Lacunar Amnesia in Archaeology

Lacunar Amnesia in Archaeology
Salzburg is a beautiful city which can even be visually appreciated by archaeologists suffering from Lacunar Amnesia.

Salzburg is the fourth-largest city in Austria and the capital of the federal state of Salzburg.

Salzburg’s “Old Town” (Altstadt) is internationally renowned for its baroque architecture and is one of the best-preserved city centers north of the Alps.

Old Town Salzburg across the Salzach river

Salzburg has a long history of settlement that began with Celtic settlers around the 5th century BC.

Salzburg circa 1712

In 45 AD the settlement became a Roman municipium known as “Juvavum” [or “Claudium Juvavum” or “Iuvavum” – depending upon source].

Traces of human settlements have been found in the area, dating to the Neolithic Age.
The first settlements in Salzburg were apparently by the Celts around the 5th century BC.

Around 15 BC the separate settlements were merged into one city by the Roman Empire.
At this time, the city was called Juvavum and was awarded the status of a Roman municipium in 45 AD.

Juvavum developed into an important town of the Roman province of Noricum.

No doubt because of its location at the narrowest point of the Salzach valley and sheltering between mountain ridges, Salzburg was the site of a substantial prehistoric settlement, and it became the natural choice for a Roman Settlement, Municipium Claudium Juvavum, at the intersection of three major Roman roads.

The first signs of settlements within today′s city limits date as far back as to Neolithic times.

However, the first actual city that merged smaller Celtic communities was founded by Romans in 15 BC and named Iuvavum.

The history of Juvavum then becomes very hazy for the next thousand years until the Salzburg castle in built in 1077 AD.

Some sources say Juvavum was “abandoned” and “fell into ruins”.

After the Roman Empire came to decay, Iuvavum was abandoned and fell into ruins.

Some sources say Juvavum “declined so sharply” that it became a “near ruin”.

After the collapse of the Norican frontier, Juvavum declined so sharply that by the late 7th century it became a “near ruin”.

Other sources blame “barbarian incursions from the 5th century” for “what remained” of Juvavum.

What remained after the barbarian incursions from the 5th century onwards…

After a gap of about 650 years [since 45 AD] the historians quote a [nearly] definite date of 699 AD [although one source quotes 696 and another “c. 700”] for the gifting of “what remained” of Juvavum [before it’s name was changed to Salzburg in 755AD] to the church.

A monastery is documented from the 5th century, but it wasn’t until St. Rupert received the ruins as a present in 699 AD from the Duke of Bavaria that the city went uphill.
Rupert became the city’s bishop, launched St. Peter’s Abbey and is until today the patron saint of Salzburg.
The name Salzburg is documented since 755 AD.

What remained after the barbarian incursions from the 5th century onwards was granted in 696 by the Bavarian Duke Theodo to the Frankish missionary bishop Hrodbett, at the same time endowing the Abbey of St Peter at the foot of the Monchsberg and the Nonnberg nunnery that he had founded with large tracts of land.

The Life of Saint Rupert credits the 8th-century saint with the city’s rebirth.
When Theodo of Bavaria asked Rupert to become bishop c. 700, Rupert reconnoitred the river for the site of his basilica.
Rupert chose Juvavum, ordained priests, and annexed the manor Piding.
Rupert named the city “Salzburg”.
He travelled to evangelise among pagans.

After a gap of about 378 years [since 699 AD], during which the city apparently prospered, the historians unanimously quote a date of 1,077 AD for the construction of the city’s fortress.

The name Salzburg means “Salt Castle” (Latin:Salis Burgium).
The name derives from the barges carrying salt on the Salzach River, which were subject to a toll in the 8th century and was customary for many communities and cities on European rivers.
The Festung Hohensalzburg, the city’s fortress, was built in 1077 and expanded during the following centuries.

As a secular counterweight a ducal palace was built between the ecclesiastical district and the river.
The early medieval development of the town was in the area between the palace and the river.
Churches proliferated and scholars were attracted to the town.

Two significant events took place at the end of the 10th century.
The abbacy and archbishopric were separated in 987, and in 996 the burgher town was awarded the right to levy tolls and hold markets.
In 1077 Archbishop Gebhard built the fortress of Hohensalzburg, as a symbol of his power.
The town continued to grow, spreading along a north-west street parallel with the river.
Massive stone walls were built in the 1120s, to replace the earlier wooden Palisades.

In 1077 work on the Fortress started.

The historians also [almost] agree that Salzburg was then “ravaged by fire” 90 years later in 1167.

The growing town was ravaged by fire in 1167 and a major rebuilding of the cathedral took Place.
Later medieval fires led the burghers to replace their wooden houses with substantial stone buildings of the Inn-Salzach burgher type.

In 1166 a dispute between the archbishop of Salzburg and the German Emperor Barbarossa peaked in an arson that destroyed most of the city.

The intriguing aspect of Salzburg’s very skimpy history during the first millennium is that [somewhere along the way] a number of Romanesque churches were built.

