As Above So Below – Georgi Gladyshev

As Below So Above - Georgi Gladyshev

The pioneering cosmology of Georgi Gladyshev [originally published in 1977] embodies the concept of As Above, So Below by explicitly stating that “Liesegang’s theory of periodic condensation can be used to explain the empirical Titius-Bode rule of planetary distances”.

Physicochemical processes taking place in space are characterized by a number of specific features that distinguish them from conditions in the terrestrial atmosphere.

They are generally effected in ultrahigh vacuum at extremal temperatures in ultrastrong or ultraweak fields (electrical, magnetic, or gravitational).

The range of problems pertaining to the chemical evolution of matter in space is extremely broad, and it is impossible to discuss more than a small portion of them in a single paper.

The present article is devoted to individual aspects of the course of chemical processes under the extremal conditions that might have obtained during formation of the Solar System and other planetary systems.

Particular attention will be given to problems of the spatially periodic condensation of matter under the conditions of the protosolar system, which bad not previously been taken into account by evolutionary theories.

We will follow the published general schema of the processes involved and consider the stages in the evolution of the Solar System.

The first stage was the development of the Protosun, which was formed as a result of accretion from the original Solar System cloud; the second was disposition of the gas and dust forming the atmosphere in the vicinity of the magnetized central body, the third was transfer of momentum from the Protosun to the surrounding atmosphere, so that the gas and dust particles began to move in Keplerian orbits relative to the Sun.

The decisive role during these stages was played by magnetohydrodynamic effects, since the gas falling toward the sun was quite rarified and constituted a plasma.

As the matter became concentrated around the Sun, the density of the cloud increased and the influence of magnetohydrodynamic effects diminished.

When the protocloud coalesced and became a disk, these effects became small.

The stages described above were completed relatively rapidly, within 107-108 years.

According to the theory elaborated in [7-13], there then ensued a protracted fourth evolutionary stage, formation of the primary Solar System rings, which ended relatively recently.

It was associated with diffusion (mass transfer) of the solar material to the evolving disk, in which spatially periodic condensation of material from the supersaturated state took place to form rings of condensed matter (the latter subsequently accumulated into the planets as system development progressed).

It was shown in these studies that the matter concentration in the protoclouds could have remained quite high for some time, so that the role of the magnetohydrodynamic effects discussed in monograph [1] would not have been as substantial in the stage under consideration.

The decisive role was apparently played by diffusion of material from the central bodies into the corresponding protoclouds and chemical reactions leading to condensation from the supersaturated state.

Liesegang’s theory of periodic condensation can be used to explain the empirical Titius-Bode rule of planetary distances, according to which the distance of the n-th planet from the Sun (r n) satisfies the relation [4]:

Planetary Parameters

Thermodynamics and Macrokinetics of Natural Hierarchic Processes, 1988 – G.P.Gladyshev

The conceptual strength of Georgi Gladyshev’s cosmology is its explicit acknowledgment that there are many physical processes that contribute to the formation of cosmological objects and systems.

This conceptual approach revolutionises the moribund mainstream mantra that simplistically invokes Newtonian gravity as the answer to the ultimate question of life, the universe, and everything.

In the radio series and the first novel, a group of hyper-intelligent pan-dimensional beings demand to learn the Answer to the Ultimate Question of Life, The Universe, and Everything from the supercomputer, Deep Thought, specially built for this purpose.

It takes Deep Thought 7½ million years to compute and check the answer, which turns out to be 42.

Deep Thought points out that the answer seems meaningless because the beings who instructed it never actually knew what the Question was.

The downside to understanding Georgi Gladyshev’s cosmology is [real world] complexity.

The complexity starts [on Earth] with the poorly understood Liesegang Rings.

Liesegang Rings are observed in chemical systems undergoing a precipitation reaction.

Liesegang Rings are a phenomenon seen in many, if not most, chemical systems undergoing a precipitation reaction, under certain conditions of concentration and in the absence of convection.


Although Liesegang Rings are usually demonstrated using a gelling agent [such as gelatine] they also occur in solid and gaseous chemical systems.

However, the Liesegang Phenomenon [very intriguingly] produces more than just normal banding.

Inverse [or Revert] Banding where the spacing decreases between bands
Irregular and Rhythmic Banding
Double Banding where there are two banding periodicities in the same system
Spirals and Helices
Cardioid Patterns
Target Patterns
Cabbage Patterns
Propagating Fronts
Polygonal Patterns

The Liesegang Phenomenon has been studied for over a 100 years and academia has generated a plethora of theories that attempt to explain the underlying science.

