Atmospheric Science: Callum Coats Condenser

Callum Coats Condenser

One of the modern mainstream mantras promoted by Atmospheric Science is that “atmospheric gases are well mixed” [by turbulence] and “homogeneous” up to an altitude of about 100 kilometres.

The homosphere and heterosphere are defined by whether the atmospheric gases are well mixed.

The surfaced-based homosphere includes the troposphere, stratosphere, mesosphere, and the lowest part of the thermosphere, where the chemical composition of the atmosphere does not depend on molecular weight because the gases are mixed by turbulence.

This relatively homogeneous layer ends at the turbopause which is found at about 100 km (62 mi; 330,000 ft), which places it about 20 km (12 mi; 66,000 ft) above the mesopause.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Homosphere#Other_layers

This initial mainstream mantra paves the way for the next mainstream mantra that mandates “the chemical composition of the atmosphere remains constant” up to an altitude of about 100 kilometres.

The turbopause marks the altitude in the Earth’s atmosphere below which turbulent mixing dominates.

The region below the turbopause is known as the homosphere, where the chemical constituents are well mixed and display identical height distributions; in other words, the chemical composition of the atmosphere remains constant in this region for chemical species which have long mean residence times.

Highly reactive chemicals tend to exhibit great concentration variability throughout the atmosphere, whereas unreactive species will exhibit more homogeneous concentrations.
The region above the turbopause is the heterosphere, where molecular diffusion dominates and the chemical composition of the atmosphere varies according to chemical species.

The turbopause lies near the mesopause, at the intersection of the mesosphere and the thermosphere, at an altitude of roughly 100 km.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Turbopause

Clearly, the [Mickey Mouse] mathematics, models and manipulations of modern Atmospheric Science are based upon these two mantras.

In support of these two mantras the mainstream has managed [thus far] to banish complexity [and reality] to the regions of the atmosphere above 85 kilometres.

… the thermosphere begins about 85 kilometres (53 mi) above the Earth.

At these high altitudes, the residual atmospheric gases sort into strata according to molecular mass…

Radiation causes the atmosphere particles in this layer to become electrically charged, enabling radio waves to bounce off and be received beyond the horizon.

The highly diluted gas in this layer can reach 2,500 °C (4,530 °F) during the day…

A normal thermometer would read significantly below 0 °C (32 °F), because the energy lost by thermal radiation would exceed the energy acquired from the atmospheric gas by direct contact…

In the anacoustic zone above 160 kilometres (99 mi), the density is so low that molecular interactions are too infrequent to permit the transmission of sound

The dynamics of the thermosphere are dominated by atmospheric tides, which are driven by the very significant diurnal heating. Atmospheric waves dissipate above this level because of collisions between the neutral gas and the ionospheric plasma…

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thermosphere

Clearly, the mainstream wants to avoid modelling [and mentioning] electricity [ionisation], photodissociation, recombination, stratification [layering] and fluorescence [air glow] in the Earth’s atmosphere below 100 kilometres.

No doubt the mainstream will declare mission accomplished when they finally manage to manipulate those pesky last 15 kilometres of reality into the atmosphere above 100 kilometres.

Regardless of the machinations of the mainstream their key mantras are falsified by observations.

Atmosphere mixing ratios demonstrate that the chemical composition of the atmosphere is neither constant nor homogeneous below 100 kilometres.

mixing-ratios

Atmospheric Physics Group, University of Toronto
http://www.atmosp.physics.utoronto.ca/people/loic/chemistry.html

The Ozone Layer demonstrates that photodissociation, recombination and layering occurs at an altitude of about 20 kilometres.

The ozone layer contains less than ten parts per million of ozone, while the average ozone concentration in Earth’s atmosphere as a whole is only about 0.3 parts per million.

The ozone layer is mainly found in the lower portion of the stratosphere, from approximately 20 to 30 kilometres (12 to 19 mi) above Earth, though the thickness varies seasonally and geographically.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ozone_layer

The D Layer [in the Ionosphere], Airglow and Auroras demonstrate that ionisation, recombination, fluorescence and layering occurs above 60 kilometres.

The D layer is the innermost layer, 60 km (37 mi) to 90 km (56 mi) above the surface of the Earth.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ionosphere#D_layer

Airglow is caused by various processes in the upper atmosphere, such as the recombination of atoms, which were photoionized by the sun during the day…

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Airglow

Auroras result from emissions of photons in the Earth’s upper atmosphere, above 80 km (50 mi), from ionized nitrogen atoms regaining an electron, and oxygen atoms and nitrogen based molecules returning from an excited state to ground state.

They are ionized or excited by the collision of solar wind and magnetospheric particles being funneled down and accelerated along the Earth’s magnetic field lines; excitation energy is lost by the emission of a photon, or by collision with another atom or molecule…

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aurora

The Sodium Layer and Noctilucent Clouds also demonstrate that layering also occurs at altitudes of [about] 80 kilometres.

Refers to a layer within the Earth’s mesosphere of unbound, non-ionized atoms of sodium. The altitude of this layer is usually located between 80–105 km (50–65 miles) and has a depth of about 5 km (3.1 mi).

