Henry O’Brien and The Round Towers

Henry O'Brien and The Round Towers

In 1833 the Anaemic Academics didn’t embrace Henry O’Brien’s hypothesis that the Round Towers of Ireland were constructed as phallic temples in the pre-Christian era because his observations [and evidence] contradicted their sanitised historical narrative that had been established by the Machiavellian Monasteries after the Heinsohn Horizon.

Aided and abetted by Anaemic Academics the Machiavellian Monasteries have rewritten history to effectively mask the round tower cultures that existed before the Heinsohn Horizon but they haven’t managed to physically eliminate all of these ancient round towers.

See: https://malagabay.wordpress.com/2016/02/27/the-heinsohn-horizon-and-the-round-towers/

The Anaemic Academics in 1833 refused to acknowledge that the Sea Peoples migrations [1275 to 1000 BCE] coincided with the arrival of invaders in Ireland in 1202 BCE.

From a careful study of Eastern records and Sabaism, the author is led to take up the position that the round towers were constructed by early Indian colonists of Ireland (the Tuath-de-danaans), in honour of ” the fructifying principle of nature,” of which the sun and moon are representative.

The duration of Tuath-de-danaan supremacy may have been some six centuries, dating from the first battle of Moytura, in B.C. 1202, to the second battle, in or about B.C. 600.

Introduction by W. H. C. – London – 1897
The Round Towers of Ireland – Henry O’Brien – 1898
https://archive.org/details/roundtowersirel00obrgoog

According to the mainstream the Sea Peoples were active “seafaring raiders” for about 275 years between 1275 and 1000 BCE.

See: https://malagabay.wordpress.com/2016/02/18/deja-vu-vikings/

The Anaemic Academics in 1833 also refused to accept that the Sea Peoples migrations [1275 to 1000 BCE] might have been triggered by a natural catastrophe.

According to tradition preserved in the collection of sacred books known as the Zendavesta, the original seat of that people was the Eriene-Veedjo, a district situated in the north-western highlands of Asia, of great fertility, and enjoying a singularly mild climate, having seven months of summer and five of winter.

Then ” the death-dealing Ahriman smote it with the plague of cold, so that it came to have ten months of winter and only two of summer “ ; and was in consequence deserted by its inhabitants, who gradually overspread the low-lying countries, as far south as the Indus, including Fars, as Persia was then termed.

Introduction by W. H. C. – London – 1897
The Round Towers of Ireland – Henry O’Brien – 1898
https://archive.org/details/roundtowersirel00obrgoog

The Anaemic Academics also weren’t ready [in 1833] to embrace the idea that Iran and Ireland share an ancient heritage that dates back to about 600 BCE.

the colonisation of the island by a highly-cultured race, such as were the ancient people of Iran (Persia).

the Tuath-de-danaan settlers in Ireland and their Scythian (or Milesian) conquerors

Recurring to the affinity of Ireland with ancient Persia (Iran), the history of the latter country is traced from its settlement by the Aryans.

The name Erin, together with its Greek form Ierne, and its Latin transmutation Hibemia, is shown to be identical with Iran, the ancient name of Persia, which, modified into Irin, was applied by the Greek historians to the ” Sacred Island ” of the West.

Developing this last argument, our author shows that, while Iran (or ” the sacred land “) was a name applied to both Persia and Ireland, the form Irin (Sacred Island) is exclusively applied to Ireland, and that Irc, Eri, Ere, and Erin are but modifications of the latter.

Introduction by W. H. C. – London – 1897
The Round Towers of Ireland – Henry O’Brien – 1898
https://archive.org/details/roundtowersirel00obrgoog

Sadly, 183 years later, the Anaemic Academics still prefer to consign the evidence presented by Henry O’Brien to the realms of the supernatural and mythology.

The Tuatha Dé Danann (usually translated as “people(s)/tribe(s) of the goddess Danu”), also known by the earlier name Tuath Dé (“tribe of the gods”), are a supernatural race in Irish mythology.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tuatha_D%C3%A9_Danann

In Greek mythology Danaus, was the twin brother of Aegyptus, a mythical king of Egypt.

The myth of Danaus is a foundation legend (or re-foundation legend) of Argos, one of the foremost Mycenaean cities of the Peloponnesus.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Danaus

For anyone seeking the unvarnished truth or refreshing ideas then the historical narrative presented by Henry O’Brien is very striking and very thought provoking.

Unfortunately, the writing style of Henry O’Brien is very long winded and his narrative contains many unfamiliar terms that the Anaemic Academics have banished from their historical narrative.

However, a 1898 reprint of Henry O’Brien’s historical narrative contains a condensed synopsis which is more accessible.

Therefore, please find below an annotated form of the synopsis which includes modern images and external references [blue text] which will hopefully aid comprehension.

But, be warned, you may have to re-read the synopsis several times as you re-calibrate your thinking and inwardly digest the salient points of Henry O’Brien’s historical narrative which begins to shed light on far wider issues such a how the Hopi Snake Dance [performed in Arizona] was imported from India.

Dashed Line

1898 Edtion

https://archive.org/stream/roundtowersirel00obrgoog

Dashed Line

SYNOPSIS

CHAPTER I (Pp. 1-15)

The book opens with a preliminary statement, in general terms, of the object which its author has in view.

It is to prove that the round towers date from a more remote antiquity than that usually assigned to them ; that they were, in fact, erected long before Christianity reached these islands, and even before the date of the Milesian and Scandinavian invasions.

In the Lebor Gabála Érenn, a medieval Irish Christian pseudo-history, the Milesians are the final race to settle in Ireland.

They represent the Irish people.

The Milesians are Gaels who sail to Ireland from Iberia after spending hundreds of years travelling the earth.

When they land in Ireland they contend with the Tuatha Dé Danann, who represent the pagan gods.

The two groups agree to divide Ireland between them: the Milesians take the world above, while the Tuath Dé take the world below (i.e. the Otherworld).

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Milesians_%28Irish%29

The Tuath(a) Dé Danann (usually translated as “people(s)/tribe(s) of the goddess Danu”), also known by the earlier name Tuath Dé (“tribe of the gods”), are a supernatural race in Irish mythology.

They are thought to represent the main deities of pre-Christian Gaelic Ireland.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tuatha_D%C3%A9_Danann

In support of this view, he contrasts the materials, architecture, and costliness of their construction with those of the early Christian churches usually found in their vicinity (cf. p. 514), and accounts for the contiguity of the latter by stating that the Christian missionaries selected, as the sites of their churches, localities previously consecrated to religious use, in order that they might thereby “conciliate the prejudices of those whom they would fain persuade”; whilst he points out that a Christian origin has not been claimed for Cromleachs and Mithratic caves, in the vicinity of which ecclesiastical remains likewise abound.

Cromlech (from Welsh crom, feminine form of crym “bent, curved” and llech “slab, flagstone”) is a term used to describe prehistoric megalithic structures.

The term is now virtually obsolete in archaeology, but remains in use as a colloquial term for two different types of megalithic monument.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cromlech

Cromlech

That most common of all Celtic monuments, the Cromleach,* which is to be found not only in most parts of Europe, but also in Asia, and exhibits , in the strength and simplicity of its materials, the true character of the workmanship of antiquity, is also to be found, in various shapes and sizes, amoug the monuments of Ireland.

