The Eye of Nebraska

The Eye of Nebraska

The Eye of Nebraska imagery represents the northern part of the Ogallala Aquifer that lies beneath Nebraska.

The Ogallala Aquifer is a shallow water table aquifer located beneath the Great Plains in the United States.

One of the world’s largest aquifers, it underlies an area of approximately 174,000 mi² (450,000 km²) in portions of eight states: (South Dakota, Nebraska, Wyoming, Colorado, Kansas, Oklahoma, New Mexico, and Texas).

It was named in 1898 by N.H. Darton from its type locality near the town of Ogallala, Nebraska.

The aquifer is part of the High Plains Aquifer System, and rests on the Ogallala Formation, which is the principal geologic unit underlying 80% of the High Plains.

About 27 percent of the irrigated land in the United States overlies the aquifer, which yields about 30 percent of the ground water used for irrigation in the United States.

Since 1950, agricultural irrigation has reduced the saturated volume of the aquifer by an estimated 9%. Depletion is accelerating, with 2% lost between 2001 and 2009 alone.

Certain aquifer zones are now empty; these areas will take over 100,000 years to replenish naturally through rainfall.

The aquifer system supplies drinking water to 82 percent of the 2.3 million people (1990 census) who live within the boundaries of the High Plains study area.

The breadth and depth of the aquifer generally decrease from north to south.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ogallala_Aquifer

Stores on Front Street in Ogallala, Nebraska

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ogallala,_Nebraska

The Eye of Nebraska is also reflected in the population density of Nebraska.

Nebraska population density

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nebraska#Demographics

A search of the internet reveals the Eye of Nebraska is located beneath 60,000 square kilometres of grass-stabilized sand dunes which form the largest sand dune formation in America [according to NASA].

The Sandhills, often written Sand Hills, is a region of mixed-grass prairie on grass-stabilized sand dunes in north-central Nebraska, covering just over one quarter of the state.

Nebraska Sandhills - Hooker County

Dunes in the Sandhills may exceed 330 ft (100 m) in height.

The average elevation of the region gradually increases from about 1,800 ft (550 m) in the east to about 3,600 ft (1,100 m) in the west.

The Sandhills sit atop the massive Ogallala Aquifer; thus both temporary and permanent shallow lakes are common in low-lying valleys between the grass-stabilized dunes prevalent in the Sandhills.

The eastern and central sections of the region are drained by tributaries of the Loup River and the Niobrara River, while the western section is largely composed of small interior drainage basins.

Map of Nebraska Sand Hills

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sand_Hills_%28Nebraska%29

NASA Earth Observatory - Nebraska Sand

The Sand Hills cover about a quarter of the U.S. Great Plains state Nebraska.

These ancient sand dunes are from the Pleistocene Epoch (the geologic time period spanning about 1.8 to about 10,000 years ago).
..
Covering an area of about 60,000 square kilometers in western Nebraska, the Sand Hills are the largest sand dune formation in America.

http://earthobservatory.nasa.gov/IOTD/view.php?id=6049

The obvious question is:

Can precipitation in Nebraska feed the lakes, rivers and vegetation whilst also recharging the Ogallala Aquifer?

The mainstream response endorses the precipitation fed aquifers and ice ages consensus.

The Sandhills’ thousands of ponds and lakes replenish the Ogallala Aquifer, which feeds creeks and rivers such as the Niobrara and Loup rivers.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sand_Hills_%28Nebraska%29#Ecology

Certain aquifer zones are now empty; these areas will take over 100,000 years to replenish naturally through rainfall.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sand_Hills_%28Nebraska%29

These ancient sand dunes are from the Pleistocene Epoch (the geologic time period spanning about 1.8 to about 10,000 years ago).

They are made of sediment eroded from the Rocky Mountains by the monumental Pleistocene glaciers, washed out into the plains, and now mostly stabilized by grassland vegetation.

http://earthobservatory.nasa.gov/IOTD/view.php?id=6049

The first big problem for the mainstream is that it’s difficult to imagine how the sand in the Nebraska Sand Hills was “eroded from the Rocky Mountains” when the youngest geological layer of the Rocky Mountains is composed of “limestone and dolomite” that is many kilometres thick.

The cores of the mountain ranges are in most places formed of pieces of continental crust that are over one billion years old.

The oldest rock is Precambrian metamorphic rock that forms the core of the North American continent.

There is also Precambrian sedimentary argillite, dating back to 1.7 billion years ago.

