So Where Does This Leave Bede?

So where does this Bede

The Venerable Bede is a English monk featured in the 700 phantom years of the mainstream historical narrative that occur immediately before the Heinsohn Horizon in the 930s.

Bede (672/673 – 26 May 735), also referred to as Saint Bede or the Venerable Bede (Latin: Bēda Venerābilis), was an English monk at the monastery of Saint Peter at Monkwearmouth and its companion monastery, Saint Paul’s, in modern Jarrow (see Monkwearmouth-Jarrow), Northeast England, both of which were located in the Kingdom of Northumbria.

Therefore, some 700 years of the 1st millennium (230 to 930s) have neither strata nor tree samples for C14 or dendro-chronological dating.

Archaeological Strata Versus Baillie’s Tree-Rings: Proposal for an Experiment
Gunnar Heinsohn – 8 September 2014

Click to access gunnar-strata-vsbaillie08-09-2014.pdf


The Venerable Bede contributed “significantly to English Christianity”.

In 1899, Bede was made a Doctor of the Church by Pope Leo XIII; he is the only native of Great Britain to achieve this designation (Anselm of Canterbury, also a Doctor of the Church, was originally from Italy).

Bede was moreover a skilled linguist and translator, and his work made the Latin and Greek writings of the early Church Fathers much more accessible to his fellow Anglo-Saxons, contributing significantly to English Christianity.

The Venerable Bede is considered to be The Father of English History because of his most famous work Historia ecclesiastica gentis Anglorum.

He is well known as an author and scholar, and his most famous work, Historia ecclesiastica gentis Anglorum (The Ecclesiastical History of the English People) gained him the title “The Father of English History”.

The Venerable Bede bears the hallmark of European manufacture [in the Machiavellian Monasteries] because:

1) “Most of the 8th- and 9th-century texts of Bede’s Historia come from the northern parts of the Carolingian Empire” with two notable copies [claimed to be “written before AD 900”] residing in France and Switzerland.

The Historia Ecclesiastica was copied often in the Middle Ages, and about 160 manuscripts containing it survive.

About half of those are located on the European continent, rather than on the British Isles.

Most of the 8th- and 9th-century texts of Bede’s Historia come from the northern parts of the Carolingian Empire.

This total does not include manuscripts with only a part of the work, of which another 100 or so survive.

Manuscripts written before AD 900 include:

Corbie MS, Bibliothèque Nationale, Paris
St. Gall Monastery Library

Copies are sparse throughout the 10th century and for much of the 11th century.

The greatest number of copies of Bede’s work was made in the 12th century, but there was a significant revival of interest in the 14th and 15th centuries.

Many of the copies are of English provenance, but also surprisingly many are Continental.

Manuscripts per Monastery per Year

The manuscript evidence clearly suggests [that during the 11th century] the Machiavellian Monasteries calved up the European remnants of the Roman Empire between themselves by manufacturing the necessary historical narratives [and prodigious pedigrees] from their power bases in France and Germany.

2) The Venerable Bede focussed upon “the history of the organization of the English church, and on heresies” prior to the Norman Conquest [aka Catholic Conquest] of England.

The Historia Ecclesiastica has given Bede a high reputation, but his concerns were different from those of a modern writer of history.

His focus on the history of the organization of the English church, and on heresies and the efforts made to root them out, led him to exclude the secular history of kings and kingdoms except where a moral lesson could be drawn or where they illuminated events in the church.

Therefore, the Norman Conquest of England in 1066 was primarily a co-ordinated Viking Mercenary Invasion on behalf of the Roman Catholic Church and thus probably qualifies as the Second Roman Invasion of England.

3) Historians have [unsurprisingly] “questioned the reliability” of Bede’s historical narrative designed to bridge The Academic Abyss.

Some historians have questioned the reliability of some of Bede’s accounts.

One historian, Charlotte Behr, asserts that the Historia’s account of the arrival of the Germanic invaders in Kent should be considered as current myth, not history.

4) Notable early copies of Historia ecclesiastica gentis Anglorum are written on parchment.

The Heinsohn Horizon is defined by the materials used to create manuscripts.

Manuscripts were written on “Egyptian papyrus” before the Heinsohn Horizon and then switched to parchment [and vellum] immediately after the Heinsohn Horizon in Europe until locally produced alternatives [cotton paper (circa 1049) and linen paper (circa 1177)] became readily available.

The manuscript is written on parchment.

The manuscript is written on parchment.

