R. R. Newton [amongst other things] analysed historic eclipse records to develop an understanding of the Earth’s rotation over the last two thousand years.
Robert Russell Newton, also R. R. Newton (July 7, 1918 – June 2, 1991) was an American physicist, astronomer, and historian of science.
Newton was Supervisor of the Applied Physics Laboratory at Johns Hopkins University.
He was known for his book The Crime of Claudius Ptolemy (1977).
In Newton’s view, Ptolemy was “the most successful fraud in the history of science”.
Newton was also known for his work on change of the rotation rate of the earth, and historical observations of eclipses.
The challenge associated with the historic records of solar and lunar eclipses is to determine the accuracy of the observations and the reliability of their dating.
Dating is especially problematical when disparate sources are combined.
Unfortunately, Newton’s investigations suffered from two fundamental defects.
The two parameters he sought to determine were highly correlated; and he also adopted a somewhat arbitrary weighting scheme in analysing suspected observations of total solar eclipses.
Many of the observations he investigated were of doubtful reliability.
ΔT values during the pre-telescopic period, as derived from timings of lunar and solar eclipses. Also shown are the tidal parabola and the cubic spline fit to the data, as constrained by untimed observations.
Historical Eclipses and Earth’s Rotation – F Richard Stephenson
Science & Mathematics > Astronomy & Geophysics > Volume 44 Issue 2 > Pp. 2.22-2.27.
However, based upon his assembled data R. R. Newton observed [back in 1972] that it “shows strongly” that the Earth-Moon system experienced “a ‘square wave’ in the accelerations that lasted from about 700–1300”.
The most conspicuous effects of non-gravitational forces in the Earth-Moon system are the accelerations of the Earth’s spin and of the Moon’s mean angular velocity.
Evidence indicates that the present acceleration of the Moon is between −20 and −52 s of arc per century per century and that the present average acceleration of the Earth is between −5 and −23 parts in 109 per century.
Over the past 2000 yr, the average for the Moon has been about −42 s per century per century and for the Earth has been about −28 parts in 109 per century; these values are probably correct within 10%.
Evidence that does not involve any assumptions about the present values shows strongly that there was a ‘square wave’ in the accelerations that lasted from about 700–1300, and that the accelerations were different by a factor of perhaps 5 during the time of this wave from what they were at neighboring times.
Astronomical evidence concerning non-gravitational forces in the Earth-Moon system
R. R. Newton
Astrophysics and Space Science – May 1972, Volume 16, Issue 2, pp 179-200
Empirico-Statistical Analysis of Narrative Material and its Applications to Historical Dating – Volume 1 – The Development of the Statistical Tools
A T Fomenko – Translated by O Efimov
Kluwer Academic Publishers – 1994 – The Netherlands
A square wave is a non-sinusoidal periodic waveform (which can be represented as an infinite summation of sinusoidal waves), in which the amplitude alternates at a steady frequency between fixed minimum and maximum values, with the same duration at minimum and maximum.
The transition between minimum to maximum is instantaneous for an ideal square wave; this is not realizable in physical systems.
The “about 700–1300” period identified by R. R. Newton centres around the end of the First Millennium and aligns approximately with the Heinsohn Horizon in the 930s where the mainstream narrative falls into The Academic Abyss.
Working backwards through the mainstream historical narrative we arrive at the Heinsohn Horizon in the 930s where the mainstream narrative falls into The Academic Abyss and degenerates into fiction, fantasy and fabrication for a period of 700 [phantom] years.
The Heinsohn Horizon: The Academic Abyss
A re-analysis of the historic eclipse data [as shown above] suggests the eclipse data is contiguous when 700 years is removed from the First Millennium time-line.
Similar results were obtained when George Dodwell’s Obliquity of the Ecliptic data was re-analysed by removing 700 years from the First Millennium time-line.
Rock Around the Clock
Peter James has provided some interesting support for this re-analysis by estimating that today’s parallel of latitude have deviated by about 4° since the time of Hipparchus [circa 190-120 BC].
Born in Marseille, Hipparchus placed its latitude on the same latitude as Byzantium (Istanbul, today).
A parallel of latitude through both locations is shown in Figure 4.
The one by Hipparchus deviates from today’s parallel of latitude by an angle of about 4° and it would put the North Pole near the northern tip of Russia (Bol’shevik Is), outside the limits of the modern permanent pack ice and some 1000-1500 km from its present location.
Massive Changes In Climate & Sea Level
Peter M. James
NCGT Journal – Volume 3, Number 1, March 2015 Editor: Dong R. CHOI
Hipparchus of Nicaea (c. 190 – c. 120 BC), was a Greek astronomer, geographer, and mathematician.
Istanbul Coordinates: 41°00′49″N 28°57′18″E
Marseille Coordinates: 43°17′47″N 5°22′12″E
Therefore, an Axial Tilt of 19.4° before the Heinsohn Horizon explains:
1) Why the Roman Warm Period [250 BC to 400 AD] was “2° C warmer” than now.
2) Why the Roman Warm Period peaked [150 AD] close to the Heinsohn Horizon.
The Roman Warm Period
Conversely, an Axial Tilt of 23.4° after the Heinsohn Horizon explains:
3) Why the Camp Century Ice Sheet in Greenland only started to grow after 930 CE.
4) Why Trepidation data shows Axial Tilt starting to reverse about 885 CE.
The Great Greenland Snow Job – 08 – The Delta 18O Dating Debacle
Greenland: Heinsohn’s Phantom Years
At this juncture, the curiosity of the reader may have been roused by a Trepidation cycle that “reverses direction every 640 years” because this roughly aligns with the [calculated] 675 year half-rotation period of the Solar System and the 700 year cycle of catastrophic Lawler Events.
The data also supports the view that a Trepidation reversal occurred towards the end of the first millennium A.D. and Trepidation has been gently oscillating since that event.
The data suggests the 1st millennium reversal occurred between 880 and 890 A.D.
However, its important to remember that the Heinsohn Horizon was a catastrophic event which R. R. Newton coyly described as a “square wave” in the record of solar and lunar eclipses.
Have you heard? It’s in the stars
Next July we collide with Mars.
Well, did you evah?
What a swell party, swell party
Swelligant, elegant party this is!
Well Did You Evah! – Cole Porter – Warner/Chappell Music Inc.