A Scandinavian Saga

A Scandinavian Saga

At the beginning of the first millennium cartographers crafted a Semicircular Europe that excluded the Scandinavian Peninsula.

Pomponius Mela

The Scandinavian Peninsula is a peninsula in Northern Europe, which covers the whole mainland of Sweden, nearly all the mainland of Norway, northwestern Finland as well as the narrow area to northwest from Kaitakoski, Jäniskoski and Rajakoski both Borisoglebsky settlement in Russia.

Arguably the largest peninsula in Europe, the Scandinavian Peninsula is approximately 1,850 kilometres (1,150 mi) long with a width varying approximately from 370 to 805 kilometres (230 to 500 miles).

Its highest elevation was Glittertinden in Norway at 2,470 m (8,100 ft) above sea level, but since the glacier at its summit partially melted[citation needed], the highest elevation is at 2,469 m (8,100 ft) at Galdhøpiggen, also in Norway.

These mountains also have the largest glacier on the mainland of Europe, Jostedalsbreen.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Scandinavian_Peninsula

Looking for reassurance from the Etch A Sketch Skool of Geology that the Scandinavian Peninsula actually existed at the start of the first millennium isn’t very satisfactory.

Their level of certainty evaporates about 100 million years ago when the underlying rocks were [maybe – possibly – citation needed] connected to Scotland, Ireland and the Appalachians.

The Scandinavian mountains are composed of Precambrian and Paleozoic rocks, and are commonly characterized by steep sides and relatively flat tops.

The rocks underlying the mountains are part of a system geologically connected with the mountains of Scotland, Ireland and, crossing the Atlantic Ocean, the Appalachian Mountains of North America.[citation needed].

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Scandinavian_mountains

Atlantic Spreading

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Seafloor_spreading

From there on in things get a bit sketchy.

Although the Etch A Sketch Skool of Geology has a degree of confidence regarding the underlying rocks they are still having problems with the overlying metamorphic mountains.

The Scandinavian Peninsula occupies part of the Baltic Shield, a stable and large crust segment formed of very old, crystalline metamorphic rocks.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Scandinavian_Peninsula#Geology

Geology of Norway

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Geology_of_Norway

The origin of today’s mountain topography is debated by geologists.

During the Paleozoic, a continental collision between Scandinavia and Greenland produced a Himalayas-sized mountain range named the Caledonide Mountains.

The Caledonide Mountains underwent an extensional collapse during the Devonian.

Severe continental extension occurred at the Scandinavian margin during Permian and Mesozoic time, followed by continental breakup and sea floor spreading around 55 million years ago.

Many geologists consider the flat tops of the mountains as evidence that the Paleozoic Caledonide Mountains were essentially destroyed by erosion and that a low-relief, low-elevation peneplain was later uplifted.

A few geophysicists consider the current mountains to be remnants of the Caledonian mountains.

Under this hypothesis the Caledonide Mountains were eroded to one-fifth of their original height, and would be one of the oldest still-extant mountain ranges in the world.[citation needed]

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Scandinavian_mountains

The Etch A Sketch Skool of Geology is puzzled by 20 million years of missing sediments.

The Baltic Sea sedimentary basin was formed on top of the East European Craton millions of years after it consolidated.

In the south and east of the Baltic crystalline shield rocks the is overlain by an extensive sedimentary cover that constitutes part of the East European platform.

In the Baltic area of the platform there are sedimentary units of all geological periods from the Vendian to the Cenozoic.

Paleogene and Neogene marine sediments are however absent in the whole Baltic area except for the southern fringes.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Geology_of_the_Baltic_Sea

The Paleogene (informally Lower Tertiary) is a geologic period and system that began 66 and ended 23.03 million years ago and comprises the first part of the Cenozoic Era.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Paleogene

The Neogene is a geologic period and system in the International Commission on Stratigraphy (ICS) Geologic Timescale starting 23.03 million years ago and ending 2.58 million years ago.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Neogene

The Etch A Sketch Skool of Geology is also depressed about the Baltic Sea depression.