Ultimately, no single theory has managed to explain all forms of the Liesegang Phenomenon and many scientists believe that periodic precipitation is not the result of a single effect.
Firstly, it has been observed that “Liesegang bands will appear after the gel has been exposed to sunlight”.

Secondly, there is evidence that suggests Liesegang Ring patterns can be regulated by an electric current so that information can be encoded into the precipitation pattern.

Although the Liesegang Phenomena has fallen out of favour with many biologists there is evidence to suggest that their judgement is premature because “a vast number of organic reactions might proceed in gel media” if researcher actually experimented with organic reactants.

However, by reviewing the established Optimal Conditions for Liesegang Rings it is possible to perform a basic reality check as an aid to understanding the cosmology of Georgi Gladyshev.


The initial “accretion from the original Solar System cloud” defined by Georgi Gladyshev is most likely formed by the aggregation of charged particles via “like-likes-like attraction”.


Perhaps the least obvious principle is the like-likes-like attraction.

The idea that like charges can attract one another seems counterintuitive until you recognize that it requires no violation of physical principles.

The like charges themselves don’t attract; the attraction is mediated by the unlike charges that gather in between.

Those unlikes draw the like charges towards one another, until like-like repulsion balances the attraction.

Many physicists presume that like-like attraction cannot exist in spite of acceptance by some well-known physicists, including Richard Feynman.

Richard Feynman coined the phrase “like-likes-like through an intermediate of unlikes.”

He understood that such attraction might be fundamental to physics and chemistry.

Nevertheless, the majority of scientists reflexively presume that like charges must always repel.

Hardly a fleeting thought is accorded the prospect that those like charges might actually attract if unlike charges lie in between.

The Fourth Phase of Water – 2013 – Gerald H. Pollack

Interstellar cloud


Beyond the heliosphere is the interstellar medium, consisting of various clouds of gases.

Therefore, the “accumulation of gas, plasma and dust” into an interstellar plasma cloud provides a [semi-permeable] closed system within which Liesegang Rings can develop.

Plasma is loosely described as an electrically neutral medium of positive and negative particles (i.e. the overall charge of a plasma is roughly zero).

It is important to note that although they are unbound, these particles are not ‘free’.

When the charges move they generate electrical currents with magnetic fields, and as a result, they are affected by each other’s fields.

This governs their collective behavior with many degrees of freedom.

One surprising implication of Georgi Gladyshev’s cosmology is that the plasma cloud provides an environment that is analogous to the reactant gel typically used in laboratory experiments designed to form Liesegang Rings.

However, this is not a major surprise because there is no “agreed-upon” definition of a gel and it is known that the formation of Liesegang Rings is affected by starlight and electricity.

What exactly is a gel?

You may be surprised to learn that an agreed-upon definition is lacking.

It is much like the U.S. Supreme Court’s definition of pornography – it’s hard to define but you know when you see it.

Cells, Gels and the Engines of Life – 2001 – Gerald H Pollack

+ + + + +

Firstly, it has been observed that “Liesegang bands will appear after the gel has been exposed to sunlight”.

Secondly, there is evidence that suggests Liesegang Ring patterns can be regulated by an electric current so that information can be encoded into the precipitation pattern.

The third condition required for the formation of Liesegang Rings is easily met because “in microgravity or zero gravity environment, such as in orbit, natural convection no longer occurs”.

Flames in microgravity

Finally, the dust and charged particles within [and surrounding] the interstellar plasma cloud provide an ample reservoir of secondary reactant “seed” particles to initiate the formation of Liesegang Rings.

Overall, the cosmology of Georgi Gladyshev passes a basic reality check with great ease.

In fact, none of Georgi Gladyshev’s cosmology should really come as a surprise because the Solar System contains several planets with rings systems which clearly morph into orbiting moons systems that increase in size with distance from the centre – just like Liesegang Rings.


Did Solar System’s Planets Have Rings Before Moons?

Enormous rings may have graced many of the planets in the early solar system, giving rise to the moons that circle them today, scientists say.

A new computer model suggests that the natural satellites of planets in our solar system may have formed from rings of matter, rather than from the clouds of gas currently thought to have created them.

One of the problems with this model, however, is the location and lineup of the moons.