Of these I shall notice only such as have attracted most the attention of our antiquaries, in the neighbourhood of Dundalk, in the county of Louth, we are told of a large Cromleach, or altar, which fell to ruin some time since, and whose site is described as being by the side of a river, ” between two Druid groves.”

On digging beneath the ruins, there was found a great part of the skeleton of a human figure, which bore the appearance of having been originally enclosed in an urn.

There were also, mixed up with the bones, the fragments of a broken rod or wand, which was supposed to have been a part of the insignia of the person there interred, and might possibly have been that badge of the Druidical office which is still called, in Ireland, the
conjuror’s or Druid’s wand.

In the neighbourhood of this ruined Cromleach is another, called by the inhabitants “ the Giant’s Load,” from the tradition attached to most of these monuments, that they were the works of giants in the times of old.

At Castle-Mary, near Cloyne, are seen the remains of a large Cromleach, called in Irish Carig Croith, or the Rock of the Sun, – one of those names which point so significantly to the ancient worship of the country ; and, in the same county, near Glanworth, stands a monument of this kind, called Labacolly, or the Hag’s Bed, of such dimensions as to form a chamber about twenty-five feet long and six feet wide.

* So called in Irish. “ It is remarkable that all the ancient altars found in Ireland, and now distinguished by the name of Cromleachs or sloping stones, were originally called Bothal, or the House of God, and they seem to be of the same species as those mentioned in the Book of Genesis, called by the Hebrews, Bethel which has the same signification as the Irish Bothal.
Beauford, Druidism Revived, Collect. Hibern. No. 7.

The History of Ireland – Thomas Moore – 1835
https://archive.org/details/historyireland01moorgoog

Mithra is the Zoroastrian angelic Divinity (yazata) of Covenant and Oath.

In addition to being the Divinity of Contracts, Mithra is also a judicial figure, an all-seeing Protector of Truth, and the Guardian of Cattle, the Harvest and of The Waters.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mithra

The Romans regarded the mysteries as having Persian or Zoroastrian sources.

Since the early 1970s the dominant scholarship has noted dissimilarities between Persian Mithra-worship and the Roman Mithraic mysteries.

In this context, Mithraism has sometimes been viewed as a rival of early Christianity with similarities such as liberator-saviour, hierarchy of adepts (archbishops, bishops, priests), communal meal and a hard struggle of Good and Evil (bull-killing/crucifixion).

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mithras

Mithraic altarpiece

On the other hand, he insists that the general structure and decorative symbolism of the round towers is clearly indicative of pagan times and a pagan origin, more especially of that primitive form of paganism which, originating in Chaldea, diffused itself eastward until it overspread a considerable part of Asia, and which is known as Sabaism.

Chaldea was a small Semitic nation that emerged between the late 10th and early 9th century BC, surviving until the mid 6th century BC, after which it disappeared as the Chaldean tribes were absorbed into the native population of Babylonia.

It was located in the marshy land of the far southeastern corner of Mesopotamia, and briefly came to rule Babylon.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chaldea

The Sabians of Middle Eastern tradition were a religious group mentioned three times in the Quran as a people of the Book, “the Jews, the Sabians, and the Christians”.

In the hadith, they were described merely as converts to Islam, but interest in the identity and history of the group increased over time.

Discussions and investigations of the Sabians began to appear in later Islamic literature.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sabians

Dissenting from the theories of his predecessors in the same field of inquiry, he rejects the various theories that the round towers were intended as ” purgatorial columns,” or ” beacons,” or ” belfries,” or ” dungeons,” or ” anchorite-cells,” or ” places of retreat ” in the case of hostile invasion, or ” depositories ” for State records, Church utensils, or national treasures ; and he states as his conviction, based on examination of their structure, that it was not the intention of their founders to limit their use to any one specific purpose.

CHAPTER II (Pp. 16-32)

Following up this line of argument, he attacks Montmorency, who had maintained that the founders of the round towers were “primitive Cenobites and bishops, munificently supported in the undertaking by the newly-converted kings and toparchs ; the builders and architects being those monks and pilgrims who, from Greece and Rome, either preceded or accompanied the early missionaries of the fifth and sixth centuries.”

Cenobitic (or coenobitic) monasticism is a monastic tradition that stresses community life.

Often in the West, the community belongs to a religious order and the life of the cenobitic monk is regulated by a religious rule, a collection of precepts.

The older style of monasticism, to live as a hermit, is called eremitic; and a third form of monasticism, found primarily in the East, is the skete.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cenobitic_monasticism

Reserving, a detailed refutation of this theory for subsequent chapters, he contents himself for the present with showing that it rests upon mere assumption, which is not borne out by the evidence adduced in corroboration thereof; and exposes the fallacy of Montmorency’s argument, that pre-Christian Ireland was in a state of barbarism which precluded the possibility of such structures as the round towers being erected by its inhabitants.

He further deals with the objections, that the bards do not allude to these towers as existent in their time, that those undoubtedly ancient excavations, the Mithratic caves, are never found in the vicinity of round towers, and that the limited nature of their accommodation made them serviceable only for some such purpose as that of a belfry or dungeon.

With Vallancey’s views he finds himself more in sympathy, but is unable to adopt them unreservedly – preferring, as he puts it, to chalk out his own road.

CHAPTER III (Pp. 33-47)

Continuing his attack upon Montmorency, the author points out that the towers erected elsewhere by Coenobite associations are always square, not round, and that any argument based upon the elevated position of the entrances to both classes of edifices would apply equally to the pyramids.

He shows that the round towers could not have been intended as places of refuge, or as depositories of ecclesiastical treasures, and adduces historical proof that the structures known as ” belfries ” were wholly different.

Alluding to the supposed band of voluntary Coenobite workmen under Saint Abban, he points out that their building operations must necessarily have been carried on in the midst of a raging war; that although they must have availed themselves of native assistance in the work, yet the Irish of the early Christian period betray not the slightest knowledge of the art of building; that the building of round towers ceased quite suddenly, almost immediately after the introduction of Christianity : that the native Irish have never attributed these towers to such an origin ; that, so far from being, as Montmorency alleges, assisted by the munificence of native princes, the Coenobite monks must have had to deal with absolute pagans, who would regard their labour with anything but approval ; and that the fact of ” kills,” or remains of Christian churches, being found in the vicinity of Cromleachs, Mithratic caves, and round towers is simply the result of the reverence felt by the pagan converts for the scenes and associations of their old belief, and affords no ground for supposing that the churches were coeval with the latter.

Subsequently he cites the instance of a round tower without any church near it.

CHAPTER IV (Pp. 48-62)

In tracing the origin and purpose of the round towers, our author is led to consider the names given them in ancient records and Irish folk-lore.

The stunted ruin of Bally-Carbery Round Tower, near his own birthplace, was, he found, known to the peasantry as the ” Cathoir ghall,” ie. “the temple of brightness or delight,” whilst both in the Annals of the Four Masters, the Ulster Annals, and the Annals of Innisfailen these towers are included in the generic name Fiadh-Neimhedh, as contrasted with the names Cloic teacha and Erdam applied to ” belfries,” thus showing that the two kinds of structures are perfectly distinct.

He finds that Fiadh-Nemeadth in all preceding writers on the subject is held to apply specifically to the round towers, though some of these writers (e,g, Colgan and O’Connor) have wrested its meaning to support their own particular views, and the true import of this term he subsequently explains to be “consecrated Lingams”, or phallic temples.

