Motor manufactures have been Limbo Dancing for over 20 years as the EPA has repeatedly lowered the emissions bar until it has reached unrealistic, unnecessary and counter productive levels.
Faced with “increasingly unattainable standards” some manufacturers decided to “cheat”.
At the same time, the cars that may still be manufactured are required to meet increasingly unattainable standards, putting the manufacturers (like VW) in the position of manufacturing government-compliant cars that cost too much and perform poorly that few will want to buy… or “cheating” the government, in order to build cars people will actually want to buy.
The VW “Scandal” – Eric Peters – TheBurningPlatform.com
Other manufactures simply withhold their technical innovations.
Mazda has been trying to get its Sky-D diesel engine EPA-compliant (while also customer-viable) for the past two years, without success so far. You are denied this 50-plus MPG (and extremely clean) diesel because of the particulate jihadists in Washington.
The VW “Scandal” – Eric Peters – TheBurningPlatform.com
Some manufactures continue to Limbo Dance as the EPA lower the nitrogen oxides [Nox] standard for “heavy-duty” diesel engines by 96% from 5.0 grams per Brake Horsepower-Hour in 1994 towards 0.2 grams per Brake Horsepower-Hour when the EPA 2010 regulations come into effect.
When EPA 2010 standards go into effect, no heavy-duty diesel engine can be emitting levels of nitrogen oxides (NOx) higher than .2 g/bhp-hr (grams per brake horsepower-hour), a standard more stringent than any place in Europe.
FactsAboutSCR.com – Meeting EPA 2010
However, the EPA regulations for passenger car NOx emissions make Limbo Dancing a whole lot harder because the EPA discriminates against diesel cars by ignoring the horse-power produced.
The Tier 2 standards finalized today will reduce new vehicle NOx levels to an average of 0.07 grams per mile (g/mi).
The VW and Audi cars identified as violators had been certified to meet either the US EPA Tier 2 / Bin 5 emissions standard or the California LEV-II ULEV standard.
Either standard requires that nitrogen oxide emissions not exceed 0.07 grams per mile (0.043 g/km) for engines at full useful life which is defined as either 120,000 miles (190,000 km) or 150,000 miles (240,000 km) depending on the vehicle and optional certification choices.
This nitrogen oxide emission standard is among the tightest on vehicles in the world.
For comparison, the contemporary European standards known as Euro 5 (2010-2014 models) and Euro 6 (2015 models) only limit nitrogen oxide emissions to 0.29 grams per mile (0.18 g/km) and 0.13 grams per mile (0.08 g/km) respectively.
Perhaps the most surprising aspect of the “VW Scandal” is that the EPA isn’t complaining about it’s favourite bogeymen: Sulphur, Ozone and Carbon Dioxide.
Instead, the EPA have scraped nitrogen oxides from the bottom of their scaremongering barrel where atmospheric levels of NO2 are a stunningly small 0.02 parts per million [whilst NO levels are so insignificant they aren’t even listed].
Nitrogen dioxide – NO2 – 0.02 parts/million (ppm)
The Engineering Toolbox – Air Composition
NOx emission levels are 10 – 40 times higher than emission standards.
Notice of Violation – 18 Sept 2015
NOx is a generic term for the mono-nitrogen oxides NO and NO2 (nitric oxide and nitrogen dioxide). They are produced from the reaction of nitrogen and oxygen gases in the air during combustion, especially at high temperatures. In areas of high motor vehicle traffic, such as in large cities, the amount of nitrogen oxides emitted into the atmosphere as air pollution can be significant. NOx gases are formed whenever combustion occurs in the presence of nitrogen – as in an air-breathing engine; they also are produced naturally by lightning.
In atmospheric chemistry, the term means the total concentration of NO and NO2.
NOx gases react to form smog and acid rain as well as being central to the formation of tropospheric ozone.
The EPA is still fighting a battle it won “decades ago” because “acid rain levels have dropped 65% since 1976”.
Since the 1990s, SO2 emissions have dropped 40%, and according to the Pacific Research Institute, acid rain levels have dropped 65% since 1976.
Conventional regulation was used in the European Union, which saw a decrease of over 70% in SO2 emissions during the same time period.
The “emissions problem” has been solved – decades ago.
But the EPA, et al, cannot admit this.
Because then there’d be no need for the EPA.
The VW “Scandal” – Eric Peters – TheBurningPlatform.com
This latest imaginary emissions “scandal” is about the pitifully small maximum value of 1.5 grams per mile of NOx produced by a 2.0 litre diesel rental car on a demanding hilly route on rural roads.
In-use testing of three light duty diesel vehicles—certified to US-EPA Tier2-Bin5 and California LEV-II ULEV emissions limits—found a wide variation in real world emissions performance relative to the regulatory limits.
Average NOx emissions of test vehicles over the five test routes compared to US-EPA Tier2-Bin5 emissions standard; repeat test variation intervals are presented as ±1σ; Route 1 for Vehicle A includes rush-hour/non rush-hour driving, ‘R’ designates routes including a test with DPF regeneration event, ‘nd’ – no data available.
ICCT-sponsored study of in-use testing of 3 Tier2-Bin5, CA LEV-II light-duty diesels finds wide variation of emissions against the limits – 2 June 2014
3.1 Test Vehicle Selection
The vehicles tested in this study comprise two MY 2012 and one MY 2013, diesel-fueled
passenger cars, and will hereinafter be referred to as ‘Vehicle A’, ‘Vehicle B’, and ‘Vehicle C’ in order to anonymize model- and make-specific information for the purpose of this report.