Full list:

Researching the manuscript [claimed to have been “written before AD 900”] that is located at the St. Gall Monastery Library in Switzerland it becomes apparent that “the books had to be removed” before the Abbey was [coincidentally] destroyed by fire in 937 i.e. at the Heinsohn Horizon.

The Abbey Library of Saint Gall was founded by Saint Othmar, the founder of the Abbey of St. Gall.

During a fire in 937, the Abbey was destroyed, but the library remained intact.

The Abbey Library of Saint Gall

The library collection is the oldest in Switzerland, and is one of earliest and most important monastic libraries in the world.

It holds 2,100 manuscripts dating back to the 8th through the 15th centuries, 1,650 incunabula (printed before 1500), and old printed books.

The Carolingian-era monastery has existed since 719 and became an independent principality between 9th and 13th centuries, and was for many centuries one of the chief Benedictine abbeys in Europe.

Between 924 and 933 the Magyars threatened the abbey and the books had to be removed to Reichenau for safety.

Not all the books were returned.

On 26 April 937 a scholar kindled a fire and the abbey and the adjoining settlement were almost completely destroyed; the library was undamaged, however.

Researching the Corbie MS [Bibliothèque Nationale, Paris] of Historia ecclesiastica gentis Anglorum [claimed to have been “written before AD 900”] it appears that “the father of palaeography” was [coincidentally] a monk at Corbie Abbey who curiously thought that forgeries “should not be dismissed for that reason.”

Jean Mabillon, the father of paleography, had been a monk at Corbie..

Dom Jean Mabillon, O.S.B., (23 November 1632 – 27 December 1707) was a French Benedictine monk and scholar, considered the founder of palaeography and diplomatics.

Concerned often with “distinguishing genuine documents from forgeries” the work is now seen as the foundation work of palaeography and diplomatics. Mabillon writes:

I do not deny that in fact some documents are false and others interpolated, but all of them should not be dismissed for that reason.

Rather, it is necessary to devise and hand down rules for distinguishing genuine manuscripts from those that are false and interpolated. … I undertook this task after long familiarity and daily experience with these documents.

For almost twenty years I had devoted my studies and energies to reading and examining ancient manuscripts and archives, and the published collections of ancient documents. … I compared and weighed them with one another that I might be able to compile a body of knowledge which was not merely scanty and meagre, but as accurate and as well-tested as possible in a field which had not been previously investigated.”

Palaeography [which encompasses the dating of historical manuscripts] is deemed “a last resort” since the “so-called science of paleography often relies on circular reasoning because there is insufficient data to draw precise conclusion about dating.”

Palaeography (UK) or paleography (US) is the study of ancient and historical handwriting (that is to say, of the forms and processes of writing, not the textual content of documents).

Included in the discipline is the practice of deciphering, reading, and dating historical manuscripts, and the cultural context of writing, including the methods with which writing and books were produced, and the history of scriptoria.

The discipline is important to understanding, authenticating, and dating ancient texts.

However, “paleography is a last resort for dating” and, “for book hands, a period of 50 years is the least acceptable spread of time” with it being suggested that “the “rule of thumb” should probably be to avoid dating a hand more precisely than a range of at least seventy or eighty years.”

In an 2005 e-mail addendum to his 1996 “The Paleographical Dating of P-46” paper Bruce W. Griffin stated “Until more rigorous methodologies are developed, it is difficult to construct a 95% confidence interval for NT manuscripts without allowing a century for an assigned date.”

William M Schniedewind went even further in the abstract to his 2005 paper “Problems of Paleographic Dating of Inscriptions” and stated that “The so-called science of paleography often relies on circular reasoning because there is insufficient data to draw precise conclusion about dating. Scholars also tend to oversimplify diachronic development, assuming models of simplicity rather than complexity”.

Unsurprisingly, the Saint Petersburg Bede and the Moore Bede were dated by palaeographists based upon “a series of retrospective dates found in the margins”.

The Saint Petersburg Bede (Saint Petersburg, National Library of Russia, lat. Q. v. I. 18), formerly known as the Leningrad Bede, is an Anglo-Saxon illuminated manuscript, a near-contemporary version of Bede’s 8th century history, the Historia ecclesiastica gentis Anglorum (Ecclesiastical History of the English People).

Traditionally, the Saint Petersburg Bede is attributed on palaeographic grounds to Bede’s monastery at Wearmouth-Jarrow.