During the Paleozoic, western North America lay underneath a shallow sea, which deposited many kilometers of limestone and dolomite.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Geology_of_the_Rocky_Mountains

The Paleozoic Era … spanning from roughly 541 to 252.2 million years ago.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Paleozoic

The second big problem for the mainstream is the lack of precipitation in the Nebraska Sand Hills.

The Sandhills is classified as a semi-arid region, with average annual rainfall varying from 23 inches (580 mm) in the east to less than 17 inches (430 mm) of rain in the west.

Temperatures range from lows of −30 °F (−34 °C) to highs of 105 °F (41 °C).

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sand_Hills_%28Nebraska%29

Climate data for Alliance, Nebraska

Alliance is located at the western edge of Nebraska’s Sand Hills.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alliance,_Nebraska#Climate

Climate data for Ogalalla, Nebraska

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ogallala,_Nebraska

The meagre precipitation falls predominantly in the hot summer months and it’s reasonable to assume that evaporation is primarily responsible for the disappearance of the “temporary” shallow lakes and the accumulation of chemicals in the “alkaline” lakes.

Humidity also decreases significantly from east to west.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nebraska#Climate

However, some lakes in the area are alkaline and support several species of phyllopod shrimp.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sand_Hills_%28Nebraska%29#Ecology

A soda lake or alkaline lake is a lake on the strongly alkaline side of neutrality (in other words, a pH value above 7, typically between 9 – 12).
..
The high alkalinity and salinity arise through evaporation of the lake water.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Soda_lake

The Sandhills sit atop the massive Ogallala Aquifer; thus both temporary and permanent shallow lakes are common in low-lying valleys between the grass-stabilized dunes prevalent in the Sandhills.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sand_Hills_%28Nebraska%29#Geography

Additionally, it is difficult to imagine how the low levels of precipitation can be feeding lakes, rivers and vegetation whilst also recharging the aquifer through a land surface that “doesn’t drain water very well”.

The area doesn’t drain water very well, and so the hollows at the bases of dunes are filled with brilliantly blue lakes.

According to a report on the Sand Hills by the World Wildlife Fund, the soils of the Sand Hills aren’t like any other soils in the Great Plains, and unique grasses and plants live there.

The sandy soils were not attractive to farmers, and so the area was left largely unplowed by European settlers.

http://earthobservatory.nasa.gov/IOTD/view.php?id=6049

The Sandhills’ thousands of ponds and lakes replenish the Ogallala Aquifer, which feeds creeks and rivers such as the Niobrara and Loup rivers.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sand_Hills_%28Nebraska%29#Ecology

Gleeson et al. (2010) compiled the first regional-scale maps of permeability for the North American continent and the terrestrial globe.

They are interested in permeability in the uppermost 100 m of the subsurface, but below the water table, where all pore spaces are saturated with water.

Nebraska Permeability

Geology is destiny: globally mapping permeability by rock type – 25 Jan 2011 – Anne Jefferson
http://all-geo.org/highlyallochthonous/2011/01/geology-is-destiny-globally-mapping-permeability-by-rock-type/

Overall, the imaginative precipitation fed aquifers and ice ages mainstream consensus collapses under cross examination.

Furthermore, the Nebraska drainage pattern strongly suggests that the Ogallala Aquifer [aka High Plains Aquifer] is discharging through the Eye of Nebraska into the river system.

High Plains Aquifer

Nebraska - Mean Annual Precipitation 1971-2000

University of Nebraska – Lincoln Nebraska – Water Center
http://watercenter.unl.edu/watermap/

Additionally, it should be noted that the claim that the Nebraska Sand Hills forms a large endorheic basin is confounded by the evidence because river basins drain the entire state of Nebraska.

North America
Endorheic basins in the Great Plains
..
The Sandhills (Nebraska)

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_endorheic_basins#North_America

An endorheic basin … is a closed drainage basin that retains water and allows no outflow to other external bodies of water, such as rivers or oceans, but converges instead into lakes or swamps, permanent or seasonal, that equilibrate through evaporation.

Such a basin may also be referred to as a closed or terminal basin or as an internal drainage system.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Endorheic_basin

Nebraska River Basins
University of Nebraska – Lincoln Nebraska – Water Center
http://watercenter.unl.edu/watermap/

Therefore, with the eliminating of the precipitation fed aquifers hypothesis, the mainstream must deploy one of their variant Plan B theories that rely upon inbound extraterrestrial water.

However, evidence supporting extraterrestrial water is more imaginary than factual and is totally absent in the case of the Ogallala Aquifer.