Vehicle A and Vehicle B were equipped with the same 2.0L turbocharged, four cylinder base engine.
However, they were equipped with two different NO x reduction technologies.
Vehicle A featured a lean NO x trap (LNT) for NO x abatement, whereas Vehicle B was fitted with an aqueous urea-based selective catalytic reduction system.
Both vehicles had a DPF installed for controlling particulate matter emissions.
Vehicle C was fitted with a 3.0L turbocharged in-line six-cylinder engine in conjunction with an aqueous urea-SCR system and DPF for NO x and PM control, respectively.
The drive-train of both Vehicles A and B comprised 6-speed automatic transmissions with front wheel drive, whereas Vehicle C featured all-wheel drive with a 6-speed automatic transmission.
All three test vehicles were compliant with EPA Tier2-Bin5, as well as California LEV-II
ULEV (for Vehicles A and B) and LEV-II LEV (for Vehicle C) emissions standards as per EPA certification documents.
Vehicle A and Vehicle C were rented from two separate rental agencies and had initial
odometer readings of 4,710 and 15,031 miles, respectively. Vehicle B had 15,226 miles at start of testing and was acquired from a private owner.
In-Use Emissions Testing of Light-Duty Diesel Vehicles in the United States
Dr. Gregory J. Thompson, Daniel K. Carder, Marc C. Besch, Arvind Thiruvengadam and Hemanth K. Kappanna – May 15, 2014
Center for Alternative Fuels, Engines & Emissions – West Virginia University
If this offending Vehicle A was [for example] a VW Jetta with a “140 hp 2.0 TDI (diesel) engine” travelling at a constant 50 mph on a highway then the recorded 0.6 grams per mile of Nox [see “Route 1: Highway” above for Vehicle A] equates to a miserly 0.21 grams per Brake Horsepower-Hour which is only 0.01 grams per Brake Horsepower-Hour above the EPA 2010 standard for heavy-duty diesel engines.
Sixth generation (A6, Typ 1B; 2011–present)
Volkswagen’s target of increasing its North American sales removed the Jetta from the premium compact car market. This forced many cost-cutting measures to be made for the North American models, which include a lower quality trim material for the interior and the replacement of leather with leatherette as an optional seating upholstery. Leather is still available on Canadian-spec models. The North American version also loses the multi-link rear suspension of the previous generation.
Engines from the MK5 Jetta carried over include the 170 hp 2.5 L (five-cylinder) as well as the economy-minded 140 hp 2.0 TDI (diesel) engine.
The real “scandal” is that the EPA are discriminating against fuel efficient diesel cars.
Clearly, the EPA don’t want consumers driving VW diesel cars that can achieve 70 miles per gallon.
Volkswagen Jetta 2.0 TDI S 4d – Facts and Figures
MPG 70 mpg
Power Output 108 bhp
Instead, the EPA discriminates in favour of petrol engines which consume about 50% more fuel.
Either way, the EPA [with the collusion of the totally gullible and totally useless mainstream media] managed to manufacture a series of spectacular Climate Change headlines to coincide with the the Pope’s propaganda campaign.
Pope Francis calls for urgent action on climate change in White House speech
Pope to Congress: Time to act on climate change, poverty
Only during such tests are the cars’ full emissions control systems turned on. During normal driving situations, the controls were turned off, allowing the cars to spew as much as 40 times the pollution allowed under the Clean Air Act, the E.P.A. said.
Volkswagen to Stop Sales of Diesel Cars Involved in Recall –
Jack Ewing and Coral Davenport
Volkswagen scandal could kill off diesel cars
“Washington’s Pope”? Who is Pope Francis?
The big lesson for VW is that it needs to grease the wheels in America.
And then there is Volkswagen, which earlier today took out a record charge of €6.5 billion, one which many think will be insufficient before all it set and done, following its own snafu involving manipulating emissions tests to make its cars appear “cleaner” than they were.
Yes, GM killed people, but Volkswagen killed the air!
To summarize Volkswagen’s biggest mistake: it was not poisoning the environment, it wasn’t even getting caught. It was this:
Dear Volkswagen: This Was Your Biggest Mistake – Tyler Durden – ZeroHedge.com
Whilst the big lesson for consumers is that it looks like the EPA values the air more than it values human life.
When bailout-darling GM ‘fessed up to an intentional ignition-switch defect, tied to at least 174 deaths, The Justice Department fined them $900 million (and no employees faced criminal charges). So, in this consequence-less world in which we live, when Volkswagen admits to literally cheating emissions-standards tests, it faces up to $18 billion in fines from The EPA, one has to wonder whether “we” have our priorities right?
GM’s penalty is also less than the record-setting $1.2 billion fine levied on Toyota last year after the Japanese car giant failed to recall cars that could suddenly accelerate, even though federal regulators say the defect has been linked to at least five deaths.
So, as The Telegraph reports, VW could face huge fines if it is found to have violated America’s Clean Air Act, as US watchdogs claimed it has done. The EPA has the power to impose a $37,500 penalty per vehicle in contravention of law, meaning VW could face a theoretical penalty of $18bn for the 482,000 cars affected.
Volkswagen “Cheating” Fine Is 20 Times Higher Than GM’s For ‘Killing 174 People’
Tyler Durden – ZeroHedge.com
Such are the values and ethics of the Climate Change belief system.