In most actual cases, the satellites grow larger the farther they are from their parent planet, and the moons are farther away than can be accounted for.

the satellite systems of the four giant planets

Sketch of the satellite systems of the four giant planets.
The sizes and distances of the satellites are proportionnal to the logarithm of their masses and distance to the planet’s center, respectively.
An accumulation of small bodies appears just outside the Roche limit, and the increase of mass with the distance to the Roche limit is clearly visible for Saturn, Uranus and Neptune.

This suggests that these satellites formed from the spreading of ancient massive rings beyond the planet’s Roche limit.

Credit: Frederic Durillon/animea

However, the conceptual beauty of Georgi Gladyshev’s cosmology is critically compromised by our general lack of understanding of the Liesegang phenomena and [more specifically] the Spacing Law that governs the formation of Liesegang Rings.

Liesegang Laws

Influencing pattern formation and localization through disorder – 2009 – Lukas Jahnke

Perhaps, in the longer term, it may be possible to develop a synthesis cosmology based upon the intriguing ideas of Georgi Gladyshev, Timo Niroma, Johannes Kepler and Robert James Moon.

As Above So Below - Timo Niroma

Phi in the Sky - As Above So Below

Anyone interested in the works of Georgi Gladyshev may find the following links of interest:

The WordPress blog of Georgi Gladyshev

Some problems in chemical evolution of matter in space

Physical Chemistry of Evolution of Planetary Systems

Gallery | This entry was posted in As Above So Below, Astrophysics, Gerald Pollack, Liesegang Rings, Solar System. Bookmark the permalink.

48 Responses to As Above So Below – Georgi Gladyshev

  1. ggladyshev says:

    The hierarchical thermodynamics of Georgi Gladyshev (1977) embodies the concept of «As Above, So Below» also.

  2. malagabay says:

    Astronomers have captured the best image ever of planet formation around an infant star as part of the testing and verification process for the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array’s (ALMA) new high-resolution capabilities.

    This revolutionary new image reveals in astonishing detail the planet-forming disk surrounding HL Tau, a Sun-like star located approximately 450 light-years from Earth in the constellation Taurus.

    ALMA uncovered never-before-seen features in this system, including multiple concentric rings separated by clearly defined gaps. These structures suggest that planet formation is already well underway around this remarkably young star.

    ALMA image of the young star HL Tau and its protoplanetary disk.

    • Looks also like a diffraction grating image – are they sure they understand what they are looking at? Gravity accretion is a nonsense, though. Planets are formed by plasma Z-pinches.

  3. ggladyshev says:

    Gigantic ring system around J1407b much larger, heavier than Saturn’s

    Gigantic ring system around J1407b

  4. ggladyshev says:

    ESOcast 69: Revolutionary ALMA Image Reveals Planetary Genesis

  5. Jim Coyle says:

    MR Ggladyshev; These are very interesting videos and articles. In the video they show the proposed way that dust and debris come together to form planetary discs or planets. My question is : What causing these particles to adhere to each other in the first place? They are too small to have any gravity and are essentially strenghtless. So what makes them want to adhere to each other until they are large enough to have a gravitational field of there own. I would think that any collision at the speeds these particles are traveling would cause the destruction of the particles or cause mass chaos through the collisions and redirection of the said particles and not accreation.

    • ggladyshev says:

      Dear Jim, Thank you! It’s good known forces of adhesion. For example, these forces take place in crystallization. Phenomenon of adhesion is well known to chemists and physicists.

  6. ggladyshev says:

    Thank you! It’s good known forces of adhesion. For example, these forces take place in crystallization. Phenomenon of adhesion is well known to chemists and physicists.

  7. Jim Coyle says:

    Thank you for your reply! I’m neither a physicist nor a Chemist but this does interest me. What is the basic principle of adhesion? What makes it happen?

  8. Jim Coyle says:

    From reading the Wikipedia definition I would have to assume that the adhesion found in space would in probability have to be electric–magnetic–though it could be molecular attraction. I have to assume that the vast majority of the dust debris rings are traveling at the relative same speed so the attraction is able to occur as particles get within attraction distances. Also when contact has occurred this should cause changes in the course and speed of the joined particles making the probability for another conjunction more likely to happen. As the conjoined particles move on they are more likely to pickup more particulate just because of their increased size. Does this sound like an extremely basic understanding of the process? Is there a likelihood that as the acretion continues and the object increases in size that a collision with a like size object could destroy one or both objects?

