Chris Busby: UK-US Hydrogen Bomb

Chris Busby UK-US Hydrogen bomb

Chris Busby is a British scientist who [amongst many other things] is the scientific advisor to the Low Level Radiation Campaign.

Christopher Busby (born 1 September 1945) is a British scientist known for his controversial theories about the negative health effects of very low-dose ionising radiation.

Busby is a director of Green Audit Limited, a private company, and scientific advisor to the Low Level Radiation Campaign (LLRC), another private company that he set up in 1999.

Busby was the National Speaker on Science and Technology for the Green Party of England and Wales.

Following the 2011 Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster, Busby established a television and internet presence where he discussed the risks of ionizing radiation and the Japanese Government’s handling of the disaster.

Busby obtained a BSc in Chemistry with First Class Honours from the University of London.

His membership in the Royal Society of Chemistry lapsed in 1984.[citation needed]

He later gained a PhD in chemical physics at the University of Kent, researching Raman spectro-electrochemistry.

In 1999 Busby stood as an Election Candidate for the European Parliamentary elections.

Busby was a member of the British government sponsored Committee Examining Radiation Risks from Internal Emitters (CERRIE), which operated from 2001 to 2004.

In 2001, he was appointed to the UK Ministry of Defence Oversight Committee on Depleted Uranium (DUOB).

Between 2003 and 2007 he was a Fellow of the Faculty of Medicine, University of Liverpool, in the Department of Human Anatomy and Cell Biology, and he was visiting professor at the School of Biomedical Sciences until his retirement in 2012 University of Ulster.

He was then Guest Researcher at Jacobs University Bremen for a year and is currently Scientific Director of Environmental Research SIA in Riga, Latvia.

The Low Level Radiation Campaign

The Low Level Radiation Campaign

Thankfully, Chris Busby goes where others fear to tread or fail.

In 1959 the World Health Organisation entered into an agreement with the International Atomic Energy Agency which gave the unequivocally pro-nuclear IAEA a veto over WHO research into the effects of radiation.

WHO agreement with IAEA
The Low Level Radiation Campaign

The effect of this agreement has been to give the IAEA an effective veto on any actions by the WHO that relate in any way to nuclear power – and so prevent the WHO from playing its proper role in investigating and warning of the dangers of nuclear radiation on human health.

Toxic link: the WHO and the IAEA
The Guardian – World Health Organisation – Opinion – Oliver Tickell – 28 May 2009

Weapons-derived Uranium (WDU) resulting from the oxidation of Uranium is in the form of an aerosol of microscopic particles of Uranium Oxide which are highly mobile and disperse widely.

Uranium in low concentrations is hard to find.

LLRC and colleagues found it in the Lebanon, the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) did not.

The problem was the hardware UNEP used; they are incompetent or they were set up to fail.

UNEP and Weapons-derived Uranium in Lebanon: Don’t look, don’t find
The Low Level Radiation Campaign

Unsurprisingly, Chris Busby is “controversial”.

There are two strands to the Low Level Radiation Campaign’s case:

the scientific basis of radiation protection standards is fundamentally flawed, particularly for internal radiation from radionuclides which, following inhalation or ingestion, become incorporated into body tissue.

there is a lot of evidence of health effects associated with low levels of radioactive pollution, and that these effects are greater than predicted or explained by official models of radiation hazard;

Radiation Protection – Science in Crisis
Flaws in NRPB modelling
The Low Level Radiation Campaign

Christopher Busby (born 1 September 1945) is a British scientist known for his controversial theories about the negative health effects of very low-dose ionising radiation.

Unsurprisingly, Chris Busby has some very curious British legal insights.

Chris Busby also provides some very interesting insights into British history.

”The Americans were supplying the British with enriched uranium”

Enriched uranium is a type of uranium in which the percent composition of uranium-235 has been increased through the process of isotope separation.

Natural uranium is 99.284% 238U isotope, with 235U only constituting about 0.711% of its weight. 235U is the only nuclide existing in nature (in any appreciable amount) that is fissile with thermal neutrons.

Enriched uranium is a critical component for both civil nuclear power generation and military nuclear weapons.

Royal Air Force Greenham Common or RAF Greenham Common is a former Royal Air Force station in Berkshire, England.