One of the stranger mainstream obsessions is that the water found on Earth is of an extraterrestrial origin and this extraterrestrial water was brought to Earth by comets, asteroids and meteors.
..
This strange obsession with cometary extraterrestrial water is difficult to understand given the wealth of modern contradictory information:

1986: Probes fail to locate surface water on Halley’s comet.
1994: No volatile gases were observed when comet Shoemaker-Levy 9 broke apart.
2000: The debris of the disintegrated Comet Linear revealed virtually no water.
2001: Flyby of Comet Borrelly detected no frozen water on its surface.
2004: Flyby of Comet Wild 2 did not find a trace of water on the surface.
2005: Deep Impact on comet 9P/Tempel only showed “weak emission from water vapour”.

https://malagabay.wordpress.com/2013/02/26/running-hot-and-cold-extraterrestrial-water/

Thus, via the simple process of elimination, the evidence suggests that the water issuing from the The Eye of Nebraska is of terrestrial origin and is similar to the Eye of the Sahara in Mauritania.

The Eye of the Sahara evidently outgassed water, silica and carbonates.
The Eye of the Sahara evidently helped sustain a Sahara “lush in vegetation” only 6,000 years ago.
The Eye of the Sahara evidently precipitated the quartz sand found in the Sahara desert.
The Eye of the Sahara predicts the fate of the Earth when the outgassing stops.

The Eye of the Sahara

https://malagabay.wordpress.com/2013/07/03/the-chalky-cretaceous-2-the-eye-of-the-sahara/

Unsurprisingly, Nebraska [like the Sahara] was once covered with water.

The Cretaceous Seaway

New Horned Dinosaurs from Utah Provide Evidence for Intracontinental Dinosaur Endemism
Scott D. Sampson, Mark A. Loewen, Andrew A. Farke, Eric M. Roberts, Catherine A. Forster, Joshua A. Smith, Alan L. Titus

http://www.plosone.org/article/info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0012292

The Western Interior Seaway (also called the Cretaceous Seaway, the Niobraran Sea, and the North American Inland Sea) was a large inland sea that existed during the mid- to late Cretaceous period as well as the very early Paleogene, splitting the continent of North America into two landmasses, Laramidia to the west and Appalachia to the east.

The ancient sea stretched from the Gulf of Mexico and through the middle of the modern-day countries of the United States and Canada, meeting with the Arctic Ocean to the north.

At its largest, it was 2,500 feet (760 m) deep, 600 miles (970 km) wide and over 2,000 miles (3,200 km) long.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Western_Interior_Seaway

Unsurprisingly, the Eye of Nebraska appears to be resting upon Cretaceous sandstone.

Nebraska Cretaceous Stratigraphy

Nebraska’s Geologic History – University of Nebraska-Lincoln
Tracy Frank, Jesse Koch, Jessica Pritchard, and Zi Gui

http://eas.unl.edu/~tfrank/History%20on%20the%20Rocks/Nebraska%20Geology/Nebraskageo.html

And sandstone strongly suggests vast quantities of silica rich upwards flowing water from within the Earth.

a) The Liesegang Ring evidence in sandstones strongly suggests that sandstone [primarily] formed from the hydrogel called quicksand.

b) The vast quantities of sandstone strongly suggest vast quantities of precursor quicksand.

c) The vast quantities of precursor quicksand strongly suggest vast quantities of silica rich “upwards flowing water” [Quicksand – Wikipedia] from within the Earth.

https://malagabay.wordpress.com/2013/11/04/liesegang-rings-5-geological-quicksand/

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Gallery | This entry was posted in Catastrophism, Earth, Geology, Inflating Earth, Inventions and Deceptions, Water. Bookmark the permalink.

2 Responses to The Eye of Nebraska

  1. mkelly says:

    http://outdoornebraska.ne.gov/parks/guides/parksearch/showpark.asp?Area_No=279

    Link is to an enjoyable state park named Ashfall. Animals that had been killed and covered by volcano ash. The first layer of the stratigraphy says ash layers, but this one is very near the surface.

  2. Stephen Kovaka says:

    Another discordant note is the vast size and purity of some sandstone deposits, e.g..St. Peter Sandstone, largely 99% pure silica, covering 100’s of thousands of square miles, 100 feet thick. Said to be deposited over millions of years in a shallow sea . . . So, where did the ultra pure silica come from, and how is it that over those millions of years nothing but pure silica was deposited on the bottom of that sea?. Makes more sense to imagine a mixture of silane and water reacting to form a sand/water slurry and erupting to the surface in a short period of time.

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