  9. ggladyshev says:

    Of course, there are various details of formation mechanisms of periodic structures. However, anyway, this phenomenon is exists! Apparently in all cases the critical parameters exist which should be achieved at the formation of structures. I believe that the conception of Wilhelm Ostwald on the supersaturation is the most useful for understanding of phenomenon. In most cases the phenomenon can be explained from the viewpoint of quasi-equilibrium thermodynamics. This linear thermodynamics can be applied to the local areas of natural systems.

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  12. ggladyshev says:

    On the history of predicting the existence of the rings in the formation of planetary systems:
    Gladyshev, G.P. (2015) Physicochemical Stages of Evolution: Ring-Like Structures in the Universe. Natural Science, 7, 266-269.
    Gladyshev, G.P.

  13. ggladyshev says:

    Pluto and its moons are young!
    The physical – chemical theory (1977) predicted this fact.


    Pluto nearly fills the frame in this image from the Long Range Reconnaissance Imager (LORRI) aboard NASA’s New Horizons spacecraft, taken on July 13, 2015 when the spacecraft was 476,000 miles (768,000 kilometers) from the surface.

    This is the last and most detailed image sent to Earth before the spacecraft’s closest approach to Pluto on July 14.

    The color image has been combined with lower-resolution color information from the Ralph instrument that was acquired earlier on July 13.

    This view is dominated by the large, bright feature informally named the “heart,” which measures approximately 1,000 miles (1,600 kilometers) across.

    The heart borders darker equatorial terrains, and the mottled terrain to its east (right) are complex.

    However, even at this resolution, much of the heart’s interior appears remarkably featureless—possibly a sign of ongoing geologic processes.

    Credits: NASA/APL/SwRI


  14. ggladyshev says:

    The spatially – periodic condensation of water of supersaturated gas phase is observed in the conditions of the Earth. Many ring structures in planetary systems are formed by a similar mechanism.

    Dublin clouds

  15. malagabay says:

    Spatially-Periodic Structures in Atmosphere

    Spatially-Periodic Structures in Atmosphere
    International Academy of Creative Endeavours

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  17. ggladyshev says:

    The ring-like structure in the atmosphere of Pluto.


    Low-lying haze clinging to the surface of Pluto

    Physicochemical Stages of Evolution: Ring-Like Structures in the Universe

    Georgi P. Gladyshev

    This short digest is devoted to the mechanism of ring formation during the origination and evolution of planetary and satellite systems in the Universe.

    The appearance of these structures can be traced back to the phenomenon of spatially periodic condensation which can be observed on the Earth.

    The author actually posited the existence of exoplanetary systems and the cosmic scale of this phenomenon. It was accurately predicted that Uranus, Neptune and other heavenly bodies have rings.

    The suggested general mechanism rationalized the Titius-Bode law which, while not being a precise law, often accurately describes the tendency towards varying distances between planets (and their moons) and central bodies.

    The possibility of this law manifestation in exoplanetary systems had been predicted by the author long before their discovery.

    Many exoplanetary systems have been discovered by now and there is some evidence corroborating the mechanism of spatially periodic condensation involved in the formation of ring-like structures in these systems.

    The author’s hypothesis is now becoming a theory or a fact.

    It appears that we are now witnessing the dawn of a new extensive cosmology, taking into account general physicochemical mechanisms of space object formation.


  18. ggladyshev says:

    The spatially periodic condensation in the atmosphere of Titan. Layers of atmosphere. The image from the Cassini spacecraft
    Fig. True-color image of layers of haze in Titan’s atmosphere

    Natural color image of Titan's upper atmosphere

  19. ggladyshev says:

    Using the Inclinations of Kepler Systems to Prioritize New Titius-Bode-Based Exoplanet Predictions by T. Bovaird, C. H. Lineweaver and S. K. Jacobsen

    Authors of the article analyze a sample of multiple-exoplanet systems which contain at least 3 transiting planets detected by the Kepler mission (“Kepler multiples”). Authors use a generalized Titius-Bode relation to predict the periods of 228 additional planets in 151 of these Kepler multiples. These Titius-Bode-based predictions suggest that there are, on average, ~2 planets in the habitable zone of each star. Authors estimate the inclination of the invariable plane for each system and prioritize our planet predictions by their geometric probability to transit. Authors highlight a short list of 77 predicted planets in 40 systems with a high geometric probability to transit, resulting in an expected detection rate of ~15%, ~3 times higher than the detection rate of authors previous Titius-Bode-based predictions.