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sodium_layer

They are the highest clouds in Earth’s atmosphere, located in the mesosphere at altitudes of around 76 to 85 kilometres (47 to 53 mi).

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Noctilucent_cloud

Atmospheric Transient Luminous Events clearly demonstrate that electric charge and layers are clearly part of the Earth’s atmosphere below 100 kilometres.

Transient Luminous Events

Large thunderstorms are capable of producing other kinds of electrical phenomena called transient luminous events (TLE’s). The most common TLE’s include red sprites, blue jets, and elves.

Red Sprites can appear directly above an active thunderstorm as a large but weak flash. They usually happen at the same time as powerful positive CG lightning strokes. They can extend up to 60 miles from the cloud top. Sprites are mostly red and usually last no more than a few seconds, and their shapes are described as resembling jellyfish, carrots, or columns. Because sprites are not very bright, they can only be seen at night. They are rarely seen with the human eye, so they are most often imaged with highly sensitive cameras.

Blue jets emerge from the top of the thundercloud, but are not directly associated with cloud-to-ground lighting. They extend up in narrow cones fanning out and disappearing at heights of 25-35 miles. Blue jets last a fraction of a second and have been witnessed by pilots.

Elves are rapidly expanding disk-shaped regions of glowing that can be up to 300 miles across. They last less than a thousandth of a second, and occur above areas of active cloud to ground lightning. Scientists believe elves result when an energetic electromagnetic pulse extends up into the ionosphere. Elves were discovered in 1992 by a low-light video camera on the Space Shuttle.

Therefore, anyone looking for new ideas [as an alternative to the moribund mainstream mantras] may be interested in the work of Callum Coats who incorporated atmospheric layers and electricity into a conceptual model which he called the Terrestrial Bio-Condenser in his book Living Energies [1992].

Keeping in mind water’s dielectric value of 81 and its enormous resistance to the transfer of charges, let us now examine the thermal structure of the atmosphere (fig. 6.2), for this may explain to us another way in which, apart from the accumulation of heat, the Earth could become charged with life energy.

Callum Coats - Bio-Condenser data

The portion of the atmosphere most important to us and which affects us most is the troposphere, which from fig. 6.2 can be seen to terminate at the tropopause between 6km and 18km up. Curiously enough, we also find that the temperature neither decreases nor increases constantly (shown as wavy broken line), but fluctuates as we ascend through the various atmospheric layers, so that at a certain altitude, at 29km for instance, the temperature is -60°C, whereas at a height of 80km it is +10°C. Somewhere between these two temperatures, therefore, there is a layer where the temperature is +4°C.
According to my calculations there are at least four such levels where the temperature
equals +4°C, at altitudes of about 3.5km, 77km, 85km and 175km.

Callum Coats - Bio-Condenser

Since there is water vapour in the atmosphere near these various altitudes in the form of cumulus and cirrus clouds (troposphere), nacreous clouds (stratosphere) and noctilucent clouds (mesosphere) as shown on fig. 6.3, we have a situation where a thin stratum of pure water may exist at each of these levels, which has a high resistance to the transfer of an electric charge. In view of the presence of these various +4°C strata and water’s high dielectric value of 81, it could be postulated that their combined effect would act to create a natural bio-condenser, a condenser being a device with which an electric charge can be accumulated and stored.

Referring once more to fig. 6.3, we can see that from the outside inwards, like an onion, each succeeding layer has a smaller surface area owing to their concentricity. In other words, these layers form a condenser with concentric spherical plates (fig. 6.9). It could therefore be construed that, on encountering each successive, concentric, spherical +4°C dielectric stratum, the potential of the energy coming from the Sun is gradually magnified.
As the Sun’s energy passes from the outside towards the inside, it becomes increasingly concentrated as it approaches the Earth’s surface, due to these enveloping layers of +4°C water, which as noted earlier does not freeze at temperatures of -40°C.

Callum Coats Solar Driven Bio-Condenser

Living Energies – Callum Coates – 1992
http://free-energy.xf.cz/SCHAUBERGER/Living_Energies.pdf

There is a wealth of science underlying the concepts of Callum Coats.

Dipolar polarization is a polarization that is either inherent to polar molecules (orientation polarization), or can be induced in any molecule in which the asymmetric distortion of the nuclei is possible (distortion polarization). Orientation polarization results from a permanent dipole, e.g., that arising from the 104.45° angle between the asymmetric bonds between oxygen and hydrogen atoms in the water molecule, which retains polarization in the absence of an external electric field. The assembly of these dipoles forms a macroscopic polarization.

When an external electric field is applied, the distance between charges within each permanent dipole, which is related to chemical bonding, remains constant in orientation polarization; however, the direction of polarization itself rotates.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dielectric

In chemistry, polarity refers to a separation of electric charge leading to a molecule or its chemical groups having an electric dipole or multipole moment. Polar molecules interact through dipole–dipole intermolecular forces and hydrogen bonds. Molecular polarity is dependent on the difference in electronegativity between atoms in a compound and the asymmetry of the compound’s structure. Polarity underlies a number of physical properties including surface tension, solubility, and melting- and boiling-points.