It is also traditionally dated to 731/732 × 746 on the basis of the so-called Memoranda, a series of retrospective dates found in the margins of Bede’s recapitulo in Book V Chapter 24.

The validity of these Memoranda (and similar notes in the Moore Bede) as evidence for the precise year in which the manuscript was copied has been vigorously challenged.

While it may not be possible to assign the manuscript to a specific year, it seems unlikely that it was copied much after the middle of the eighth century.

The manuscript is written on parchment.

The Moore Bede (Cambridge, University Library, Kk. 5. 16) is an early manuscript of Bede’s 8th-century Historia ecclesiastica gentis Anglorum, (Ecclesiastical History of the English People).

It was formerly owned by Bishop John Moore (1646–1714), whose collection of books and manuscripts was purchased by George I and donated to Cambridge University.

The manuscript is written on parchment.

The Moore Bede is traditionally dated to 734–737 on the basis of the so-called Moore Memoranda, a series of chronological notes preserved on f. 128v.

Although the validity of these (and similar notes in The Leningrad Bede) as evidence for the manuscript’s date has been challenged vigorously, the manuscript can be dated securely to the 8th century on palaeographic and codicological grounds.

The manuscript is now thought “likely to be English in origin” (Ker 1990).

Bischoff has shown that the manuscript was at the Palace School at Aachen around CE 800.

Parkes suggests that it may have been sent to there from York at the request of Alcuin.

Many mainstream adherents reject the Heinsohn Horizon whilst others will support the hypothesis presented by Gunnar Heinsohn.

However, as none of the advocates were present to witness these historical events it is left to the reader to decide which narrative they choose to believe [or not] based upon the evidence presented.

Gallery | This entry was posted in British History, Heinsohn Horizon, History, Language, Science. Bookmark the permalink.

6 Responses to So Where Does This Leave Bede?

  1. timeslip says:


    Let us travel forward in time into the 8th century of the traditional chronology, and let us know the person and the works of the Venerable Bede, a monk from Jarrow, since thanks to him the Christian chronology gained ground world-wide.
    At least it is taught to us…

    „What we know about the early history of the English People mainly is originating from Bede.”

    It is a common assumption that the concept indicating a single digit and the number „zero” was unknown in Europe until its symbol (0) was obtained from the Muslims in the early 12th century.
    It is illogical that this concept which is proved to exist in India from the 9th century only was transferred from India to their later colonial masters, the English, as early as in the 8th century.
    And I am not aware of such an idea that the zero was invented by the English people.
    An American astronomer from Baltimore, Robert R. Newton, who qualified Ptolemy as an ancient swindler, in 1972 had already recorded that Bede, who is considered to live in the 8th century, uses the concept of „nullam” as we do it today!
    In his book Robert Newton examined in detail the solar eclipses recorded in the medieval chronicles, and Bede came into „his picture” when Newton studied those solar eclipses of Bede which were observed or calculated in Italy (sic!).As Newton wrote it, he does not wish to be involved in a discussion about the history, how the „0” as a number concept gained ground, but it is clear for him on the basis of Chapter XX of „De Tempore Ratione”(725) that Bede calculates with the zero, as we do it today.
    Newton proves with arguments that under the concept of „nullam” Bede does not think about „nothing”, since there is no meaning to add a positive integer to „nothing”, but on the contrary, you can add it to „nullam/zero” number. Bede knew very well the two important feature of „nullam” or „zero”: the first is that counting backward the positive integers we reach „0”!
    The second is that adding the „0” to a positive integer, that integer remains unchanged.
    And Bede did not think it necessary to explain those features. Obviously he expected his Readers to understand his statements without any explanation.

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  5. HM says:

    Great stuff, as usual.

    Lutheran blog has a secular analysis of word history, believes in Bede (in that time) but is sure Bede’s etymology of “Easter” is invented. Makes a good case for it, too. After quoting from that same book timeslip mentions, has:
    “It would seem that Bede, who is listing out the English names of the months in this chapter, confirms that there was a goddess named Eostre. But neither Eostre nor a goddess he mentions in the previous sentence, “Hrethra,” are found in any other literature from either earlier nor later.”
    Needless to say, a made-up or mangled religious figure would be more likely if those texts were written after history had been interrupted.

    Wikipedia gives the Bede etymology, but so blandly it’s as if the anonymous author does not believe it themselves. They don’t even bother to mention alternatives like the German “Erstehen” (resurrection) or the Persian “Ishtar”.

  6. malagabay says:

    Persian “Ishtar” 🙂

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