  20. ggladyshev says:

    “The general mechanisms of spatially periodic condensation can in principle extend to formation of galaxies, assuming that hydrogen and helium synthesis is possible not only in stars, but also from the “supersaturated” state in outer space by reactions of the type “
    See: The Sombrero Galaxy in Infrared:

  21. ggladyshev says:

    Surprising chemistry seen in molecular rings around young star

    Dual rings of DCO+ encircling the star IM Lup

    Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimetre Array (ALMA) image of dual rings of DCO+ encircling the star IM Lup.

    The rings reveal details about the conditions of this young protoplanetary disc.

    The existence of the outer ring was surprising, providing new insights into the formation of heavy molecules — those based on deuterium — in this and other similar systems.

    Image credit: K. Oberg, CfA, et al.; ALMA (NRAO/ESO/NAOJ); B. Saxton (NRAO/AUI/NSF).

  22. ggladyshev says:

    Many rings: Is Nearby Star Forming Planets Like Those in our Solar System?

    Using ESA’s Herschel Space Telescope, astronomers including Thomas Henning from the Max Planck Institute for Astronomy in Heidelberg have used a new method to determine the mass of the planetary nursery around the star TW Hydrae.

    At a distance of merely 176 light-years from Earth, this is the closest star that is currently forming new planets – hence one of the most important objects for astronomers studying planet formation.

    The precise new measurement shows a much larger mass for TW Hydrae’s disk than in previous studies, indicating that the system could be forming planets similar to those of our own Solar System.


    Is Nearby Star Forming Planets Like Those in our Solar System? – 31 January 2013

  23. ggladyshev says:

    Nearby red dwarves could reveal planet secrets
    ‘The discovery of objects like these two challenges current theories about planet formation, said co-author Professor Warrick Lawson from UNSW Canberra. “It suggests the planet forming process can endure a lot longer than previously thought,” he said.’

    Artist’s impression of a dusty disc around a red dwarf star.
    Credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech/T. Pyle (SSC)

  24. ggladyshev says:

    New images of a young star made with the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array (VLA) reveal what scientists think may be the very earliest stages in the formation of planets. The scientists used the VLA to see unprecedented detail of the inner portion of a dusty disk surrounding the star, some 450 light-years from Earth.

    ALMA image of HL Tau at left; VLA image, showing clump of dust, at right.
    Credit: Carrasco-Gonzalez, et al.; Bill Saxton, NRAO/AUI/NSF

  25. ggladyshev says:

    New image. Planet Formation in Earth-like Orbit around a Young Star: ALMA’s Best Image Yet of a Protoplanetary Disk

    “In fact, none of Georgi Gladyshev’s cosmology should really come as a surprise because the Solar System contains several planets with rings systems which clearly morph into orbiting moons systems that increase in size with distance from the centre – just like Liesegang Rings”.

    Ring structures in planetary systems are formed by a similar mechanism.

  26. ggladyshev says:

    Rings around the young star
    The star, called HD 181327, is estimated to be 23 million years old – See more at:

  27. ggladyshev says:

    The theory predicts that Pluto system is young

    Pluto and its moons are comparatively very young system. The physical – chemical theory (1977) predicted this fact.
    (Physicochemical Stages of Evolution: Ring-Like Structures in the Universe. Natural Science, 7, 266-269. )
    Most researchers believe that the relatively high temperature of the inner areas of Pluto and other similar celestial bodies is associated with heat from the decay of radioactive elements. However, these researchers have not generally take into account heats of condensation of the chemicals during the formation of primary planetary and satellite rings and condensation processes in the nucleus and cortex of the heavenly bodies. It means neglecting of the answer to the similar famous question: “Why is relatively warm when it’s snowing?” The general answer is: “This requires the Gibbs phase rule!”
    Physico-chemical model of the formation of planetary and satellite systems involves the formation of rings of protoplanets and protomoons. The farther the planet is from the sun, the younger it is. Some researchers estimate the age of Pluto about 0.6 billion years. According to the theory we must take into account the heating of the heavenly bodies not only due to the heat of radioactive decay. Heating of the heavenly bodies also is associated with the heat of chemical reactions and heat of phase transitions during the condensation of chemical compounds, particularly, the condensation from the gas phase. An attention to these facts was drawn in the first works of the author :
    “The detailed theory of diffusion formation of planets should take into account the fact that the original distances and periods of rotation ( ) around the central body are functions of many parameters

    where and are average heats of condensation and of chemical transformation.
    One can believe that a consequence of the functional dependence of should be that Equation (1) is more satisfactorily obeyed for systems of regular satellites of large planets than for the planets of the solar system themselves.
    The theory presented in the paper affords making some predictions. In particular, it predicts an effect of separation of chemical substances during the formation of the primordial rings of planetary systems and the existence of rings round the young planets of the solar system, for example, Neptune.
    Besides, rings and satellites may be formed around large satellites of planets, etc.
    It is interesting to apply the hypothesis under consideration to galactic scales.”
    Since Pluto is a young celestial body, the condensation heat is preserved until now.

