The mainstream climate narrative occasionally encounters discrepancies around the Heinsohn Horizon in the tenth century.
Working backwards through the mainstream historical narrative we arrive at the Heinsohn Horizon in the 930s where the mainstream narrative falls into The Academic Abyss and degenerates into fiction, fantasy and fabrication for a period of 700 [phantom] years.
Hubert Lamb noted the data from Bolton Fell Moss peat-bog displays “an apparent discrepancy in the wetness indicated in the tenth century”.
A graphical ‘history’ of the wetness of the Bolton Fell Moss peat-bog on the England-Scotland border near Carlisle, produced by a variety of researches, is shown in fig. 73.
This seems to agree with the temperature and rainfall sequences presented elsewhere in this book and therefore may be regarded as supporting evidence of them.
(There is an apparent discrepancy in the wetness indicated in the tenth century, but wetness in the northwest corner of England could be consistent with the pattern we have supposed at that time with westerly winds there and anticyclonic situations producing droughts in the southeastern half of England and in Germany.)
This “discrepancy in the wetness indicated in the tenth century” is also apparent in a Danish bog.
Figure 2: Focus Interval III (cal a AD 800–1800) of the ACCROTELM project, showing proxy-climate data from the Danish bog site:
Blue line = normalized testate amoebae water table reconstruction (inverted);
Green dashed line = plant macrofossil Dupont wetness index;
Gray line = normalized 14 C relative production rate (q).
Arrows indicate start of significant rises in water table.
Historical solar minima are indicated.
Figure adapted from Mauquoy et al., 2008.
For further discussion of solar-climate relationships in peat records, see van Geel and Mauquoy, this issue.
Peatland archives of late-Holocene climate change in northern Europe
Frank M. Chambers, J.R.G. Daniell and ACCROTELM Members
PAGES news -Vol 18 No 1 – April 2010
This “discrepancy in the wetness indicated in the tenth century” is also apparent in a reconstruction based upon 12 water tables in northern Britain.
Changes in peatland surface wetness over the past 4500 years inferred from 12 records of reconstructed water table variability from northern Britain
(Charman et al. 2006).
When the peatlands were wet (up on the graph), precipitation was higher and temperature may have been lower.
Using multiple cores avoids problems associated with purely local, non-climatic influences. The change at around 2750 years ago is the same period as the Sub-Boreal to Sub-Atlantic transition (see text).
This change was identified over 100 years ago but as the diagram shows, there were also other, sometimes equally important changes at other times.
The blue bands mark periods when lake levels were higher in central Europe, showing that the main phases of wet conditions were similar across the European continent.
Chapter 4: Peatlands and past climate change
Dan J. Charman, Robert K. Booth, Markku Mäkilä, and Andrey Sirin
Assessment on Peatlands, Biodiversity and Climate Change
This “discrepancy in the wetness indicated in the tenth century” is also very apparent in the Åkhult fen site in southern Sweden.
Around 1000 cal. BP the precipitation and the supply of mineral soil water to the two sites increased and the bog vegetation of that time was replaced by fen vegetation.
The variation with time in mass accretion (upper row) and height increment (lower row) rates in the catotelm at the bog (left) and fen (right) sites.
Data from the main deep cores.
The ages (cal. BP) refer to the midpoint of each 5 cm sample and have been calculated separately for each stage using the 14C dates and N accretion rates in Table 8. The arrows indicate the limits between the stratigraphical stages.
On the relations between water regime, mass accretion and formation of ombrotrophic conditions in Sphagnum mires
Mires and Peat, Volume 14 (2014), Article 07, 1–23
This “discrepancy in the wetness indicated in the tenth century” even appears as a distinct layer in the lithology of the Eipurs bog in Latvia.
Peat humic acid properties and factors influencing their variability in a temperate bog ecosystem
Maris Klavins, Oskars Purmalis, and Valery Rodinov
Estonian Journal of Ecology, 2013, 62, 1, 35-52
In the Dürre Maar [south of Cologne] in Germany this “discrepancy in the wetness indicated in the tenth century” is marked by a clear inflection point in the age-depth model.
The Dürre Maar is a dry maar, the originally existing maar lake has silted up.
It is surrounded by a weakly eroded wall of Lapilli-Tuff with a diameter of about 290 m.
The Dürre Maar originated more than 25,000 years ago.
The peat body is about 3,000 to 4,000 years old and has a thickness of about 12 m.
https://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/D%C3%BCrres_Maar [translated via Google]
A maar is a broad, low-relief volcanic crater caused by a phreatomagmatic eruption (an explosion which occurs when groundwater comes into contact with hot lava or magma).
A maar characteristically fills with water to form a relatively shallow crater lake.
Lithology and age-depth-model of the “Dürres Maar” peat deposit.
R_Date values represent mean depths of the individual samples used for AMS 14C measurements.
Stable carbon and oxygen isotopes in sub-fossil Sphagnum: Assessment of their applicability for palaeoclimatology
Robert Moschen, Norbert Kühl, Ingo Rehberger, Andreas Lücke
Chemical Geology 259 (2009) 262–272
Finally, in a quick hop across the pond, this “discrepancy in the wetness indicated in the tenth century” is also observed in Minden Bog, Michigan, USA.
This paper reviews developments in proxy-climate reconstructions from peatlands; chronicles use of a range of palaeo-proxies such as visible peat stratigraphy, plant macrofossils, peat humification, testate amoebae and non-pollen palynomorphs; and explains the use of wiggle-match radiocarbon dating and relationship to climate shifts.
It details other techniques being used increasingly, such as biomarkers, stable-isotopes, inorganic geochemistry and estimation of dust flux; and points to new proxies under development.
Although explicit protocols have been developed recently for research on ombrotrophic mires, it must be recognised that not all proxies and techniques have universal applicability, owing to differences in species assemblages, mire formation, topographic controls, and geochemical characteristics.
Fig. 3. Peat humification (shown as light-transmittance data) and water-table depth reconstruction (from testate amoebae data) for the past 3400 years from Minden Bog,Michigan, USA.
Note the close correspondence of the two mire-based proxy-climate measures for the majority of the record.
Development and refinement of proxy-climate indicators from peats
Frank M. Chambers, Robert K. Booth, Francois De Vleeschouwer, Mariusz Lamentowicz,
Gael Le Roux, Dmitri Mauquoy, Jonathan E. Nichols, Bas van Geel
(2012) Quaternary International, vol. 268 . pp. 21-33.
Open Archive TOULOUSE Archive Ouverte (OATAO)
It’s invigorating [and hugely ironic] to encounter these bog and fen chronologies that pass the simple sniff test defined by the Heinsohn Horizon.