Students of the English Skool of Etch A Sketch Geology are taught about Anticlines.
In structural geology, an anticline is a type of fold that is an arch-like shape and has its oldest beds at its core.
A typical anticline is convex up in which the hinge or crest is the location where the curvature is greatest, and the limbs are the sides of the fold that dip away from the hinge.
Anticlines can be recognized and differentiated from antiforms by a sequence of rock layers that become progressively older toward the center of the fold.
Therefore, if age relationships between various rock strata are unknown, the term antiform should be used.
The progressing age of the rock strata towards the core and uplifted center, are the trademark indications for evidence of anticlines on a geologic map.
These formations occur because anticlinal ridges typically develop above thrust faults during crustal deformations.
The uplifted core of the fold causes compression of strata that preferentially erodes to a deeper stratigraphic level relative to the topographically lower flanks.
Anticlines can be easily identified when the domed rock strata is exposed.
However, there are many situations where the domed rock strata is not exposed and the students of the English Skool of Etch A Sketch Geology have to develop an aptitude for clairvoyance and Inkblot Interpretation.
For example: The Weald in Southern England.
The Weald is an area in South East England situated between the parallel chalk escarpments of the North and the South Downs.
It crosses the counties of Sussex, Hampshire, Kent and Surrey.
It has three separate parts: the sandstone “High Weald” in the centre; the clay “Low Weald” periphery; and the Greensand Ridge, which stretches around the north and west of the Weald and includes its highest points.
The Weald once was covered with a vast forest, and its name, Old English in origin, signifies woodland.
Clearly, The Weald doesn’t expose any domed rock structures and the students of the English Skool of Etch A Sketch Geology are obliged to deploy their best Inkblot Interpretation skills because their instructors insist the The Weald is an anticline.
To aid their Inkblot Interpretation the students are presented with a North-South cross section of The Weald with the imagined anticline represented by dashed lines.
The Weald is the eroded remains of a geological structure, an anticline, a dome of layered Lower Cretaceous rocks cut through by weathering to expose the layers as sandstone ridges and clay valleys.
The oldest rocks exposed at the centre of the anticline are correlated with the Purbeck Beds of the Upper Jurassic.
Above these, the Cretaceous rocks, include the Wealden Group of alternating sands and clays – the Ashdown Sand Formation, Wadhurst Clay Formation, Tunbridge Wells Sand Formation (collectively known as the Hastings Beds) and the Weald Clay.
The Wealden Group is overlain by the Lower Greensand and the Gault Formation, consisting of the Gault and the Upper Greensand.
The rocks of the central part of the anticline include hard sandstones, and these form hills now called the High Weald.
The peripheral areas are mostly of softer sandstones and clays and form a gentler rolling landscape, the Low Weald.
However, the casual observer [who isn’t an alumni of the English Skool of Etch A Sketch Geology] may have noticed that the large central blob of sandstone in the diagram doesn’t display the necessary folded strata.
The sandstone is dome shaped but it’s formation is more analogous to a shield volcano or volcanic vent than strata that has been folded to form a dome.
The Greensand Ridge is an extensive, prominent, often wooded, mixed greensand/sandstone escarpment in south-east England.
It runs to and from the East Sussex coast, around the Weald, a former dense forest in Sussex, Surrey and Kent.
Differential fluvial erosion has virtually flattened the dome into a series of hills and vales.
On the surface the strata of which the dome is composed crop out in a series of concentric circles, shaped like a horseshoe, with the more resistant chalk and sandstones forming hills and ridges (such as the North and South Downs, the Greensand Ridge, and the High Weald), and the weaker clays forming vales (such as the Low Weald) between them.
In other words: The Weald is not an eroded anticline.
The geology indicates The Weald is just an island of sandstone surrounded by an sea of raw chalk ooze that subsequently solidified into chalk.
Ninety million years ago what is now the chalk downland of Northern Europe was ooze accumulating at the bottom of a great sea.
Chalk was one of the earliest rocks made up of sub-microscopic particles to be studied under the electron microscope, when it was found to be composed almost entirely of coccoliths.