    See please:
    1. Gladyshev G.P. Earth Moon and Planets 18(2):217-221 • April 1978
    Abstract The planets and their satellites are formed in accordance with similar mechanisms as a result of spatially periodic condensation of gaseous matter during the formation of the central body. Using the diffusion theory one can calculate the age of the planets and explain the nature of the Titius-Bode law.

    2. As Above So Below – Georgi Gladyshev

    3. Physicochemical Stages of Evolution: Ring-Like Structures in the Universe. Natural Science, 7, 266-269.

    Georgi Gladyshev
    Professor of Physical Chemistry

  28. ggladyshev says:

    There is the opinion: Evidence shows that Pluto is a young planet!

  29. ggladyshev says:

    New result is another step towards understanding the origins of various types of planets.
    Tom J. Millar et al. A Gap with a Deficit of Large Grains in the Protoplanetary Disk around TW Hya. Astrophysical Journal Letters, September 2016.
    See Fig

  30. ggladyshev says:

    I believe that these results of Yoko Oya and collages (The Astrophysical Journal, Volume 824, Number 2) confirm the physical-chemical theory of the origin of planets and their satellites from the primary rings surrounding young stars.
    See: 1. As above, so below
    2. Physicochemical Stages of Evolution: Ring-Like Structures in the Universe. Natural Science, 7, 266-269.

  31. ggladyshev says:

    Newborn star rewrites theory of planetary formation

    A star is born: An enhanced image of HL Tauri, composited from data collected by ALMA in Chile, is challenging previous theories about the formation of massive stars and their planetary systems. It turns out that they don’t eat their planets after all. – ALMA

  32. ggladyshev says:

    Sculpting solar systems: SPHERE instrument reveals protoplanetary discs being shaped by newborn planets

    These three planetary discs have been observed with the SPHERE instrument, mounted on ESO’s Very Large Telescope. The observations were made in order to shed light on the enigmatic evolution of fledgling planetary systems.The central parts of the images appear dark because SPHERE blocks out the light from the brilliant central stars to reveal the much fainter structures surrounding them. Credit: ESO

  33. ggladyshev says:

    Saturn’s bulging core implies moons younger than thought
    «…Thus, this new research suggests, the moons are younger than 4.5 billion years, favoring a theory that the moons formed from Saturn’s rings». This statement is consistent with the physical – chemical theory of the formation of planets and their satellites.

  34. ggladyshev says:

    Physical-chemical theory of the formation of planetary systems predicted the existence of the rings of Uranus and Neptune, as well as the existence of a plurality of ring-shaped structures in the universe. Basic theory predictions were confirmed. However, how does the evolution of planetary systems develop during time? It is until now unclear. Perhaps the formation processes of planets occur faster than predicted first model? For example this model does not take into account the disappearance of substance in areas of the disk near to the central body during evolution. As a consequence, the transfer of a substance from a young star to peripheral zones of disk should be faster than would be expected from the simple model. In addition the model does not take into account that the gas pressure gradient exists in the disk: in the peripheral areas of disc the pressure of gas is a much lower than in areas close to the sun. However, this and other circumstances should only refine the model! The model assumes: “The farther the planet from the Sun, the younger it is.” According to the physicochemical theory Pluto and its system are the young.
    Of course, there must be a huge variety of planetary and satellite systems in the universe. Now (2017) it is possible to take for granted that the planets and regular satellites are mainly formed of rings. These rings are the result of a spatially periodic condensation of chemical substances from the supersaturated condition.
    See: Gladyshev, G.P. (2015) Physicochemical Stages of Evolution: Ring-Like Structures in the Universe. Natural Science
    See: Gladyshev, G.P. (2015) Physicochemical Stages of Evolution: Ring-Like Structures in the Universe. Natural Science

  35. ggladyshev says:

    The paper “Lifetime of the solar nebula constrained by meteorite paleomagnetism” ( ) is very interesting.
    However, I believe that the investigations of authors do not refute physical-chemical model of the formation of the solar system.
    Indeed, according to the physical-chemical model the inner part of the disc must be cleaned of substances within a few million years! However according to this model we can believe that the external part of disc should exist during billions of years. I note that one of the authors of the article Dr. Weiss says: “So even if the solar nebula had not disappeared by 4 million years, it was basically on its way out.” Thus, this author himself is not completely sure of the relatively rapid disappearance of the disc?
    In any case, further research is needed.