The airfield was southeast of Newbury, Berkshire, about 55 miles (89 km) west of London.

On 28 February 1958, a B-47E of the 310th Bomb Wing developed problems shortly after takeoff and jettisoned its two 1,700 gallon external fuel tanks.

They missed their designated safe impact area, and one hit a hangar whilst the other struck the ground 65 feet (20 m) behind a parked B-47E.

The parked B-47E, which was fuelled, had a pilot on board, and was carrying a 1.1 megaton (4.6 PJ) B28 nuclear bomb, was engulfed by flames.

The conflagration took sixteen hours and over a million gallons of water to extinguish, partly because of the magnesium alloys used in the aircraft.

Although two men were killed and eight injured, the US and UK governments kept the accident secret: as late as 1985, the British government claimed that a taxiing aircraft had struck a parked one and that no fire was involved.

Two scientists, F. H. Cripps and A. Stimson, who both worked for the Atomic Weapons Research Establishment at Aldermaston, alleged in a secret 1961 report, released by the CND in 1996, that the fire detonated the high explosives in the nuclear weapon, that plutonium and uranium oxides were spread over a wide area (foliage up to 8 mi (13 km) away was contaminated with uranium-235) and that they had discovered high concentrations of radioactive contamination around the air base.

“The British didn’t know how to make a hydrogen bomb”

The unproven H-bomb designs being developed by British weaponeers required full-scale testing of their capabilities, hence Operation Grapple was carried out as a massive military operation in the Central Pacific, and this was the largest British military operation carried out since World War II.

The preparations for Operation Grapple, including building the necessary structures on Kiritimati, began at the end of May 1956.

About 1,200 civilians and servicemen were sent to Kiritimati during 1956.

The first trial was Grapple, also known as Grapple 1.

All of these nuclear bombs were dropped and detonated over Malden Island.

The first test of this trial was code-named Short Granite.

It was a two-staged nuclear weapon that had a predicted yield of about one megaton.

This bomb was dropped by a Vickers Valiant bomber XD818, piloted by Kenneth Hubbard, off the shore of Malden Island on 15 May 1957.

Weighing about 4,550 kilograms, this bomb exploded with a power of about 300 kilotons, a yield far below its designed capability.

Despite this problem, the British government hailed this test as a successful thermonuclear explosion, and the government announced to the world that the UK had become a thermonuclear power.

While the results of this test were disappointing, the British learned much about radiation implosion in H-bombs.

The next test was Orange Herald.

This was a large fission bomb which was hoped to arm a future ballistic missile.

The bomb was dropped and detonated by a Valiant bomber on 31 May 1957.

It exploded with a force of about 720 kilotons.

The yield was the largest ever achieved by similar bomb designs.

This bomb was hailed by the government as a new type of hydrogen bomb and the fact that it was a fission bomb was kept secret by the government until the end of the Cold War.

A 400 kiloton very-large atomic bomb code-named Green Grass was derived from Orange Herald, and it was deployed during the period before an H-bomb became available.

The last shot of Grapple was Purple Granite.

This was a last minute addition to the operation and was hoped to give an improved yield over Short Granite.

The bomb was detonated on 19 June 1957, with a 150 kiloton yield.

There were other designs that were not tested: Green Bamboo was a single stage thermonuclear bomb similar to the Soviet Joe-4, and Orange Herald (large) was a “political bomb”: a large fission bomb that was not suitable for use as a weapon but was certain to give a high yield ensuring that Britain would not appear as a failed nuclear power.

The two Granites and Green Bamboo were designed to achieve high yields by using the Li-6 D/U-238 cycle rather than the large-scale fusion of deuterium achieved at Grapple-Y.

Following the disappointing results of the first Grapple trial, Grapple X was conducted at Kiritimati. For Grapple X, the bombs were exploded over Kiritimati instead of over Malden Island to save time and money.

With the experience and knowledge gained from the first Grapple tests, the weaponeers had developed a new H-bomb design with a 50 percent more powerful fission primary stage and a simplified thermonuclear secondary.

Grapple X was dropped and detonated over the southern end of Kiritimati on 8 November 1957.

The two-stage thermonuclear bomb exploded with a yield of about 1.8 megatons.

This was close to being the real hydrogen bomb Britain wanted, but used a relatively large quantity of (expensive) highly enriched uranium.

