Liesegang Cavities: 2 – The Ringing Moon

Liesegang Cavities – The Ringing Moon

The beauty of Georgi Gladyshev’s Liesegang Cosmology is that a small nodule of agate [which contains a central cavity i.e. a geode] is a natural As Above – So Below analogue for a silica planet.

The Agate Analogue for the Moon easily passes a basic reality check because:

1) The lunar maria are “vast solidified pools of ancient basaltic lava” and agate is “classically associated with volcanic rocks”.

2) The lunar surface [crust] contains about 45% silica [silicon dioxide] and a nodule of agate is “a cryptocrystalline variety of silica” enveloped by a crust.

Agate is a cryptocrystalline variety of silica, chiefly chalcedony, characterised by its fineness of grain and brightness of color.

Although agates may be found in various kinds of rock, they are classically associated with volcanic rocks and can be common in certain metamorphic rocks.

Silicon dioxide, also known as silica (from the Latin silex), is a chemical compound that is an oxide of silicon with the chemical formula SiO2.

It has been known since ancient times.

Silica is most commonly found in nature as quartz, as well as in various living organisms.

In many parts of the world, silica is the major constituent of sand.

Silica is one of the most complex and most abundant families of materials, existing both as several minerals and being produced synthetically.

Notable examples include fused quartz, crystal, fumed silica, silica gel, and aerogels.

Chemical composition of the lunar surface

The Moon is in synchronous rotation with Earth, always showing the same face with its near side marked by dark volcanic maria that fill between the bright ancient crustal highlands and the prominent impact craters.

The dark and relatively featureless lunar plains that can clearly be seen with the naked eye are called maria (Latin for “seas”; singular mare), because they were believed by ancient astronomers to be filled with water.

They are now known to be vast solidified pools of ancient basaltic lava.

Although similar to terrestrial basalts, the mare basalts have much higher abundances of iron and are completely lacking in minerals altered by water.

The majority of these lavas erupted or flowed into the depressions associated with impact basins.

Several geologic provinces containing shield volcanoes and volcanic domes are found within the near side maria.

Lunar nearside with major maria and craters

The lunar maria are large, dark, basaltic plains on Earth’s Moon, formed by ancient volcanic eruptions.

The Agate Analogue implies the Moon has a central cavity [or void] that will act as a resonance chamber that will amplify and sustain wave energy.

A resonance chamber uses resonance to amplify sound.

The chamber has interior surfaces which reflect an acoustic wave.

When a wave enters the chamber, it bounces back and forth within the chamber with low loss (See standing wave).

As more wave energy enters the chamber, it combines with and reinforces the standing wave, increasing its intensity.

Since the resonance chamber is an enclosed space that has an opening where the sound wave enters and exits after bouncing off of the internal walls producing resonance, commonly acoustic resonance as in many musical instruments (see Sound board (music)), the material of the chamber, particularly that of the actual internal walls, its shape and the position of the opening, as well as the finish (porosity) of the internal walls are contributing factors for the final resulting sound produced.

Acoustic resonance is a phenomenon that consists of a given acoustic system acoustic system amplify a sound whose frequency matches one of its own natural frequencies of vibration (its resonance frequencies).

The term acoustic resonance is sometimes used to narrow mechanical resonance to the frequency range of human hearing, but since acoustics is defined in general terms concerning vibrational waves in matter acoustic resonance can occur at frequencies outside the range of human hearing.

An acoustically resonant object usually has more than one resonance frequency, especially at harmonics of the strongest resonance.

It will easily vibrate at those frequencies, and vibrate less strongly at other frequencies.

It will “pick out” its resonance frequency from a complex excitation, such as an impulse or a wideband noise excitation.

In effect, it is filtering out all frequencies other than its resonance.

Acoustic resonance is an important consideration for instrument builders, as most acoustic instruments use resonators, such as the strings and body of a violin, the length of tube in a flute, and the shape of a drum membrane.

Acoustic resonance is also important for hearing.

For example, resonance of a stiff structural element, called the basilar membrane within the cochlea of the inner ear allows hair cells on the membrane to detect sound. (For mammals the membrane has tapering resonances across its length so that high frequencies are concentrated on one end and low frequencies on the other.)