Scientists do not agree on how the present depression the Baltic Sea occupies formed.

Scholars like Voipio (1981) and Šlaiupa (1995) consider the depression to have been formed in the Cenozoic, before the Quaternary, by tectonic processes.

Some others like Marks (2004) stress erosion was key to the formation of the depression.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Geology_of_the_Baltic_Sea

However, the Etch A Sketch Skool of Geology is confident they can blame the last Ice Age for parts of Finland rising by about eight millimetres per year.

Consequently, the surface area and the depth of the sea are diminishing.

The uplift is about eight millimetres per year on the Finnish coast of the northernmost Gulf of Bothnia.

In the area, the former seabed is only gently sloping, leading to large areas of land being reclaimed in what are, geologically speaking, relatively short periods (decades and centuries).

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Baltic_Sea#Geology

Scandinavian Ice Age

Unsurprisingly, their Ice Age ruse is running into a few problems.

Firstly, they have to reach a convincing consensus regarding the flat top mountains which aren’t a regular feature of their Ice Age narrative.

Many geologists consider the flat tops of the mountains as evidence that the Paleozoic Caledonide Mountains were essentially destroyed by erosion and that a low-relief, low-elevation peneplain was later uplifted.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Scandinavian_mountains

Secondly, the Etch A Sketch Skool of Geology have to construct a convincing narrative to explain away the vacillating Baltic [with it’s missing 20 million years worth of marine sediments].

This narrative needs to be especially convincing because the description of the Eemian Sea [said to have existed 130,000 to 115,000 years ago] exactly matches the first millennium maps where “Much of northern Europe was under shallow water” and “Scandinavia was an island.”

The Eemian Sea was a body of water located approximately where the Baltic Sea is now during the last interglacial, or Eemian Stage, Marine isotopic stage (MIS) 5e, roughly 130,000 to 115,000 years BP.

Much of northern Europe was under shallow water.

Scandinavia was an island.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Eemian_Sea

The Baltic Ice Lake is a name given by geologists to a freshwater lake that gradually formed in the Baltic Sea basin as glaciation retreated from that region at the end of the Pleistocene.

The lake, dated to 12,600-10,300 BP, is roughly contemporaneous with the three Pleistocene Blytt-Sernander periods.

At the peak of this high water phase, most of Finland was under water, including Helsinki, at a depth of 115 m (377 ft); only southern Sweden was free of ice.

The Danish Islands were all connected west of the Strait of Oresund.

Several carbon-dated sites in Estonia indicate that human habitation of the shores of the Baltic Ice Lake began in the Boreal period, in the time window 11,200-10,200 BP.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Baltic_Ice_Lake

Yoldia Sea is a name given by geologists to a variable brackish-water stage in the Baltic Sea basin that prevailed after the Baltic ice lake was drained to sea level during the Weichsel glaciation.

Dates for the Yoldia sea are obtained mainly by radiocarbon dating material from ancient sediments and shore lines and from clay-varve chronology.

They tend to vary by as much as a thousand years, but a good estimate is 10,300 – 9500 radiocarbon years BP, equivalent to ca 11,700-10,700 calendar years BP.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Yoldia_Sea

Ancylus Lake is a name given by geologists to the body of fresh water that replaced the Yoldia Sea after the latter had been severed from its saline intake across central Sweden (with the eastern end of the channel near present Stockholm) by the isostatic rise of south Scandinavian landforms.

The dates are approximately 9500–8000 BP calibrated, during the full Boreal period.

Much of the new Finnish land was covered by mire.

Moraine ridges and drumlins formed an extensive island system.

The shores around the lake were stony ground.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ancylus_Lake

The Mastogloia Sea is one of the prehistoric stages of the Baltic Sea in its development after the last ice age.