The ” belfry ” and the gnomon, or ” celestial index,” theories are thus exploded.

From historical evidence he is further led to assume that Ireland is identical with the Insula
Hyperboreorum of the ancients, and that the legendary mission of the Boreadan Abaris to Delos took place during the Scythian occupation of Ireland.

The Scythians, also known as Scyth, Saka, Sakae, Sacae, Sai, Iskuzai, or Askuzai, were a large group of Iranian Eurasian nomads who were mentioned by the literate peoples surrounding them as inhabiting large areas in the central Eurasian steppes from about the 9th century BC until about the 1st century BC.

The Scythian languages belonged to the Eastern branch of the Iranian languages.

The “classical Scythians” known to ancient Greek historians were located in the northern Black Sea and fore-Caucasus region.

Other Scythian groups documented by Assyrian, Achaemenid and Chinese sources show that they also existed in Central Asia, where they were referred to as the Iskuzai/Askuzai, Saka, and Sai, respectively.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Scythians

Scythians

This friendly communication between the ancient Irish and the Greeks he attributes to their having sprung from a common stock – the Pelasgi and the Tuatha Dé Dananns belonging to “the same time as the Indo-Scythae, or Chaldean Magi”

The name Pelasgians was used by some ancient Greek writers to refer to populations that were either the ancestors of the Greeks or preceded the Greeks in Greece, “a hold-all term for any ancient, primitive and presumably indigenous people in the Greek world”.

In general, “Pelasgian” has come to mean more broadly all the indigenous inhabitants of the Aegean Sea region and their cultures before the advent of the Greek language.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pelasgians

He traces briefly the relations between the Tuath-de-danaan settlers in Ireland and their Scythian (or Milesian) conquerors, and shows that to the former is due the high state of civilisation and learning for which ancient Ireland was distinguished, and which degenerated under Scythian rule; and concludes with a general statement as to the prevalence of Sabaib worship therein, and the phallic configuration of the round towers.

CHAPTER V (Pp. 63-76)

Being now fairly launched on the subject of Sabaism, or worship of natural manifestations of the divine energy, he traces its origin, development, and decadence into idolatry.

Amid the heterogeneous confusion of beliefs that seem to have sprung up among the descendants of Noah, Nimrod introduced the worship of the sun as a deity, but only as a part of that general Sabaism which included the whole ” host of heaven ” as objects of worship, and recognised the Godhead, of which they were simply manifestations, under the names of Baal and Moloch.

Moloch

Baal, properly Baʿal, was a title and honorific meaning “lord” in the Northwest Semitic languages spoken in the Levant during antiquity.

From its use among people, it came to be applied to gods.

Scholars previously associated the theonym with solar cults and with a variety of unrelated patron deities, but inscriptions have shown that the name Baʿal was particularly associated with the storm and fertility god Hadad and his local manifestations.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Baal

Moloch is the Biblical name of an ancient Canaanite god associated with a particular kind of propitiatory child sacrifice by parents.

Rabbinical tradition depicted Moloch as a bronze statue heated with fire into which the victims were thrown.

This has been associated with reports by Greco-Roman authors on the child sacrifices in Carthage to Baal Hammon, especially since archaeological excavations since the 1920s have produced evidence for child sacrifice in Carthage as well as inscriptions including the term MLK, either a theonym or a technical term associated with sacrifice.

In interpretatio graeca, the Phoenician god was identified with Cronus, due to the parallel mytheme of Cronus devouring his children.

Ugarit

Ugarit was an ancient port city, the ruins of which are located at what is now called Ras Shamra, a headland in northern Syria.

Ugarit had close connections to the Hittite Empire, sent tribute to Egypt at times, and maintained trade and diplomatic connections with Cyprus (then called Alashiya), documented in the archives recovered from the site and corroborated by Mycenaean and Cypriot pottery found there.

The polity was at its height from ca. 1450 BC until 1200 BC.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ras_Shamra

Gradually, the creature was substituted for the Creator, and their names, especially the former (Bolati), were applied to the sun, ” as the source and dispenser of all earthly favours,” while to the moon was attributed a corresponding reverence under the name Baaltis, though in both cases the object of internal regard was intended to be Nature, or ” the fructifying germ of universal generativeness.”

Baaltis

Baaltis, Baalat or Baalat Gebal, in the mythology of the Middle East , is the name given to a female deity who accompanied Baal.

It was considered by the Phoenicians and Syrians as the wife or sister of this god.

As Ba’alat Gebal or “Lady of Byblos” was the goddess of the city of Byblos , Phoenicia in ancient times.

For the Greeks it was known as Baaltis well as Atargatis.

It was generally identified with the goddess pan-Semite ‘Ashtart ( Astarte ) and like it, equated to the goddess Aphrodite – Venus or Diana and sometimes as the wife of Saturn and were counted as the lady of life.

For the Phoenician Sanchuniathon would be the sister Astarte and Ashtaroth and called Dione, meaning that both Astarot identified as the mother of the Greek Aphrodite, the goddess titan Dione .

To Sanchuniathon, Baaltis / Dione, as Ashtaroth and Astarte, was the sister and wife of ‘El and points out that gave birth to the daughters of him and it was he who gave the city of Biblos.

Iconographically is represented as Astarte or aspects of it or similar goddesses with two tall vertical feathers on her headdress.

Baalat temple at Byblos was built around 2700. C. begin to appear Egyptian dedications from the second to the sixth Egyptian dynasties.

Two of these inscriptions equate Baalat with the Egyptian goddess Hathor , one of them in a sphinx found in Serabit el-Khadim in the Sinai , where Sinaitic script is deciphered “beloved Baalat” equivalent to “beloved of Hathor” but also it gives the reference to Qudšu ( Qades ) which is Astarot.

https://es.wikipedia.org/wiki/Baaltis (via Google translation)

From the tendency of man to the concrete, this central idea was soon lost sight of, and the material element put in its place – hence came Fire-worship.

Originating in Chaldea, this degenerated form of Sabaism in course of time spread eastward until it reached Persia, where eventually there seems to have been a reversion to the principle which underlay it, i.e. that of generation and nutrition, in which form it afterwards extended to India.

Though fire was the ostensible object of worship, the sun and moon, from which that worship originated, were regarded and reverenced as ” the procreative causes of general fecundity,” with which was coupled the notion of regeneration after dissolution of the body.

Hence when, as will appear hereafter, Eastern Sabaism was introduced into Ireland by the Tuath-de-danaans, the round towers created by them as temples of their worship had both a phallic and sepulchral meaning.

CHAPTER VI (Pp. 77-90)

That purer form of Sabaism in which the central idea of ” the All-good and All-great One ” predominated over materialism, seems to have prevailed in ancient Egypt, and to a more definite extent in India, whilst in both these countries, and also in Ireland, its material side led to the cultivation of astronomy.

Hence the pyramids of Egypt, the pagodas of India, and the round towers of Ireland had both a religious and a scientific purpose.

There is no ground, however, for supposing that the round towers were ” fire-temples.”

Though temples of the latter kind undoubtedly exist in Ireland, their structure is altogether different, and they evidently belong to a later period, showing, in fact, traces of an Italian origin.