Like mechanical resonance, acoustic resonance can result in catastrophic failure of the vibrator.

The classic example of this is breaking a wine glass with sound at the precise resonant frequency of the glass; although this is difficult in practice.

In physics, resonance is a phenomenon that occurs when a given system is driven by another vibrating system or external force to oscillate with greater amplitude at a specific preferential frequency.

Frequencies at which the response amplitude is a relative maximum are known as the system’s resonant frequencies, or resonance frequencies. At resonant frequencies, small periodic driving forces have the ability to produce large amplitude oscillations. This is because the system stores vibrational energy.

Resonance occurs when a system is able to store and easily transfer energy between two or more different storage modes (such as kinetic energy and potential energy in the case of a pendulum).

However, there are some losses from cycle to cycle, called damping.

When damping is small, the resonant frequency is approximately equal to the natural frequency of the system, which is a frequency of unforced vibrations.

Some systems have multiple, distinct, resonant frequencies.

Resonance phenomena occur with all types of vibrations or waves: there is mechanical resonance, acoustic resonance, electromagnetic resonance, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), electron spin resonance (ESR) and resonance of quantum wave functions.

Resonant systems can be used to generate vibrations of a specific frequency (e.g., musical instruments), or pick out specific frequencies from a complex vibration containing many frequencies (e.g., filters).


One familiar example is a playground swing, which acts as a pendulum.

Pushing a person in a swing in time with the natural interval of the swing (its resonant frequency) will make the swing go higher and higher (maximum amplitude), while attempts to push the swing at a faster or slower tempo will result in smaller arcs.

This is because the energy the swing absorbs is maximized when the pushes are “in phase” with the swing’s natural oscillations, while some of the swing’s energy is actually extracted by the opposing force of the pushes when they are not.

Resonance occurs widely in nature, and is exploited in many manmade devices.

It is the mechanism by which virtually all sinusoidal waves and vibrations are generated.

Many sounds we hear, such as when hard objects of metal, glass, or wood are struck, are caused by brief resonant vibrations in the object.

Therefore, the classical percussion method of “tapping on a surface to determine the underlying structure” can be used to determine whether the Moon contains a resonance chamber [cavity].

Percussion is a method of tapping on a surface to determine the underlying structure, and is used in clinical examinations to assess the condition of the thorax or abdomen.

There are four types of percussion sounds: resonant, hyper-resonant, stony dull or dull.

A dull sound indicates the presence of a solid mass under the surface.

A more resonant sound indicates hollow, air-containing structures.

As well as producing different notes which can be heard they also produce different sensations in the pleximeter finger.

Percussion was at first used to distinguish between empty and filled barrels of liquor, and Dr. Leopold Auenbrugger is said to be the person who introduced the technique to modern medicine although this method was used by Avicenna about 1000 years before that for medical practice such as using percussion over the stomach to show how full it is and to distinguish between ascites and tympanites.

On the 20th November 1969 a percussion test was performed on the Moon when “the Apollo 12 LM hit the lunar surface at 6,048 kilometers per hour, 72 kilometers from the landing site, digging an estimated 9 meter wide crater”.

The results were “astonishing” because they clearly indicated that the Moon contains a resonance chamber because:

a) The resonance chamber amplified the seismic waves which peaked after 7 or 8 minutes.

b) The resonance chamber sustained the seismic waves for over 55 minutes.

The Moon rings like a bell when struck by a large object.

The first man-made crash directed at the Moon that could be detected by a seismometer occurred after the Apollo 12 astronauts had returned to the CSM and the LM ascent stage was sent smashing into the Moon’s surface.

The shock waves of this impact surprised the scientists – the Moon vibrated for over 55 minutes!!

Also, the kinds of signals recorded by the seismometers were utterly different from any ever received before, starting with small waves, gaining in size to a peak, and then lasting for incredibly long periods of time.

A seismic wave took 7 to 8 minutes to reach the peak of impact energy and then gradually decreased in amplitude over a period that lasted almost an hour.

It was claimed that even after an hour the minutest reverberations had still not stopped.

When the Apollo 12 LM hit the lunar surface at 6,048 kilometers per hour, 72 kilometers from the landing site, digging an estimated 9 meter wide crater, the results were astonishing.