Architecture of Salzburg – Romanesque and Gothic
The Romanesque and Gothic churches, the monasteries and the early carcass houses dominated the medieval city for a long time.

The history of Romanesque Architecture is a bit hazy [just like Salzburg’s early history] but is positive that this architectural style bridges the gap between the Imperial Roman Architecture and the 12th century Gothic Architecture.

Romanesque architecture is an architectural style of medieval Europe characterized by semi-circular arches.

There is no consensus for the beginning date of the Romanesque architecture, with proposals ranging from the 6th to the 10th century.

It developed in the 12th century into the Gothic style, marked by pointed arches.

Examples of Romanesque architecture can be found across the continent, making it the first pan-European architectural style since Imperial Roman Architecture.

The Romanesque style in England is traditionally referred to as Norman architecture.

Maria Laach Abbey

However, the history of Ancient Roman Architecture is not so hazy and states that Romanesque Architecture started to appear in Western Europe around 1,000 AD and was so named because of its “dependence on basic Roman forms”.

Roman Architecture covers the period from the establishment of the Roman Republic in 509BC, to about the 4th century, after which it becomes reclassified as Late Antique or Byzantine architecture.

Most of the many survivals are from the later imperial period.

Roman architectural style continued to influence building in the former empire for many centuries, and the style beginning in Western Europe about 1000 is called Romanesque architecture to reflect this dependence on basic Roman forms.

Therefore, it is more than likely that the construction of the Romanesque churches in Salzburg only began in the 11th century [i.e. after 1,000 AD] and that Salzburg’s history of the 1st millennium is even sparser than the threadbare mainstream narrative leads us to believe.

However, Salzburg’s tenuous mainstream history of the 1st millennium is stretched to breaking point by the stratigraphy which contains an 800 year lacuna between 400 AD and 1,200 AD.

The most recent excavations under Salzburg’s New Residence (led by Dr. Kovacsovics), are excellently documented by an archaeological cut accessible in the underground connection between the New Residence and Salzburg’s Panorama Museum.

Above virgin soil (actually a rock formation) several Roman strata for the 1st to 3rd c. period have been identified.

Above them is a lacuna, i.e. no archaeological evidence whatsoever, for some eight centuries between ca. 400 and ca. 1200 CE.

Salzburg stratigraphy

Toppling of Rome’s Obelisks and Aqueducts – Ewald Ernst – August 2014

Untangling this untenable mainstream narrative requires the selection of a reliable “anchor” date from the historical record and the best available candidate appears to be the unanimously agreed upon date of 1,077 for when “work on the Fortress started”.

Allowing for a bit of leg sliding and the Romanesque churches the end of the lacuna [which is currently dated at 1,200 AD] should be moved to [roughly] 1,000 AD.

This in turns means that the start of the lacuna [which is currently dated at 400 AD] should be moved to [in round numbers] 200 AD.

On this revised timescale the Salzburg lacuna begins 34 years before the “cataclysm” that engulfed Rome in 234 AD and it is highly likely that this “cataclysm” simultaneously engulfed Salzburg.

In reality, the destruction of the aqueducts happened swiftly, and with a power no humans had at their disposal.

This happened, in 234 CE, only eight years after the last system had been completed under Alexander Severus in 226 CE.

At the same time, Rome’s population was reduced from nearly one million to no more than 50,000.

Toppling of Rome’s Obelisks and Aqueducts – Ewald Ernst – August 2014

Therefore, the Salzburg lacuna is physically equivalent to the 20 feet of mud and debris that engulfed the Roman Forum in Rome.

The ancient Forum lay until a recent period buried some twenty feet below the modern surface, and, with the exception of a few columns which still reared a part of their height above the Campo Vaccine, the situation of its monuments was unknown.

The Roman Forum; a topographical study – 1877 – Francis Morgan Nichols

Therefore, the Romanesque churches of Salzburg would have been built by the inhabitants [and immediate descendants] of Municipium Claudium Juvavum that survived the 234 AD “cataclysm” [using their Roman tools, Roman techniques and Roman materials].

Overall, once the round numbers in the timeline are refined, the evidence from Salzburg very strongly supports Gunnar Heinsohn’s hypothesises that there are “some 700 years of phantom-time between 234 and 934” in the mainstream “history” narrative.

I am convinced that Gunnar Heinsohn is working on a view of the 1st millennium CE that will not only revolutionize Roman history but also our understanding of the Christian world of the post-1000 CE Middle Ages.

At the core we have a worldwide catastrophe, and some 700 years of phantom-time between 234 and 934 (Heinsohn prefers a somewhat less specific dating from 230s to 930s).

Toppling of Rome’s Obelisks and Aqueducts – Ewald Ernst – August 2014

Gallery | This entry was posted in Catastrophism, Heinsohn Horizon, History. Bookmark the permalink.

1 Response to Lacunar Amnesia in Archaeology

  1. Pingback: The Mystery of the Missing Oak Trees | MalagaBay

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