The explosion did some damage to the island, resulting in some demolished and damaged military buildings.

This damage was due to the higher-than-expected yield of the explosion.

Grapple X was spectacularly successful, exceeding its predicted yield of one megaton by about 80 percent.

The UK had become a thermonuclear power with the detonation of Grapple X.

Which suggests Suez was a very slick stealth operation set-up to supplant the independent English Eden with the American amenable Supermac.

Robert Anthony Eden, 1st Earl of Avon, KG, MC, PC (12 June 1897 – 14 January 1977) was a British Conservative politician who served three periods as Foreign Secretary and then a relatively brief term as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1955 to 1957.

His worldwide reputation as an opponent of appeasement, a “Man of Peace”, and a skilled diplomat was overshadowed in 1956 when the United States refused to support the Anglo-French military response to the Suez Crisis, which critics across party lines regarded as an historic setback for British foreign policy, signalling the end of British predominance in the Middle East.

Most historians argue that he made a series of blunders, especially not realising the depth of the United States’ opposition to military action.

After the Suez Crisis he resigned as Prime Minister on grounds of ill health, and because he was widely suspected of having misled the House of Commons over the degree of “collusion” between Britain and Israel.

In April 1955 Churchill finally retired, and Eden succeeded him as Prime Minister.

The alliance with the US proved not universal, however, when in July 1956 Gamal Abdel Nasser, President of Egypt, unexpectedly nationalised (seized) the Suez Canal, following the withdrawal of Anglo-American funding for the Aswan Dam.

Eden believed the nationalisation was in violation of the Anglo-Egyptian Agreement that Nasser had signed with the British and French governments on 19 October 1954.

Eden feared that Nasser intended to form an Arab Alliance that would threaten to cut off oil supplies to Europe and, in conjunction with France, decided he should be removed from power.

Anthony Nutting recalled that Eden told him, “What’s all this nonsense about isolating Nasser or ‘neutralising’ him as you call it? I want him destroyed, can’t you understand? I want him murdered, and if you and the Foreign Office don’t agree, then you’d better come to the cabinet and explain why.”

When Nutting pointed out that they had no alternative government to replace Nasser, Eden apparently replied, “I don’t give a damn if there’s anarchy and chaos in Egypt.”

When Nutting suggested the Americans should be consulted Eden replied, “I will not bring the Americans into this … Dulles has done enough damage as it is. This has nothing to do with the Americans. We and the French must decide what to do and we alone.

Eden’s life was changed forever by a medical mishap: during an operation on 12 April 1953 to remove gallstones his bile duct was damaged, leaving him susceptible to recurrent infections, biliary obstruction and liver failure.

He suffered from cholangitis, an abdominal infection which became so agonising that he was admitted to hospital in 1956 with a temperature reaching 106 °F (41 °C).

He required major surgery on three occasions to alleviate the problem.

Eden would almost certainly have become Prime Minister when Churchill suffered a severe stroke on 23 June 1953, had he not been recovering from corrective surgery in the United States on the same day.

He was also prescribed Benzedrine, the wonder drug of the 1950s.

Regarded then as a harmless stimulant, it belongs to the family of drugs called amphetamines, and at that time they were prescribed and used in a very casual way.

Among the side effects of Benzedrine are insomnia, restlessness and mood swings, all of which Eden suffered during the Suez Crisis; indeed, earlier in his premiership he complained of being kept awake at night by the sound of motor scooters.

Eden’s drug use is now commonly agreed to have been a part of the reason for his bad judgment while Prime Minister.

Eden was secretly hospitalised with a high fever, possibly as a result of his heavy medication, on 5–8 October 1956.

He underwent further surgery at a New York hospital in April 1957.

In November 2006 private papers uncovered in the Eden family archives disclosed that he had been prescribed a powerful combination of amphetamines and barbiturates called drinamyl.

Better known in post-war Britain as “purple hearts”, they can impair judgement, cause paranoia and even make the person taking them lose contact with reality.

Maurice Harold Macmillan, 1st Earl of Stockton, OM, PC, FRS[2] (10 February 1894 – 29 December 1986) was a British Conservative politician and statesman who served as the Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 10 January 1957 to 18 October 1963, nicknamed “Supermac” and known for his pragmatism, wit and unflappability.