All 3 seismometers in the package recorded the impact, which set up a sequence of reverberations lasting nearly an hour.

Nothing like this had ever been measured on Earth.

The LM impact occurred at 1617 USCST November 20 1969.

A news conference had been scheduled to begin at 1630, and when it did start, the Moon was still “ringing” as the scientists – all of them seismic experts – arrived at the news center from their laboratories.

Maurice Ewing, co-head of the seismic experiment, told the afternoon crowd of the unexpected event, informing them that the Moon was still ringing.

He confessed he was at a loss to explain why the Moon behaved so strangely.

“As for the meaning of it,” Ewing announced, “I’d rather not make an interpretation right now. But it is as though one had struck a bell, say, in the belfry of a church a single blow and found that the reverberation from it continued for 30 minutes.”

As he spoke the reverberations continued on for another 25 minutes.

LM Impact

Dr Ross Taylor, a lunar scientist who had been on the team to examine the Apollo 11 samples in Houston, explains why the Moon rang for so long, “This was one of those extraordinary things. When you had the impact of these things on the Moon, unlike a terrestrial earthquake, which dies away quickly, the shock waves continued to reverberate around the Moon for a period of an hour or more, and this is attributed to the extremely dry nature of the lunar rock. As far as we know there is no moisture on the Moon, nothing to damp out these vibrations. The Moon’s surface is covered with rubble and this just transmits these waves without them being damped out in any way as they are on Earth. Basically, it’s a consequence of the Moon being extremely dry.”

ALSEP Apollo Lunar Surface Experiments Package 19 Nov 1969 – 30 Sept 1977
Hamish Lindsay – 2008

Following transfer to the CSM, the ascent stage jettisoned and deorbited to impact the moon.

This provided predictable impact data for the ALSEP seismometer.

Although planned to impact about six miles from the ALSEP, it landed about 40 miles away.

The combined length and severity of the seismic disturbance set up by the impact, estimated to equal that of one ton of TNT.

To the surprise of seismologists, strong signals lasted for more than a half hour, and weaker signals ceased about an hour later.

NASA – The Apollo Missions – Apollo 12

Although NASA got into the habit of crashing their Apollo space junk into the Moon it appears that they were not so forthcoming when it came to publishing more “astonishing” impact results.

The S-IVB/IU will weigh 30,836 pounds and will be traveling 4,942 nautical-miles-an-hour at impact.

It will provide an energy source at impact equivalent to about 11 tons of TNT.

After Shepard and Mitchell have rendezvoused with the command module in lunar orbit, the lunar module ascent stage will be jettisoned and later ground-commanded to impact on the lunar surface about 32 stature miles from the Apollo 14 landing site at Fra Mauro.

Apollo 14 Press Kit – 01/11/71 – NASA’s History Office

Click to access A14_PressKit.pdf

The S-IVB/IU will weigh 30,836 pounds and will be traveling 4,942 nautical-miles-an-hour at impact.

It will provide an energy source at impact equivalent to about 11 tons of TNT.

After Scott and Irwin have completed their lunar surface operations and rendezvoused with the command module in lunar orbit, the lunar module ascent stage will be jettisoned and later ground-commanded to impact on the lunar surface about 25 nautical miles west of the
Apollo 15 landing site at Hadley- Apennine.

Impacts of these objects of known masses and velocities will assist in calibrating the Apollo 14 PSE readouts as well as providing comparative readings between the Apollo 12 and 14 seismometers forming the first two stations of a lunar surface seismic network.

Apollo 15 Press Kit – 06/30/71 – NASA’s History Office

Click to access A15_PressKit.pdf

However, the “astonishing” results are confirmed by documented meteoroid impacts on 12th June 1971, 13th May 1972 and 31st July 1972 which [again] clearly show the initial amplification of the seismic waves followed by a slow dissipation over the following hour.

Category C Meteoroid Impact

Apollo Scientific Experiments Data Handbook – Page 109 of 1011

Click to access NASA%20TM-X-58131.pdf

Shallow lunar structure determined from the passive seismic experiment

Shallow lunar structure determined from the passive seismic experiment
Y. Nakamura, J. Dorman, F. Duennebier, D. Lammlein, & G. Latham
Lunar Science Institute, Symposium on Origin and Evolution of the Lunar Regolith, Houston, Texas, Nov. 13-15, 1974. The Moon, vol. 13, May-July 1975, p. 57-66.…13…57N

Unsurprisingly, these “astonishing” results fuelled speculation that the Moon is hollow.

