures [especially during July and Augusts] while the average low temperatures have virtually remained constant for 50 years.
The most striking example of suspect data being the ten degree rise in average high temperatures during July and August for the Mediterranean port of Palermo whilst the average low temperatures appear to have remained constant.
Wikipedia [ironically enough] notes that “Palermo is one of the warmest cities in Europe (mainly due to its warm nights)”.
Honestly, I don’t make this stuff up – but its evident somebody is!