  36. ggladyshev says:

    Planets May Grow from ‘Dust Traps’ Around Stars
    New simulations could help solve long-standing mystery in astrophysics.
    This is an interesting and important work! However, the question remains: how are rings formed from which planets form? The physicochemical model answers this question.
    See: Gladyshev, G.P. (2015) Physicochemical Stages of Evolution: Ring-Like Structures in the Universe. Natural Science

    • thx1138 says:

      Mar 14, 2017

      The conventional Universe is a mirage.

      In the days before space shuttles, before the Hubble Space Telescope, and before modern satellite technology, electricity in space was not considered. Because the first teams of space scientists were “steely-eyed missile men” with backgrounds in aeronautics and chemical fuel reactions, when evidence for electricity around Earth was discovered it was called “radiation belts”.

      Electricity remained unfamiliar to those conditioned by consensus science. Although Kristian Birkeland conducted experiments fifty years before the first payload was launched into Earth orbit, astrophysicists had no concept of charged particles that can interact and create energetic phenomena—Birkeland’s terella research and his study of Earth’s aurorae were forgotten.

      The same attitude remains today. Moving charged particles from the Sun are called a “wind” instead of an electric current. Charged particles impinging on a planet or a moon are referred to as “rain” instead of an electrical discharge. Ionized particles moving within a helical magnetic field are called “jets of hot gas” instead of field-aligned flows of electricity. When abrupt changes in the density and speed of charged particles are observed, those changes are called “shock waves”. Birkeland frets from beyond the pale.

      Electric charge in motion (coulombs per second = amperes) creates magnetic fields that are detected more easily than electric charge. Modern astronomical theories suggest that the fields are primordial “embedded fragments” left over from the Big Bang.

      Galaxy clusters are thought to be made of individual galaxies embedded in hot gases and dark matter. Inside the clusters are bright radio sources that might be the result of exploding double layers that are composed of highly energetic particles in the plasma state. Conventionally, though, the cause of the explosions and the source of the particles is not known.

      The fact that moving charges constitute an electric current and that those currents generate magnetic fields has been known since the days of Michael Faraday. However, as the saying goes: “perception is reality”, so a lack of knowledge means a lack of vision. As previously stated, charged particles in motion constitute an electric current and that current is wrapped in a magnetic field. As more charged particles accelerate in the same direction, the magnetic field gets stronger. That idea is familiar to electrical engineers, but when astronomers find magnetism in space they are mystified. They resort to ironic ideas about galaxy-wide voids with magnetic fields frozen inside them.

      On the largest scale of all, energetic events are not explained by reference to local conditions. The effects of an entire electric circuit—which may encompass clusters of galaxies—must be considered. For electric charge to flow, it must flow in a circuit. The consensus scientific worldview only permits isolated galactic “islands” in space. The Electric Universe theory, on the other hand, emphasizes connectivity with a vast network. That spatial network is composed of Birkeland currents.

      Loops and filaments suddenly expand and explode, throwing off massive bubbles of plasma that can accelerate to near light-speed. Jets from opposite poles of a galaxy end in energetic clouds emitting copious radio and X-ray frequencies. These are facts based in plasma science and not the traditional theories of gas kinetics, gravity, or particle physics. Astrophysicists see magnetic fields, but they do not perceive the underlying electricity, so they are at a loss to explain them.

      Matter in the plasma state behaves in unfamiliar ways. It is habitual perception that makes it difficult to see plasma as something different. By breaking free from a priori assumptions, the unfamiliar behavior of plasma will become familiar and astronomers will perceive a new Universe.

      Stephen Smith

  37. thx1138 says:

    Nov 24, 2016

    What force created and sustains Saturn’s rings?

    Saturn’s main rings, including gaps, are approximately 416,000 kilometers wide, but are estimated to be a mere 50 meters thick, possibly as little as 10 meters. This means that even the most powerful Earth-based telescopes can detect only a thin wire extending across the planetary disk when they are edge-on.