When Eden resigned in 1957 after the Suez Crisis, Macmillan succeeded him as Prime Minister.

In international affairs, Macmillan rebuilt the special relationship with the United States from the wreckage of the Suez Crisis (of which he had been one of the architects), and redrew the world map by decolonising sub-Saharan Africa.

Reconfiguring the nation’s defences to meet the realities of the nuclear age, he ended National Service, strengthened the nuclear forces by acquiring Polaris, and pioneered the Nuclear Test Ban with the United States and the Soviet Union.

According to Labour Shadow Chancellor Harold Wilson, Macmillan was ‘first in, first out’: first very supportive of the invasion, then a prime mover in Britain’s humiliating withdrawal in the wake of the financial crisis caused by pressure from the US government.
Macmillan threatened to resign if force was not used against Nasser.

He was heavily involved in the secret planning of the invasion with France and Israel.

It was he who first suggested collusion with Israel.

Macmillan met Eisenhower privately on 25 September 1956 and convinced himself that the US would not oppose the invasion, despite the misgivings of the British Ambassador, Sir Roger Makins, who was also present.

Macmillan failed to heed a warning from Secretary of State John Foster Dulles that whatever the British government did should wait until after the US presidential election on 6 November, and failed to report Dulles’ remarks to Eden.

The treasury was his portfolio, but he did not recognise the financial disaster that could result from US government actions.

The US government refused any financial help until Britain withdrew its forces from Egypt.

When he did realise this, he changed his mind and called for withdrawal on US terms, while exaggerating the financial crisis.

Macmillan tried, but failed, to see Eisenhower (who was also refusing to see Foreign Secretary Selwyn Lloyd) behind Butler’s and Eden’s back.

Macmillan had a number of meetings with US Ambassador Winthrop Aldrich, in which he said that if he were Prime Minister the US Administration would find him much more amenable.

Eisenhower encouraged Aldrich to have further meetings.

Macmillan and Butler met Aldrich on 21 November.

Eisenhower spoke highly of Macmillan (“A straight, fine man, and so far as he is concerned, the outstanding one of the British he served with during the war”).

Macmillan had further meetings with Aldrich and Winston Churchill after Eden left for Jamaica (23 November) whilst briefing journalists (disingenuously) that he planned to retire and go to the Lords.

He was also hinting that he would not serve under Butler.

His political standing destroyed, Eden resigned on grounds of ill health on 9 January 1957.

At that time the Conservative Party had no formal mechanism for selecting a new leader, and the Queen appointed Macmillan Prime Minister after taking advice from Churchill and the Marquess of Salisbury, who had asked the Cabinet individually for their opinions, all but two or three opting for Macmillan.

This surprised some observers who had expected that Eden’s deputy Rab Butler would be chosen.

From the early days of the Polaris program, American Senators and naval officers suggested that the United Kingdom might use Polaris.

In 1957 Chief of Naval Operations Arleigh Burke and First Sea Lord Louis Mountbatten began corresponding on the project.

And the rest is history…

Nuclear Weapons and Foreign Policy – Henry Kissinger
Harper and Brothers: New York – Year of publication – 1957

According to Kissinger, the “task of the strategic doctrine is to translate power into policy”.

Book review – Yogesh Joshi – Research Officer
The Institute of Peace and Conflict Studies (IPCS)

English Bulldog


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7 Responses to Chris Busby: UK-US Hydrogen Bomb

  1. Roger says:

    Chris Busby is not a scientific advisor to the LLRC; he owns the LLRC and pretends that is a “campaign” when it is in reality a very close held private company consisting of Busby and other cronies who have no scientific education whatsoever. Why did you post this here and why do you not have a contact me address for this site?

  2. malagabay says:

    Chris Busby is not a scientific advisor to the LLRC; he owns the LLRC and pretends that is a “campaign” when it is in reality a very close held private company consisting of Busby and other cronies who have no scientific education whatsoever.

    The included quote from Wikipedia states that LLRC is a “private company” and that Chris Busby is a “scientific advisor” to LLRC.

    Busby is a director of Green Audit Limited, a private company, and scientific advisor to the Low Level Radiation Campaign (LLRC), another private company that he set up in 1999.

    In these days of State Education I would guess that very few people manage to escape with “no scientific education whatsoever” and my personal perception is that a formal education is not a prerequisite for using the Scientific Method.