Water molecule

A water molecule, a commonly used example of polarity.
The two charges are present with a negative charge in the middle (red shade), and a positive charge at the ends (blue shade).

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Polar_molecule

A capacitor (originally known as a condenser) is a passive two-terminal electrical component used to store energy electrostatically in an electric field. The forms of practical capacitors vary widely, but all contain at least two electrical conductors (plates) separated by a dielectric (i.e., insulator).

Condenser

The maximum energy that can be stored safely in a capacitor is limited by the breakdown voltage. Due to the scaling of capacitance and breakdown voltage with dielectric thickness, all capacitors made with a particular dielectric have approximately equal maximum energy density, to the extent that the dielectric dominates their volume.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Capacitor

Pure water containing no exogenous ions is an excellent insulator, but not even “deionized” water is completely free of ions. Water undergoes auto-ionization in the liquid state, when two water molecules form one hydroxide anion (OH−) and one hydronium cation (H3O+).

Because water is such a good solvent, it almost always has some solute dissolved in it, often a salt. If water has even a tiny amount of such an impurity, then it can conduct electricity far more readily.[citation needed]

It is known that the theoretical maximum electrical resistivity for water is approximately 182 kΩ•m at 25 °C. This figure agrees well with what is typically seen on reverse osmosis, ultra-filtered and deionized ultra-pure water systems used, for instance, in semiconductor manufacturing plants. A salt or acid contaminant level exceeding even 100 parts per trillion (ppt) in otherwise ultra-pure water begins to noticeably lower its resistivity by up to several kΩ•m.[citation needed]

In pure water, sensitive equipment can detect a very slight electrical conductivity of 0.055 µS/cm at 25 °C. Water can also be electrolyzed into oxygen and hydrogen gases but in the absence of dissolved ions this is a very slow process, as very little current is conducted. In ice, the primary charge carriers are proton.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Water_molecule#Electrical_properties

Above a particular electric field, known as the dielectric strength the dielectric in a capacitor becomes conductive. The voltage at which this occurs is called the breakdown voltage of the device, and is given by the product of the dielectric strength and the separation between the conductors…

The maximum energy that can be stored safely in a capacitor is limited by the breakdown voltage. Due to the scaling of capacitance and breakdown voltage with dielectric thickness, all capacitors made with a particular dielectric have approximately equal maximum energy density, to the extent that the dielectric dominates their volume.

For air dielectric capacitors the breakdown field strength is of the order 2 to 5 MV/m; for mica the breakdown is 100 to 300 MV/m; for oil, 15 to 25 MV/m; it can be much less when other materials are used for the dielectric.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Capacitor

In standard conditions at atmospheric pressure, gas serves as an excellent insulator, requiring the application of a significant voltage before breaking down (e.g. lightning). In partial vacuum, this breakdown potential may decrease to an extent that two uninsulated surfaces with different potentials might induce the electrical breakdown of the surrounding gas. This has some useful applications in industry (e.g. the production of microprocessors) but in other situations may damage an apparatus, as breakdown is analogous to a short circuit.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Breakdown_voltage

Dielectric breakdown

A dielectric material (dielectric for short) is an electrical insulator that can be polarized by an applied electric field. When a dielectric is placed in an electric field, electric charges do not flow through the material as they do in a conductor, but only slightly shift from their average equilibrium positions causing dielectric polarization. Because of dielectric polarization, positive charges are displaced toward the field and negative charges shift in the opposite direction. This creates an internal electric field that reduces the overall field within the dielectric itself. If a dielectric is composed of weakly bonded molecules, those molecules not only become polarized, but also reorient so that their symmetry axis aligns to the field

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dielectric

Personally, I find the holistic approach taken by Callum Coats very interesting and the presence of noctilucent clouds [at an altitude of between 76 and 85 kilometres] clearly demonstrate that mainstream Atmospheric Science is moribund.

Night clouds or noctilucent clouds are tenuous cloud-like phenomena that are the “ragged edge” of a much brighter and pervasive polar cloud layer called polar mesospheric clouds in the upper atmosphere, visible in a deep twilight. They are made of crystals of water ice. Noctilucent roughly means night shining in Latin. They are most commonly observed in the summer months at latitudes between 50° and 70° north and south of the equator. They can be observed only when the Sun is below the horizon.

They are the highest clouds in Earth’s atmosphere, located in the mesosphere at altitudes of around 76 to 85 kilometres (47 to 53 mi). They are normally too faint to be seen, and are visible only when illuminated by sunlight from below the horizon while the lower layers of the atmosphere are in the Earth’s shadow.

Noctilucent clouds are not fully understood and are a recently discovered meteorological phenomenon; there is no record of their observation before 1885.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Noctilucent_cloud

http://www.amazon.com/Living-Energies-Exposition-Concepts-Schauberger/dp/0717133079/ref=sr_1_1?ie=UTF8&qid=1406380156&sr=8-1&keywords=Living+Energies+%3F+Callum+Coates

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2 Responses to Atmospheric Science: Callum Coats Condenser

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