Fire-worship was probably introduced into Italy from Greece, where it had been practised by the old Pelasgic stock, who, on their expulsion from Thessaly, settled in Etruria, bringing their worship with them.

CHAPTER VIII (Pp. 91-106)

From a careful study of Eastern records and Sabaism, the author is led to take up the position that the round towers were constructed by early Indian colonists of Ireland (the Tuath-de-danaans), in honour of ” the fructifying principle of nature,” of which the sun and moon are representative.

The emblem of this principle was the phallus in the case of the sun, and the crescent in that of the moon.

The round tower was simply a monumental phallus, which fact is taken to explain the terms ” Cathoir ghall ” and ” Fidh-Nemphed ” to which he alludes in chap, iv. ; whilst the crescent ornament by which many of these towers were surmounted is symbolical of the female nature.

A corroboration of this theory is found in the circumstance that the name Budh, by which these towers are ” critically and accurately designated, signifies in Irish, first, the sun, and secondly, what phallus does in Greek and Latin,” a view which is supported by the analogy of Egyptian sun and moon worship.

CHAPTER IX (Pp. 107-126)

Having thus committed himself to the view that the paganism which founded the Irish Round Towers was a religion of which Budh (i.e. the sun and the phallus) was the central idea, and which, therefore, resembled in its essence the faiths of India and Egypt, the author proceeds to trace the origin of this religion.

In India the latter is known as Buddhism, or that form of Sabaism taught by Buddha ; but the author is persuaded that there never was such a person as Buddha – at least, when the religion first shot into life, which was almost as early as the creation of man – though in later times several enthusiasts assumed that name.

The origin of the religion was, in fact, ” an abstract thought,” which cannot easily be expressed iwords until it is reduced to the materialised forms of that practical Sabaism which each nation framed for itself, and which consisted in the worship of generative and productive power under its various manifestations.

Hence the objects of worship ranged from the sun and moon even to agricultural operations, and, of course, included sexual physiology.

Linga Temple

Indian Buddhism worshipped the Lingam (or phallus) as the emblem of Budh (ie. the Sun), but without any sensual alloy in such reverence, which, in fact, necessitated the observance of a strict moral code.

Among other requirements of this code was the performance of works of charity, Dana (i,e, the giving of alms), and the religionists were hence called Danaans or Almoners.

The bearing of all this upon Irish paganism is explained by referring to the intimate connection that in early times existed between Ireland and the East, from whence its Tuath-de-danaan colonists were derived.

The name Erin, together with its Greek form Ierne, and its Latin transmutation Hibemia, is shown to be identical with Iran, the ancient name of Persia, which, modified into Irin, was applied by the Greek historians to the ” Sacred Island ” of the West, and recognised by Gildas and Ordericus Vitalis as the established designation of Ireland in their time.

In Irish mythology, Ériu (Irish pronunciation: [ˈeːrʲu]; modern Irish Éire), also called Eri, daughter of Ernmas of the Tuatha Dé Danann, was the eponymous matron goddess of Ireland.

The English name for Ireland comes from the name Ériu and the Germanic (Old Norse or Old English) word land.

Since Ériu is represented as goddess of Ireland, she is often interpreted as a modern-day personification of Ireland, although since the name “Ériu” is the older Irish form of the word Ireland, her modern name is often modified to “Éire” or “Erin” to suit a modern form.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/%C3%89riu

CHAPTER X (Pp. 127-141)

Developing this last argument, our author shows that, while Iran (or ” the sacred land “) was a name applied to both Persia and Ireland, the form Irin (Sacred Island) is exclusively applied to Ireland, and that Irc, Eri, Ere, and Erin are but modifications of the latter.

The Greeks commuted this name of Irin into Ierne, which is merely a translation ; and the Latins, by putting an H for the rough breathing and interpolating a b for sound’s sake, transformed the latter into Hibenia, the meaning ” Sacred Island ” being preserved.

But by its own inhabitants it continued to be known as Fuodhla, Fudh-Inis, and Inis-na-Bhfiodhbhadh, names associating the worship which prevailed therein with the profession of the
worshippers, for they respectively denote the land or island of Fuodh or Budh and Budhism.

The Budh here mentioned was identical with the phallic deity worshipped by the Tuath-de-danaans under the name of Buodh (known also as Moriagan and Fareagh or Phearagh), which name the Scythian invaders afterwards adopted as their war-cry (Boo or A-boo).

The peculiar tenets of Irish Budhism were embodied in a mass of literature committed to the flames by Saint Patrick ; but the history of pagan Ireland still survives in MSS. scattered over Europe, whilst an image of Buodh, or Fareagh, bearing a close resemblance to those of the Eastern Buddha, and to the idols of Matambo ” whose priests are sorcerers or magicians ” (afterwards shown to be the meaning of Tuath-de-danaans), has been unearthed at Roscommon, and is now in the Museum of Trinity College, Dublin.

CHAPTER XI (Pp. 142-156)

From India our author now diverges to Egypt.

The similarity between the regal title ” Pharaoh ” and Phearagh or Fareagh just mentioned is accounted for by the invasion of Egypt by the Uksi, or Hyksos (Royal Shepherds or Shepherd Kings), who, according to Manetho, came ” from the East.”

The Indian Vedas, which corroborate his account, term them Pali, or ” shepherds ” ; and the rigorous nature of their sway accounts for the dislike manifested by the Egyptians towards the Israelites, who were a pastoral people.

That they introduced their form of worship into Egypt, is shown by the description which Herodotus gives of the rites, ceremonies, and usages of the Egyptian priests, resembling those practised by the Brahmins.

Historical evidence points to the erection by them of the greater pyramids, also to their introduction of those magical arts for which the Egyptians became notorious.

This latter fact brings the Uksi into connection with the Tuath-de-danaans (whose name is indicative of proficiency in magic), and serves to strengthen the author’s opinion that both belonged to the same Chaldean stock.

CHAPTER XII (Pp. 157-166)

The pyramids of Egypt may be said to correspond, with one significant difference, to the round towers of Ireland.

Both are characterised by the highest architectural skill ; both are constructed with an evident reference to astronomical purposes ; both afford indications that they were inter alia appropriated to sepulture ; and both are distinctively of phallic or, more strictly, Sabaic import.

Eygpt and Ireland

But in this last feature a divergence becomes evident.

The symbolism of the principle of ” generative production ” common to both is in the form of the pyramid more emblematic of the female nature, whilst the round towers typify the male – a divergence which the author subsequently treats in more detail.

To it may be due the circumstance that these excavations or ” wells ” which exist beneath the pyramids have not hitherto been found under round towers.

CHAPTER XIII (Pp. 167-176)

In connection with the last paragraph, attention is, however, drawn to the fact that round towers have usually been erected in the vicinity of water ; and that this may have been owing to a real, though less dominant, veneration of the female principle, is probable from the extensive use of bathing in the worship of Astarte, the representative of that principle whose peculiar emblemism is apparent in the ornamentation of the round towers.

Astarte

Astarte or Ashtoreth is the Hellenized form of the Middle Eastern goddess Ishtar, worshipped from the Bronze Age through classical antiquity.

The name is particularly associated with her worship in the ancient Levant among the Canaanites and Phoenicians.

She was also celebrated in Egypt following the importation of Levantine cults there. The name Astarte is sometimes also applied to her cults in Mesopotamian cultures like Assyria and Babylonia.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Astarte

Traces of the apparatus for a bell found on the summit of one of the latter edifices affords no proof of its original purpose as a belfry.