    Every fourteen or fifteen years, Saturn’s rings become invisible to telescopes on Earth. That equinox passed in August of 2009, so the rings are now shifted to the north. The reason for the ring tilt is that Saturn, itself, is tilted on its axis by 27.4 degrees. Since the rings are tilted at the same angle, as Saturn revolves around the Sun in its 30 year orbit, it gradually brings them into visual alignment with its equator.

    Astronomers think that the rings were formed in one of three ways: they are the icy leftovers from the original nebular cloud out of which the planet condensed; a small moon gradually came too close, whereupon it was torn apart by Saturn’s tidal forces; or the rings formed after a moon was destroyed by an asteroid, leaving the fragments in orbit. Regardless of the way they were formed, they are theorized to be over four billion years old—almost as old as the Solar System.

    What keeps the rings together and in place is still a mystery to astrophysicists. If they formed billions of years ago, they should have been drawn into Saturn’s gravitational maelstrom and destroyed. It is thought that micro-meteorite impacts “erode” material off some small moons and eject it into orbit, where it is slowly sorted by Saturn’s gravity field into thousands of individual bands. The rings are sustained because some moons are getting smaller all the time. This is known as “billiard ball” physics.

    Electric Universe theory sees things differently. In a previous Picture of the Day about Saturn’s plasmasphere, it was noted that planets and moons do not exist in an electrically neutral environment. Saturn, in particular, has a family of moons that exhibit electric discharge machining on a vast scale, as well as features within its atmosphere that could be characterized as lightning discharges.

    The aurorae on Saturn emit intense radio waves and the planet is surrounded by a torus of plasma that emits X-rays and extreme ultraviolet light. Saturn displays many aspects that are predicted by the Electric Universe theory, including the shape of its rings. In 1913 Kristian Birkeland wrote: “It seems almost incredible that such a ring of cosmic dust should be able to exist for ever, so to speak, without other governing forces than gravitation…”

    Planets with magnetic fields can trap hot particles to form giant electrified clouds. NASA scientists note that Saturn’s magnetic field bends around Enceladus “due to electric currents generated by the interaction of atmospheric particles and the magnetosphere of Saturn.” Further flattening of the plasma torus on the sunward side demonstrates an electrical (not mechanical) effect is occurring between Saturn and the Sun.

    Gravity-only models of the Solar System insist that Saturn’s rings were created, held and shaped by the activity of “shepherd moons” and angular momentum. Instead, electrical forces that are (39) orders of magnitude more powerful than gravity seem more likely.

    Stephen Smith

  38. thx1138 says:

    Many descriptions of discharge tubes are available and will not be repeated here in detail. The salient points for the present purposes are as follows:

    Within the tube, there are visible bands along the axis wherein the plasma is seen to glow, interspersed with ‘dark’ bands where there is no such glow. The different bands represent two of the three possible modes of operation of plasma when carrying a current.
    The dark bands represent, unsurprisingly, the Dark Current Mode. In these regions the electron velocity is below that necessary to cause visible excitation of the atoms of neutral gas, although ionization will start to occur at higher currents. However, radiation will be given off at wavelengths outside the visible even in the Dark Current Mode and so may be detected by non-optical means.
    The glowing bands represent the Normal Glow Mode. Here, the velocity of the electrons causes ionization to occur. The glow is caused by radiation from the electrons of neutral atoms after they have been excited by collisions with fast free electrons.
    The third possible mode of plasma operation is the Arc Mode, familiar in painfully bright welding applications or lightning, for example.
    Returning to the glow discharge tube, one might expect that the potential difference between the electrodes would cause a uniform electric field along the length of the tube. However, the plasma behaves differently.
    It is found that a Double Layer (DL) develops in the tube which modifies the externally applied electric field between the anode and cathode. The DL forms in such a way that the majority of the potential drop occurs across the DL. Away from the DL region, much of the remainder of the plasma is a glow discharge region known as the positive column. This can extend for a significant part of the length of the discharge tube.
    Within the positive column there are approximately equal numbers of electrons and ions. The plasma here is therefore quasi-neutral. Because most of the potential drop occurs across the DL, only a small but constant voltage gradient, or electric field, exists within the positive column.

    There appear to be analogies between the positive column in a discharge tube and the plasma within the Sun’s heliosphere.
    Another result of the discharge tube experiments is also relevant to our discussion of plasma behavior and will be discussed in the next section.

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