This took place ca. 8000 years ago following the Ancylus Lake stage and preceding the Littorina Sea stage.

Many researchers have been unwilling to recognize the Mastogloia Sea as a separate stage in the development of the Baltic Sea, favouring including it in either the Ancylus Lake stage or the Littorina Sea stage (Hyvärinen et al. 1988, Miettinen 2002).

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mastogloia_Sea

Littorina Sea (also Litorina Sea) is a geological brackish-water stage of the Baltic Sea, which existed around 7500–4000 BP and followed the Mastogloia Sea, transitional stage of the Ancylus Lake.

At the end of the period modern landforms appeared, including the lagoons, spits and dunes currently visible.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Littorina_Sea

Post-Littorina Sea 4,000–present

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Baltic_Sea#Geology

This narrative also needs to be especially convincing because it requires the Danish Straits to drop by about 100 metres whilst the rest of Scandinavia is said to be rebounding upwards.

Ancylus Lake

The Danish straits are the three channels connecting the Baltic Sea to the North Sea through the Kattegat and Skagerrak.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Danish_straits

Koordinater: 59°12′57″N 14°25′49″Ö
Sveafallen är ett naturreservat i Degerfors kommun, nära tätorten Degerfors.

https://sv.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sveafallen

Degerfors

ElevationMap.com
http://elevationmap.net/degerfors-se#menu2

Danish Straits

The Baltic Sea Hydrographic Commission – Baltic Sea Bathymetry Database
http://data.bshc.pro/#2/57.6/14.3

Personally, I find the Etch A Sketch Skool of Geology narrative unconvincing and I am more inclined to believe the first millennium cartographers with their portrayal of the Eemian Sea where “Much of northern Europe was under shallow water” and “Scandinavia was an island”.

However, this implies the Heinsohn Horizon in the 230s AD was triggered by a catastrophic impact in the Beaufort Sea that [amongst other things]:
a) Scooped out the Canada basin.
b) Pushed up the seabed to create the metamorphic uplands of Scandinavia.
c) Created the numerous secondary impact craters that are scattered across Europe.

major-expansion

Geological Setting & Seismic Interpretation – Carlos Cramez
Universidade Fernando Pessoa – Porto, Portugal

See: https://malagabay.wordpress.com/2016/01/12/crinkle-cut-chips/

Canada Basin

See: https://malagabay.wordpress.com/2013/06/04/still-waters-run-deep/

See: https://malagabay.wordpress.com/2013/06/05/tektites-4-primary-and-secondary-impact-craters/

Either way, both narratives leave a lot of unanswered questions…

FOOTNOTES
The Trans-Atlantic Connection between Europe and North America was underlined in 1913 by the unearthing in Norway of muskox vertebrae.

The muskox (Ovibos moschatus), also spelled musk ox and musk-ox, in Inuktitut umingmak, is an Arctic mammal of the family Bovidae, noted for its thick coat and for the strong odor emitted during the seasonal rut by males, from which its name derives.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Muskox

Muskox vertebrae

You see, muskox have not been in Europe for a very long time, at least several thousand years.

But in May 1913, a neck vertebra was found during the construction of the railway line through the Dovre mountains.

A spinal vertebra was found later in November 1913 on the construction site.

Both were identified by scientists as muskox bones.

Although the period of deposition was not clear because of the nature of the construction site, the lead investigator P. A. Øyen from the Oslo University Geological Museum assumed that it must have been deposited during the last interglacial period.

Dolly Jorgensen: Past and Future Together – 28 August 2013
dolly.jorgensenweb.com / nordicnature
http://dolly.jorgensenweb.net/nordicnature/?page_id=727

This discovery inspired Adolf Hoel to reintroduce muskoxen to Norway in 1932.