For though bells were used in pagan ceremonials, they were not rung to summon worshippers ; and the fact may have been that, after their conversion to Christianity, the Irish applied round towers occasionally to the only purpose for which they could then be used in connection with public worship.

CHAPTER XIV (Pp. 177-192)

Recurring to the affinity of Ireland with ancient Persia (Iran), the history of the latter country is traced from its settlement by the Aryans.

Indo-European language

Aryan” is a term meaning “noble” which was used as a self-designation by ancient Indo-Iranian people.

The word was used by the Indic people of the Vedic period in India to refer to the noble class and geographic location known as Āryāvarta where Indo-Aryan culture was based.

The closely related Iranian people used the term as an ethnic label for themselves in the Avesta scriptures, and the word forms the etymological source of the country Iran.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aryan

According to tradition preserved in the collection of sacred books known as the Zendavesta, the original seat of that people was the Eriene-Veedjo, a district situated in the north-western highlands of Asia, of great fertility, and enjoying a singularly mild climate, having seven months of summer and five of winter.

Then ” the death-dealing Ahriman smote it with the plague of cold, so that it came to have ten months of winter and only two of summer “ ; and was in consequence deserted by its inhabitants, who gradually overspread the low-lying countries, as far south as the Indus, including Fars, as Persia was then termed.

Airyanem Vaejah (Airyanəm Vaējah, approximately “expanse of the Aryans”, i.e. Iranians) is the homeland of Aryans (early Iranians) and a reference in the Zoroastrian Avesta (Vendidad, Farg. 1) to one of Ahura Mazda’s “sixteen perfect lands.”

The historical location of Airyanem Vaejah is still uncertain.… some scholars believe… the central Afghan highlands… probably centered around Khwarazm…. located in Kashmir … the lower and middle Volga river… in modern-day Kazakhstan.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Airyanem_Vaejah

North and east of Iran, to the east of the Caspian Sea, and west of the Himalaya Mountains’ foothills, up to the Altai Mountains in central Russia, is a vast desolate and dry wilderness, larger than the area of Iran, where today are the countries of Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, and Kazakstan, mostly unsuitable for farming, because of the lack of rainfall there, and suffering brutally cold winters, high winds, and blustery, short, yet scorching summers.

But that was the paradise of Airyana Vaejo, the ancient homeland of the Aryans, some of whom moved south, all the way to India, when the climate and thereby the ecosystem changed…

Dancing From Genesis – James I. Nienhuis
See: https://dancingfromgenesis.wordpress.com/2008/02/09/avesta-vendidad-rig-veda-aryan-airyana-vaejo-eriene-veedjo-job-land-of-uz-uzbekistan-turkmenistan-kazakhstan-ice-age-end-climate-change-mass-migrations-aryans-from-extreme-deserts-of-central-asia/

Angra Mainyu (also: Aŋra Mainiiu) is the Avestan-language name of Zoroastrianism’s hypostasis of the “destructive spirit”.

The Middle Persian equivalent is Ahriman.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Angra_Mainyu

Zend or Zand is a Zoroastrian technical term for exegetical glosses, paraphrases, commentaries and translations of the Avesta’s texts.

The term zand is a contraction of the Avestan language word zainti, meaning “interpretation”, or “as understood”.

Propagated by N. L. Westergaard’s Zendavesta, or the religious books of the Zoroastrians (Copenhagen, 1852–54), by the early/mid 19th century, the confusion became too universal in Western scholarship to be easily reversed, and Zend-Avesta, although a misnomer, continued to be fashionable well into the 20th century.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Zend

Zoroastrianism is one of the world’s oldest religions, “combining a cosmogonic dualism and eschatological monotheism in a manner unique… among the major religions of the world.”

Ascribed to the teachings of the Iranian Prophet Zoroaster (or Zarathustra), its Supreme Being is Ahura Mazda.

It was the official religion of the Iranian empires until Islam superseded it in the seventh century AD.

Leading characteristics, such as messianism, heaven and hell, and free will influenced other religious systems, including Second Temple Judaism, Gnosticism, Christianity, and Islam.

For a thousand years, forms of Zoroastrianism (including a Mithraic Median prototype and Zurvanist Sassanid successor) was one of the world’s most important faith traditions, serving as the state religion of the pre-Islamic Iranian empires from around 600 BCE to 650 CE.

Faravahar (or Ferohar), one of the primary symbols of Zoroastrianism

Faravahar

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Zoroastrianism

The Faravahar, or better known in Persian as fravahr, is one of the best-known symbols of ancient Iran (Persia).

While the symbol is currently thought to represent a Fravashi (approximately a guardian angel), from which it derives its name (see below), what it represented in the minds of those who adapted it from earlier Mesopotamian and Egyptian reliefs is unclear.

Because the symbol first appears on royal inscriptions, it is also thought to represent the ‘Divine Royal Glory’ (Khvarenah), or the Fravashi of the king, or represented the divine mandate that was the foundation of a king’s authority.

This relationship between the name of the symbol and the class of divine entities it represents, reflects the current belief that the symbol represents a Fravashi.

However, there is no physical description of the Fravashis in the Avesta, the sacred texts of Zoroastrianism, and in Avestan the entities are grammatically feminine.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Faravahar

They were a vigorous and energetic race these Aryans, who soon became dominant in their new quarters, substituting the name of their own country (Iran, or the sacred land, formed from the ancient Zend Eriene) for that of Fars, and founding a dynasty, or rather succession of dynasties, which superseded the government formerly in existence.

The mixture of races led to a certain diversity of language, and thus originated the Zend and Pahlavi or Sanskrit dialects, which bear a remarkable affinity to Irish (cf. Palaver).

There was further a diversity of religions, the old religion of Hushang, a pre-decessor of Zoroaster, being professed by many long after fire-worship became the dominant faith of Persia.

Avestan, formerly also known as “Zend”, is an Iranian language of the Eastern Iranian division, known only from its use as the language of Zoroastrian scripture, i.e. the Avesta, from which it derives its name.

Its area of composition comprised ancient Arachosia, Aria, Bactria, and Margiana, corresponding to the entirety of present-day Afghanistan, and parts of Pakistan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan.

The Yaz culture of Bactria-Margiana has been regarded as a likely archaeological reflection of the early Eastern Iranian culture described in the Avesta.

Avestan’s status as a sacred language has ensured its continuing use for new compositions long after the language had ceased to be a living language.

It is closely related to Vedic Sanskrit, the oldest preserved Indo-Aryan language.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Avestan_language

Pahlavi or Pahlevi denotes a particular and exclusively written form of various Middle Iranian languages.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pahlavi_scripts

Sanskrit is the primary sacred language of Hinduism, a philosophical language in Buddhism, Hinduism, Sikhism and Jainism, and a literary language that was in use as a lingua franca in Greater India.

It is a standardised dialect of Old Indo-Aryan, originating as Vedic Sanskrit and tracing its linguistic ancestry back to Proto-Indo-Iranian and Proto-Indo-European.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sanskrit

Fars Province also known as Pars or Persia in historical context, is one of the thirty-one provinces of Iran and known as the cultural capital of Iran.