    One of the last areas in Europe to adopt a compulsory system was England and Wales, where the Elementary Education Act of 1870 paved the way by establishing school boards to set up schools in any places that did not have adequate provision.

    Attendance was made compulsory until age 10 in 1880.

    The Fisher Education Act 1918 made secondary education compulsory up to age 14 and gave responsibility for secondary schools to the state.

    Under the Act, many higher elementary schools and endowed grammar school sought to become state funded central schools or secondary schools.

    The Education Act 1944, relating to England and Wales, authored by Rab Butler and sometimes known as “the Butler Act”, defined the modern split between primary education and secondary education at age 11; it also established the Tripartite System, consisting of grammar schools, secondary modern schools and secondary technical schools.

    Education was made compulsory to age 15 in 1947.

    In 1964, preparations had begun to raise the school leaving age to 16 to be enforced from 1 September 1973 onwards.

    Why did you post this here

    In my opinion:
    The science is never settled – but hypotheses can be falsified.

    Therefore, in my opinion, it is beneficial to encourage a free and open debate where dissenting or controversial opinions/data can be expressed and discussed.

    The reader is always free [and encouraged] to arrive at their own conclusions.

    why do you not have a contact me address for this site?

    Contact can be made at any time using the comment facility.

    Kind Regards
    Tim Cullen

  3. Roger says:

    The Wikipedia article is written by Busby or his minions. Do not believe all that you read there. Busby is not really a scientist. He plays the part very well. He has a PhD in Chemical Physics, but has done no actual scientific research with regards to radiation, nuclear weapons, nuclear power plants or depleted uranium. He has produced papers and many videos, but they have no real scientific backing. I prefer direct e-mail contact and to know exactly who the person is on the other end. Thank you.

  4. Roger says:

    If you are in the UK, are you familiar with Companies House. They are where records of companies are filed. Busby names his Private companies to make them look they are organizations with many members. He is not even in the UK any more and Companies House reports that Green Audit no longer exists. In fact, I could find no record of it in their current database. In looking for Heather M Curry, I found an interesting chart at – her name was not readily available under the old Companies House website. Much information is now free that required payment before.

  5. Roger says:

    Richard Bramhall filed the paperwork for the LLRC, but Bramhall is nothing more than a toadie for Busby and his wife is also a director. This company has always been bogus. The name sounds really important – the Low Level Radiation Campaign – you get the idea that there hundreds, perhaps thousands of people in the campaign and all it really is a Busby toadie and friends. I am going to see if I can contact people who have resigned and ask them why now that much fuller records are readily available. Expect that they may have some interesting stories to tell.

  6. PeterMG says:

    Interesting stuff about the British Hydrogen bomb. Not sure about the low dose radiation bit. Lots of people campaign about the dangers of low dose radiation, but to me its a bit like CO2 radiative forcing of climate or another bogey of the environmental movement asbestos where two completely different chemical compounds have the same colloquial name, but vastly different chemical behaviour in the body, oh and I could throw in particulates as well, but only those from diesel engines seem to count.

    But to stick to low dose radiation there is this counter to it being a danger, and perhaps its necessary to life.

    But interestingly is there a difference from ingesting radio active material, as opposed to being exposed to the same level of radiation from outside the body? Perhaps this is the difference. Another point I would like to make, radiation must have been tremendous during the electrical events of recent times, and would have contributed to the almost complete elimination of life in the open during these events. Is this why we only find hints of these events in caves which afforded some protection. Also those that did survive on the periphery of these events must surly have been those with some resistance to low dose radiation, or is it we have developed a need for that radiation. There is a study from Japan that shows those on the periphery of Hiroshima and Nagasaki had a longer than average life expectancy. Was this down to low dose radiation or was it due to the “under the microscope” medical care this group received. Sorry I can’t lay my hands on the link to this at present.

    So to my way of thinking, as well as allowing dissenting voices we need to be looking at the correct history so as not to be dissenting about something irrelevant, and need to be asking the correct questions.

  7. Solon says:

    Galen Winsor, videos available on Youtube, tells a very different story about radiation and also an account of how the reactor information was given to the Russians very soon after Fermi had the first chain reaction going. Seems like a genuine guy to me.

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