Muskoxen primarily live in the Canadian Arctic and Greenland, with small introduced populations in Sweden, Siberia, Norway, and Alaska.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Muskox

Musk Ox

When Adolf Hoel, director of the Norwegian Polar Institute, was working on bringing muskoxen to Svalbard in 1929 and then mid-Norway in 1932, nationalism was never far from his mind.

Dolly Jorgensen: A Patriotic Project – 18 May 2014
dolly.jorgensenweb.com / nordicnature
http://dolly.jorgensenweb.net/nordicnature/?p=1657

Adolf Hoel (15 May 1879 – 19 February 1964) was a Norwegian geologist and polar researcher.

The mineral hoelite is named in his honour.

His focus on and research of the polar areas is largely credited as the reason Norway has the sovereignty over Svalbard and Queen Maud Land.

He led several scientific expeditions to Svalbard and Greenland.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Adolf_Hoel

Dovrefjell is a mountain range in central Norway that forms a natural barrier between Eastern Norway and Trøndelag, the area around Trondheim.

Dovrefjell (west of E6/Dovrebanen) also has a stock of musk oxen, imported from East-Greenland in 1932.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dovrefjell

Surprisingly, there are only five known dolmens in Norway [four of which appear to be just above sea level] which are associated with the north-central European Funnel(-neck-)beaker culture.

Rødtangen Dolmen

Rødtangen Dolmen – Burial Chamber (Dolmen) in Norway in Buskerud
The Megalithic Portal
http://www.megalithic.co.uk/article.php?sid=32311

The Funnel(-neck-)beaker culture, short TRB or TBK from (German) Trichter(-rand-)becherkultur (ca 4300 BC–ca 2800 BC) was an archaeological culture in north-central Europe.

It developed as a technological merger of local neolithic and mesolithic techno-complexes between the lower Elbe and middle Vistula rivers, introducing farming and husbandry as a major source of food to the pottery-using hunter-gatherers north of this line.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Funnelbeaker_culture

The Corded Ware Culture settlements were also limited to the lowlands in Scandinavia.

Corded Ware culture

The Corded Ware culture (in Middle Europe c. 2900–2450/2350 cal. BC), alternatively characterized as the Battle Axe culture or Single Grave culture; other terms are corded pottery and corded ceramic, the latter being a calque in translations.

It comprises an enormous European archaeological horizon that begins in the late Neolithic (Stone Age), flourishes through the Copper Age and culminates in the early Bronze Age.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Corded_Ware_culture

This Scandinavian Saga is associated with Atlantis according to some authors.

There are many other unique findings Spanuth wrote about, he identified the Atlanteans Plato wrote about who invaded Libya and Egypt as being the mysterious ‘Sea Peoples’ who attacked parts of Southern Europe and North Africa around 1200BC.

Spanuth’s personal identification of Atlantis was with Heligoland, a small Island within the North Sea – just off the coast of Germany.

Jürgen Spanuth’s Atlantis of the North
Wermod and Wermod Publishing Group
http://www.wermodandwermod.com/newsitems/news110820111739.html

http://www.amazon.co.uk/gp/product/0283984953
http://www.amazon.com/Atlantis-north-Jurgen-Spanuth/dp/0442213662

As it happens, more than a decade before geologists focused attention on Doggerland at a 2012 meeting of the British Royal Society, a Frenchman, Jean Deruelle, had published a book making a strongly argumented case for the notoriously elusive “Great Plain” of Atlantis having been situated on now submerged land in the North Sea.

He published his hypotheses in 1999, in a book called “L’Atlantide des Mégalithes,” as part of a broader examination of the spread of megalithic cultures and little studied West to East movements of populations.

The book was published by a reputable publisher of historic books, but received scant attention.

deruelle-atlantide

The “Great Plain” of Atlantis – was it in Doggerland?
The Atlantis of Jean Deruelle
Anne-Marie de Grazia, translation and adaptation
http://www.q-mag.org/the-great-plain-of-atlantis-was-it-in-doggerland.html

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