Fars Province is the original homeland of the Persian people.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fars_Province

Persian (fārsi in Persian) is the predominant modern descendant of Old Persian, a southwestern Iranian language within the Indo-Iranian branch of the Indo-European languages.

There are approximately 110 million Persian speakers worldwide, with the language holding official status in Iran, Afghanistan, and Tajikistan.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Persian_language

Naqsh-e Rustam is an ancient necropolis located about 12 km northwest of Persepolis, in Fars Province, Iran, with the best group of ancient rock reliefs in Iran cut into the cliff, from both the Achaemenid and Sassanid periods.

It lies a few hundred meters from Naqsh-e Rajab, with a further group of Sassanid reliefs.

The oldest relief at Naqsh-i Rustam dates to c. 1000 BC.

Though it is severely damaged, it depicts a faint image of a man with unusual head-gear and is thought to be Elamite in origin.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Naqsh-e_Rustam

Naghsh-e-Rostam

The tombs are burial chambers carved into the side of the hill rock.

A sarcophagus was placed within the burial chamber.

It is not known if the body was placed directly in the sarcophagus or if the bones from a dakhma (a tower of silence) were placed in the containers which could have served as ossuaries.

Both practices would have been consistent with Zoroastrian burial practices since the body is not in contact with the soil.
(Even in a dakhma, the body comes in contact with stone.)

Zoroastrian Heritage – Naqsh-e Rustam – K. E. Eduljee
http://www.heritageinstitute.com/zoroastrianism/naqsherustam/index.htm

Voyage en Perse - 1851

Note: I have yet to find any details regarding the round tower in this illustration.

CHAPTER XV (Pp. 193-210)

This ancient religion of Hushang, which was doubtless that of the Aryans, seems to have been of that Sabaic order practised by the Chaldeans, which, as we have seen, recognised the heavenly bodies as the most imposing representatives of a divine power, and cannot therefore be fairly described as idolatry.

It was idealistic, in so far as it regarded the different energies of nature simply as manifestations of a great creative power, whereas the idolatrous stage did not supervene until this purer faith degenerated into materialism.

With this religion that of the ancient Irish harmonized.

The dominance of sun and moon worship in the latter is shown by the way in which the various titles of these luminaries are interwoven with the language ; most of the Irish local names, as well as the names of traditional festivals, consisting of variants of different epithets applied to the sun and moon, which the pagan Irish considered to be united in matrimony, just as the Egyptians did Osiris and Isis, their equivalents.

CHAPTER XVI (Pp. 211-226)

A faith thus compounded of love, religion, and astrology has necessarily a triple aspect ; and, according to the particular component kept in view, or the etymology professed, may be termed Sabaism, Buddhism, or Phallism.

It constitutes the most primitive form of worship, and is the source from whence all the faiths of the world have been derived.

Hence the corresponding features in distinct mythologies.

Brahminism, for example, is an offshoot from Buddhism, owing to the apostasy of Paramon, the son of Budh-dearg ; and the essential notions of Christianity, the doctrines of a virginal conception, a vicarious sacrifice, and a resurrection, have their counterparts in both these faiths.

The phallic element, ignored by Christianity, maintained its place in Oriental and Irish paganism.

The adjuncts of Lingam worship occur in the worship of Budh.

The pagodas of India have their counterparts in the round towers.

The symbolism expressed in the sculptures of Elephanta, Ellora, and Salsette is reflected in the carvings at Clonmacnoise, Kilcullen, and Knockmoy.

The Cross is universal, not distinctive; and the purposely mutilated cryptograms of the Crescent and the Serpent belong to a paganism long antecedent to the Christianity which partially effaced them.

Kilcullen

Elephanta Caves - Mumbai

The Kanheri Caves demonstrate the Buddhist influence on the art and culture of India. Kanheri comes from the Sanskrit Krishnagiri, which means black mountain.

These caves date from the first century BCE to the 10th century CE.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kanheri_Caves

The Elephanta Caves (natively known as Gharapurichi Leni, basically Gharapuri) are a network of sculpted caves located on Elephanta Island, or Gharapuri (literally “the city of caves”) in Mumbai Harbour, 10 kilometres (6.2 mi) to the east of the city of Mumbai in the Indian state of Maharashtra.

The rock cut architecture of the caves has been dated to between the 5th and 8th centuries, although the identity of the original builders is still a subject of debate.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Elephanta_Caves

Ellora is an archaeological site 29 km (18 mi) north-west of the city of Aurangabad in the Indian state of Maharashtra, built by the Rashtrakuta dynasty(Brahmanical & Buddhist group of caves ) and Yadav (Jain group of caves).

Hindu, Buddhist and Jain rock-cut temples and viharas and mathas were built between the 5th century and 10th century. The 17 Hindu (caves 13–29), 12 Buddhist (caves 1–12) and 5 Jain (caves 30–34) caves, built in proximity, demonstrate the religious harmony prevalent during this period of Indian history.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ellora_Caves

CHAPTER XVII (Pp. 227-239)

Researches into the distinctive character of Irish paganism show that its main element was the phallic type of Sabaism, the Irish language affording remarkable evidence of this fact.

Many of its words and all its letters embody a twofold meaning, denoting in the first place some passion, quality, or virtue, and in the next its sensible index.

For example, Budh or Fiodh means primarily a lingam, or phallus, and secondarily a tree ; and this peculiarity of an esoteric meaning known only to the learned, and an exoteric one understood by the masses, it shares with Hebrew, which belongs to the same linguistic family.

Of this we have an example in the scriptural allegory of ” Eve and the tree of knowledge,” wherein the esoteric import of ” tree ” is phallus.

We thus arrive, as it were, at the fount of Buddhism.

Eve may be regarded as the first Buddhist, and her son Cain, who offered the fruits of the earth to “ the God of nature and of increase” (Budh), as the first priest of that order.

This allegory is found repeated in different forms among the various populations of the world – in Egypt, India, Persia, and elsewhere.

It gave rise to many typical commemorations in various countries, such as the ” Maypole festivals ” of Eastern lands, whence the custom emanated to Ireland (with the Tuath-de-danaan settlers), where it is still practised.

Maypole

CHAPTER XVIII (Pp. 240-251)

The scriptural allegory of the ” Fall of Man,” involving, as it does, the history of Cain, has an intimate bearing upon the ancestry of the Tuath-de-danaan.

Cain had a son, Enoch, whose name connotes as usual a twofold meaning, signifying first, Initiation in sacred rites; secondly, an assembly of congregated multitudes.

The son of Enoch was named Irad, i.e. consecrated to God (Budh) ; hence the region where he dwelt was called Iran, meaning the land of those so consecrated ; from which it is argued that in that precise region the Budhists first established the insignia of their empire.

Now, the Dabistan records declare that although Kaimours was generally regarded as the first king of Persia (Iran), he had many predecessors ; and that long before the time of Zoroaster the Persians venerated a prophet called Mahabad or Maghabad (the Great, or Good, Abad), whom they considered as ” the Father of men,” and who had thirteen successors of his own family, all styled Abad.

This Abad, or Maghabadean, dynasty eventually became so corrupt that it was banished to the woods and mountains, when Kaimours was called to the throne.

For various reasons the author is persuaded that the Maghabadeans were the direct descendants of Cain.