When Chris was in Seattle a few years ago he had a meeting with Ken Johnston who had worked for Brown-Root and Northrop, which was a consortium between Brown-Root Corporation and the Northrop Corporation at the Lunar Receiving Laboratory.

The company was one of the prime contractors for NASA at the time of the Apollo missions and Ken was supervisor of the data and photo control department.

Ken told Chris that at the time of the impact created by the Apollo 13 launch vehicle the scientists were not only saying that ‘the Moon rang like a bell’, they also described how the whole structure of the Moon ‘wobbled’ in a precise way, ‘almost as though it had gigantic hydraulic damper struts inside it.’

This ringing effect caused many people to pick up on speculation that had been going on for years that the Earth’s Moon could be hollow.

Back in 1962 Dr Gordon McDonald, a leading scientist at NASA, published a report in the Astronautics Magazine where he stated that analysis of the Moon’s motion indicated that the Moon is hollow.

Dr Sean C Soloman, who was Professor of Geophysics at MIT and is the Director of the Terrestrial Magnetism Department, Carnegie Institution of Washington as well as the Principal Investigator for Carnegie’s research as part of the NASA Astrobiology Institute, has said: “The lunar orbiter experiments vastly improved our knowledge of the moon’s gravitational field… indicating the frightening possibility that the moon may be hollow.”

Who Built the Moon? – 2005 – Christopher Knight, Alan Butler

However, for those who prefer the familiarity of a Moon without a resonance chamber, NASA has been busy working removing the wash of “noise” caused by overlapping signals bouncing repeatedly off lunar structures.

A primary limitation to past lunar seismic studies was the wash of “noise” caused by overlapping signals bouncing repeatedly off structures in the moon’s fractionated crust.

To mitigate this challenge, Weber and the team employed an approach called seismogram stacking, or the digital partitioning of signals.

Stacking improved the signal-to-noise ratio and enabled the researchers to more clearly track the path and behavior of each unique signal as it passed through the lunar interior.

“We hope to continue working with the Apollo seismic data to further refine our estimates of core properties and characterize lunar signals as clearly as possible to aid in the interpretation of data returned from future missions,” Weber said.

NASA Research Team Reveals Moon Has Earth-Like Core – 01.06.11

These frightfully clever people from NASA have applied “tried and true methodologies from terrestrial seismology to this legacy data” so that the Moon has now acquired “a core similar to Earth’s” which could [once upon a time] have supported a “lunar dynamo”.

State-of-the-art seismological techniques applied to Apollo-era data suggest our moon has a core similar to Earth’s.

Uncovering details about the lunar core is critical for developing accurate models of the moon’s formation.

The data sheds light on the evolution of a lunar dynamo — a natural process by which our moon may have generated and maintained its own strong magnetic field.

The team’s findings suggest the moon possesses a solid, iron-rich inner core with a radius of nearly 150 miles and a fluid, primarily liquid-iron outer core with a radius of roughly 205 miles.

Where it differs from Earth is a partially molten boundary layer around the core estimated to have a radius of nearly 300 miles.

The research indicates the core contains a small percentage of light elements such as sulfur, echoing new seismology research on Earth that suggests the presence of light elements — such as sulfur and oxygen — in a layer around our own core.

Lunar Core 2011

We applied tried and true methodologies from terrestrial seismology to this legacy data set to present the first-ever direct detection of the moon’s core,” said Renee Weber, lead researcher and space scientist at NASA’s Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Ala.

NASA Research Team Reveals Moon Has Earth-Like Core – 01.06.11

Clearly, the seismic data from the Moon does ring any bells in the mainstream molten melon mindset.

Ripe Melon Tip #4 – Listen to the Sound
This is a classic, and the internet is filled with descriptions of what the sound should be when you thump a watermelon.

Most say “flat” or “dull”. I think that’s a poor description.

For my part, “flat and dull” is the sound you get when you rap on something like a giant zucchini – or an underripe watermelon.

A ripe melon should have a nice, deep sound, more like a drum or knocking on a door.

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