Double checking the latitudes in Willard Libby’s 1972 version of the table of samples reveals that neither Tierra del Fuego nor New South Wales are located at 45° S.
This discrepancy is because Willard Libby perversely decided to sequence the table by Geomagnetic Latitude instead of the more helpful Geographic Latitude.
The choice of Geomagnetic Latitude is particularly unhelpful because the Earth’s geomagnetic field is continually evolving and Willard Libby does not indicate in the table whether the assigned Geomagnetic Latitudes are from one epoch [say the year of publication] or are based upon the epoch when the individual specimen was collected.
By employing this misleading device Willard Libby made his results appear more global in scope because it increased the number of Southern Hemisphere samples in the table from three to four.
Additionally, by using Geomagnetic Latitudes Libby drew a veil over the true sample locations and masked the latitudinal pattern in Carbon 14 concentrations.
Geomagnetic Latitudes are referenced in papers by Willard Libby from 1972, 1967, 1960 and 1951.
The 1951 paper was jointly authored by E C Anderson and W F Libby in 1950.
This 1951 paper is very strange because it explicitly states:
a) E C Anderson was a “DuPont Fellow in Chemistry, 1948-49. Now at Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory.”
b) “Submitted by E C Anderson in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in the Graduate School, Division of Physical Sciences, University of Chicago.”
Additionally, this paper marks the end of the collaboration between E C Anderson and W F Libby and is the year before E C Anderson’s paper Some Problems in Radiocarbon Dating.
This 1951 paper is all the more suspect because in March 1949 [when he was a DuPont Fellow in Chemistry at Chichago] E C Anderson collaborated with W F Libby and J R Arnold to published the original version of the table of samples which included the milestone Baltimore sewage result.
Age Determination by Radiocarbon Content: World-Wide Assay of Natural Radiocarbon
Libby et al., 109 (2827): 227-228
Science 4 March 1949:
Vol. 109 no. 2827 pp. 227-228
Comparing the 1949 and 1951 versions of the table of samples it is clear that many of the assay values subsequently used by Willard Libby had increased by over 20% and in the case of the seal oil by 50%.
Additionally, the versions from 1951 onwards are cherry picked values from the original 1949 version of the table of samples and the sea shells from Florida are totally excluded.
The net effect of these selections was to falsely support Libby’s assertion that the new normal average of 15.3 decays per minute per gram of carbon was globally applicable.
The simultaneity principle states that two samples taken from any place in the world for any past epoch will give the same date.
This of course, follows from the principle of good mixing described previously, i.e., Dr Anderson’s result that the same concentration of 14C in natural radiocarbon is found all over the world and in different life forms.
Radiocarbon Dating, Memories and Hopes – 1972 – W. F. Libby
Department of Chemistry and Institute of Geophysics and Planetary Physics,
University of California, Los Angeles
Contrary to Willard Libby’s assertion the assays produced by Dr Anderson [as published in 1949] clearly illustrate that the concentration of Carbon 14 is NOT the same all over the world [with the decays per minute per gram varying between 10.4 and 14.9].
Contrary to Willard Libby’s assertion the assays produced by Dr Anderson [as published in 1949] clearly illustrate that the concentration of Carbon 14 is NOT the same in all life forms.
The reality is that Carbon 14 levels display latitudinal variations and are affected by other factors such as biology, altitude, fresh water influxes, temperature and salinity.
This latitudinal component is clearly demonstrated in the Southern Hemisphere when Geographic Latitudes are applied to the original 1949 assay values.
This latitudinal pattern was subsequently confirmed in 1989-90 by data from the voyage of the RV Andenes.
Willard Libby’s geomagnetic positioning coupled with his cherry picking and the inflated assays erased the latitudinal pattern in his papers published after 1950.
“Fool me once, shame on you. Fool me twice, shame on me.”
“There’s an old saying in Tennessee – I know it’s in Texas, probably in Tennessee – that says, fool me once, shame on – shame on you. Fool me – you can’t get fooled again.”
George W. Bush