Their name had the usual twofold signification : first, The unity of the Godhead ; secondly, a sacerdotal institution ; and Tuath-de-danaan is simply a translation or ampliative rendering of the latter – Tuath being a modification of Budh and also signifying magic ; De, the vernacular term for the Deity; and Danaan signifying Almoners – the whole thus meaning Magician-god-almmoners or the Almoner-magicians of the Deity.

CHAPTER XIX (Pp. 252-263)

Assuming that the Tuath-de-danaan originally occupied Iran, or Persia, their migration to Ireland is thus explained.

An internecine variance, arising out of a purely religious question, sprang up among them.

They became divided into two sects – one maintaining that the male influence was dominant in the production of offspring; the other that female influence was more effective.

Each adopted a distinguishing title, emblematic of the sex whose virtues it proclaimed.

The former did not find it necessary to change the name Tuath-de-danaan, since the esoteric meaning of Tuath (i.e. Budh) was the emblem of masculinity ; but the others adopted the title of Pish-de-danaans, because Pish, or Pith (synonymous with Yoni), denoted that of femininity.

The war which resulted from this variance of opinion was waged with all the bitterness which usually marks polemic differences; and the Pish-de-danaans, proving completely victorious, expelled their rivals from the sacred soil of Iran.

The Tuath-de-danaan, or at least a portion of them , fled westward, and after many vicissitudes reached Europe, where traces of them are found in parts of Greece, Italy, and Spain ; and from the country last named (by help of the Phoenicians, who were the great sea-carriers of those days), they made their way to Ireland.

It is remarkable that a parallel account appears in Hindu records of the severance which took place between the Lingajas and the Yonijas on a precisely similar question.

CHAPTER XX (Pp. 264-284)

Although the Persian historians maintain silence, the evidence of other authorities in support of this episode is not wanting.

For instance, when referring to Buddha, Oriental writers agree that he was bom in Maghada ; also that he was the son of Suad-de-dana – Suad being convertible with Tuath and both resolvable into Budh.

Without professing to map out the exact route by which the Tuath-de-danaans made their way to Ireland, the author maintains that the fact of their having occupied that country for a considerable time is incontrovertible.

As for their rivals, the Pish-de-danaans, it has already been stated that they, in their turn, had to leave Persia when Kaimours was called to the throne ; and the presumption is that they were identical with those Ukis, or Shepherd Kings, who overran Egypt, and to whom the erection of pyramids emblematical of the female nature is ascribed.

Their distinctive views may, it is pointed out, have prevailed among them from the time when they formed a portion of the Noachidae ; for the ” Ark ” was typical of the dominant idea in their belief, and the same idea was typified under another form in the pyramids.

A variant symbol of this idea is the crescent (or lunar boat), of which certain Irish ornaments are representative.

It is further possible that the Pish-de-danaan tradition of the deluge may have been communicated to Moses during his stay in Egypt, and that the narrative is more figurative than historical.

CHAPTER XXI (Pp. 285-304)

Among the sculptured symbols of the faith held by the ancient Irish, that of the Cross stands pre-eminent ; but it would be a mistake to infer from this circumstance the existence of Christianity in Ireland at the time when these sculptures were wrought.

The cryptogram of the Cross is found everywhere, both in the Old and New World, among the relics of nations whose paganism does not admit of doubt, and it dates from a period long antecedent to Christianity.

Buildings of cruciform structure, and evidently devoted to religious uses, exist all over the East and West ; and both they and the Mithratic caves, for which no one has ever claimed any but a pagan origin, partake of the same character.

To aver that the Cross was emblematical of a vicarious sacrifice by which the redemption of mankind was accomplished, is merely to say that it expresses a belief common to many Sabaic faiths of the pagan world – a belief of which it was the recognised emblem in Egypt, India, Greece, Rome, Scandinavia, and America, as well as in Ireland.

CHAPTER XXII (Pp. 305-324)

The argument as to the pagan origin of Irish cross-symbolism is pursued and developed, and the connection of the symbol in question with the Irish Budh-gaye (corresponding to the Hindu Budha-gaya), or representative of generative power (gaye-phallus), demonstrated.

The symbolism of which it forms a type is ubiquitous, being found in archaic sculpture all over the Eastern and Western World : nor did Plato exaggerate when he said ‘ The letter X is stamped upon the universe.’

CHAPTER XXIII (Pp. 325-340)

A remarkable instance of this widely prevalent doctrine of the vicarious sacrifice of some incarnation of the Deity accomplished by a purely virginal conception is afforded in the Hindu Puranas, which recount the incarnation of Vishnu (or Crishna) in the White Island, and the subsequent crucifixion of the fruit of this conception, under the name of Sulivahana (cf. the Irish patronymic Sulivan), called also Dhanandhara, i.e, the Sacred Almoner (cf. Danaan and its meaning).

Curiously enough, the mystic, or esoteric, name of ancient Ireland was Muc Inis, meaning White Island; and the details of a similar crucifixion are, with strictly pagan accompaniments, reproduced in the sculptures at Knockmoy, in Galway, which further closely resemble not only a sculptured portrayal on the temple of Kalabche, in Nubia, but a distinctly Eastern Buddhist group on the Tuath-de-danaan cross at Old Kilcullen, County Kildare.

CHAPTER XXIV (Pp. 341-355)

A striking instance of the resemblance between the Nubian and Knockmoy sculptures consists in the attire of the principal figures.

In both the philibeg, or kilt, is worn ; and this peculiarity is reproduced in idols of the Irish pagan god, Phearagh, or Farragh, or Budh, which have been from time to time exhumed.

The headdresses and collars also correspond.

In Buddhist Indian mythology Deva Thot is represented as crucified ; in fact, the expectation of salvation through the atonement of a crucified Mediator characterises the whole system of pagan (Sabaic) beliefs as thoroughly as it did Hebraism.

It is expressed in one of the names of Ireland, namely, Criach-na-Fuincadhach (meaning the asylum of the expectants, or the retreat of those looking forward), which was given to that country long before the advent of Christianity.

CHAPTER XXV (Pp. 356-367)

The round towers and crosses at Clonmacnoise, Clondalkin, and elsewhere, abound in sculptured devices of a similar character, there being in all a manifest reference to Buddhist, or Eastern, ceremonial ; whilst the representation of a dog (an animal esteemed sacred by the Tuath-de-danaans) on one of the crosses at Clonmacnoise seems to exclude the possibility of its relation to Christianity.

But perhaps the most significant feature of these sculptures is the profusion of snake ornamentation, pointing to a time when that form of Sabaism known as ” serpent-worship “ was in the ascendant.

The frequency of this emblemism was so obnoxious to the early Christian missionaries, on account of the evident reverence with which it was regarded by the Irish, that St. Patrick thought it advisable to efface it when practicable ; and in this sense he may be entitled to the credit of having banished snakes from Ireland.

St Patrick

CHAPTER XXVI (Pp. 368-395)

Reverting to his proper subject of the origin and purpose of the round towers, our author examines the evidence bearing on the date of their erection.

The Ulster Annals record the destruction of fifty-seven of these towers by an earthquake in A.D. 448, the natural inference being that they must have existed before the fifth century, but how long before is matter of conjecture.

Tradition connects them with a personage styled the Goban Saer (Freemason Sage) ; but this title being the name of a class, not of an individual, and having no settled place in chronology, does not further the solution of the difficulty.