Their shells were made of calcite extracted from the rich sea-water.
In 1853, when a transatlantic telephone cable was being laid, the first samples of the ocean floor were retrieved, from a depth of around 10,000 feet.
Mud dredged up from the bottom, when examined under the microscope, was found to consist almost entirely of the skeletons of a still-existing Globigerina species, along with the calcium carbonate skeletons of round, single-celled phytoplankton algae called Coccosphaerales, more commonly know as coccoliths.
In short, the Atlantic mud, which stretches over a huge plain of thousands of square miles, is raw chalk.
Life Everlasting: The Animal Way of Death – Bernd Heinrich – 2012
The continued subsidence of the continental shelf caused the pooled raw chalk to inundate large areas of East Anglia, South East England and appears to have even flowed through a gorge that crossed the Isle of Wight.
The raw chalk then solidified into the famous chalk formations found in southern England and the country acquired a new sobriquet: Albion.
The draining of the inland seas caused the chalk ooze to accumulate at drainage choke points around the world.
Exposed to the air the chalk ooze slowly dried and consolidated into chalk and many of these drainage choke points now proudly display White Cliffs of Chalk.
The suggestion that sandstone forms from a hydrogel [quicksand] is underlined by the spa town Royal Tunbridge Wells that is situated in the middle of The Weald.
a) The Liesegang Ring evidence in sandstones strongly suggests that sandstone [primarily] formed from the hydrogel called quicksand.
b) The vast quantities of sandstone strongly suggest vast quantities of precursor quicksand.
c) The vast quantities of precursor quicksand strongly suggest vast quantities of silica rich “upwards flowing water” [Quicksand – Wikipedia] from within the Earth.
However, the really important message [from the 2008 paper] is that the research has confirmed the tubular concretions at Pobiti Kamani formed “at shallow depth below the seafloor” around a “rising methane-bearing fluid plume”.
Royal Tunbridge Wells (often shortened to Tunbridge Wells or Tunny Wells) is a large town in western Kent, England, about 40 miles (64 km) south-east of central London by road, 34.5 miles (55.5 km) by rail.
The town is close to the border of the county of East Sussex.
It is situated at the northern edge of the High Weald, the sandstone geology of which is exemplified by the rock formations at the Wellington Rocks and High Rocks.
The town came into being as a spa in the Restoration and had its heyday as a tourist resort under Beau Nash when the Pantiles and its chalybeate spring attracted visitors who wished to take the waters.
Though its popularity waned with the advent of sea bathing, the town remains popular and derives some 30 percent of its income from the tourist industry.
The town has a population of around 56,500 and is the administrative centre of Tunbridge Wells Borough and the UK parliamentary constituency of Tunbridge Wells.
In the United Kingdom Royal Tunbridge Wells has a reputation as being the archetypal conservative “Middle England” town, a stereotype that is typified by the fictional letter-writer “Disgusted of Tunbridge Wells”.
More interestingly, The Weald indicates sandstone is also associated with abiogenic oil.
There could be up to 100 billion barrels of oil under land near Gatwick Airport, a report has revealed.
UK Oil & Gas Investments (UKOG) said the independent report estimated 158 million barrels per square mile could be lying below the site, just north of the UK’s second-largest airport near Horley.
In comparison, the North Sea has reportedly produced about 45 billion barrels in 40 years.
The report was commissioned by Horse Hill Developments, which had been drilling at the site in the Weald Basin for a 60-day exploratory period last year.
Gatwick Airport oil: ‘100 billion barrels’ found in Weald Basin near Horley
Get Surrey – Paul Harper, Sam Rkaina, Karolin Schaps & Mark Edwards – 9 Apr 2015
Needless to say, the western [uniformtarian] mainstream geologists cling to their belief that petroleum is a fossil fuel “formed almost exclusively” from “organic material” [aka decomposed dinosaur detritus] and dismiss the abiogenic theory of hydrocarbons.
How you view The Weald depends upon your Inkblot Interpretation skills.