A better clue is found in the name of the place whereon was fought the first decisive battle between the Tuath-de-danaan invaders and the Celtic (Firbolg) inhabitants, which gave the supremacy of the island to the former.

From the number of commemorative towers erected there by the conquerors, this came to be known as Moytura (in Irish, Moye-tureadh, i.e. “ the field of the towers “) ; and as date of the second battle, fought centuries later, is approximately B.C 600, there is reason for assigning the erection of round towers to a period long preceding that of Christianity. The ascription of these towers to the Tuath-de-danaans is in a degree warranted by the fact that the word ” Tuathan- Tower ” is a well-known Irish expression, and that there seems to be no other word in the language which conveys the same idea.

Celts

Myths and legends ; The Celtic Race – Thomas William Rolleston – 1911
https://archive.org/details/mythslegendscelt00roll

In medieval Irish Christian pseudo-history, the Fir Bolg (also spelt Firbolg and Fir Bholg) are the fourth group of people to settle in Ireland.

They are descended from the Muintir Nemid, an earlier group who abandoned Ireland and went to different parts of Europe.

Those who went to Greece become the Fir Bolg and eventually return to the now-uninhabited Ireland.

After ruling it for some time, they are overthrown by the invading Tuatha Dé Danann.

Most scholars regard the tale as myth rather than history.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Firbolg

CHAPTER XXVII (Pp. 396-411)

The identity of Ireland with the Insula Hyperhoreorum is deduced from a description of the latter, copied by Diodorus Siculus from the writings of Hecataeus and from a compendium by Marcianus Herocleotes of the works of Artemidorus.

Both Hecatseus and Artemidorus lived before the Christian era, and an allusion in the latter author to certain ” round temples,” of which the officiating priests were called Boreades that existed in ” Juvernia a British isle, bounded on the north by the ocean called the Hyperborean, but on the east by the ocean called the Hibernian” coupled with the fact that (with the exception of those at Brechin and Abernethy) no remains of round temples are found in any of the British Isles save Ireland, goes
far to prove the identity in question, also the pre-Christian antiquity of the round towers, together with the existence of an exceptional, and therefore by natural inference an imported, civilisation in that island.

The latter inference is strengthened by continually-recurring traces of the great proficiency of its inhabitants in the fine, or useful, arts at an era when the adjacent islands were still plunged in barbarism.

CHAPTER XXVIII (Pp. 412-431)

These proofs of an adventitious civilisation bearing the marks, not of gradual growth, but of full development, point to the colonisation of the island by a highly-cultured race, such as were the ancient people of Iran (Persia).

The round towers, for instance, could not well have been the work of the Phoenicians, who were a maritime and mercantile race, by no means prone to arts and letters, and in none of whose admitted settlements is any trace of similar buildings to be found.

Neither the Firbolgs (or Celtic inhabitants of Ireland), nor the Fomorians, nor the Scythians, Scoto-Milesians, nor Danish invaders, were at all given to the refinements of civilisation, and simply regarded the construction of permanent buildings as unworthy of a race of warriors.

Everything, in fact, goes to show that the Tuath-de-danaan settlers alone could have erected these towers, introduced the Boreadan ceremonial, and given to the country of their adoption a name taken from that of their native land.

With the Scythian conquest, it became, of course, inevitable that this name (Irin or Eirin) should be changed into Scuitte or Scotia (the land of the Scythians), and that there should have been a partial exodus of the vanquished Tuath-de-danaans – some of whom, settling in what is now Scotland, gave it the name of Iran or Eran (which survives in Erne or Erse), which was afterwards changed into Scoitte or Scotia, out of compliment to the Scythian rulers of the adjacent island, with whom its Pictish inhabitants had formed alliance.

CHAPTER XXIX (Pp. 432-444)

As for the unfounded theory, – that Ireland was colonised by Phoenicians arriving from Spain, whose last settlement in the island was established by Heber and Heremon, sons of Milesius, and descendants of Feni an fear soid, ” the Phoenician wise man,” – it is pointed out that Heber and Heremon (brothers of Amergin, the bard) were in reality the sons of Gallamh, and invaded Ireland at the head of a Scythian, not Phoenician, colony.

Upon historical evidence, the date of this invasion is fixed at B.C. 1002; while it is agreed on all hands that the Tuath-de-danaans had landed about two hundred years before, or B.C. 1202, which latter date exactly corresponds with that given by most Oriental authorities for the exodus of the Buddhists from India.

About this time, indeed, Ireland seems to have borne the character of an Oriental asylum – a circumstance to which may be attributed the Eastern costumes and aspect of the figures depicted in its ancient sculptures, the Eastern character of traditional religious and ceremonial usages, and the national reverence for the shamrock, corresponding with that shown to the trefoil (or trisula) in Persia (Iran).

Shamrock

CHAPTER XXX (Pp. 445-474)

The duration of Tuath-de-danaan supremacy may have been some six centuries, dating from the first battle of Moytura, in B.C. 1202, to the second battle, in or about B.C. 600, between the Firbolgs, or Celts (who had been gradually reasserting themselves), and a reinforcement of Tuath-de-danaans, coming this time, not from Persia, but from India, whence they had been expelled by the Brahmins.

Although this second invasion proved successful, the power of the Tuath-de-danaans was now on the wane, and the height of civilisation to which they had raised the island rapidly declined before the inroads of the Scythians.

Their ritual became merged in that of the Druids, and their taste for letters vitiated.

Possibly, with a view to arrest this decadence, they began to cultivate intercourse with Greece, the result being a strong reciprocal influence, exercised by the languages of the two countries on each other, and more especially by Irish upon Greek.

A corresponding influence resulted from the migration of discontented Tuath-de-danaans into Scotland.

Nor was it confined to language; for certain peculiarities of ancient Irish architecture are found reproduced in Mycenian and Caledonian structures, as, for example, in the Treasury of Atreus (Mycenae) and the Dune of Domadilla (Scotland) ; and that religion was not wholly unaffected is proved by the discovery of Irish relics showing that the oracular superstitions of Dodona had their counterpart in Ireland.

CHAPTER XXXI (Pp. 475-497)

The relics of Tuath-de-danaan occupation, which exist in the shape of gigantic crosses, and of sculptured ornamentation in which cross-symbolism is prominent, point to a mystery far more esoteric than that involved in the Christian emblem.

The cross had become representative of the number ten, because in Irish the same word, lambh, denoted equally a cross and the human hand, or the number of fingers on both hands ; whilst the ” triangle of ten ” embraced ” all that was solemn in religion and in thought,” being, in fact, ” the index of male and female united,” and the prototype of the ark and pyramid.

This Sabaic, and only intelligible, explanation of these highly figurative sculptures disposes of the theory that they are the product of a Christianity with which they have nothing in common but a shape which is not peculiar to any one religion in any part of the world.

Cross

CHAPTER XXXIII (Pp. 498-524)

Serpent-worship is perhaps the most significant form of Sabaism, involving, as it does, the expression of its source.

For in the sacred language of Iran, whereof Irish is the leading type, the word Sabh (the root of Sabaism) has three distinct, yet connected, meanings – (1) Voluptuousness, or the Yoni ; (2) a Snake, or sinuosity ; (3) Death.

Through all these runs the central idea of sexual relation, which, as the most elementary part of social life, has been symbolised all over the world in connection with religion.

The scriptural reproach, ” generation of vipers,” is probably equivalent to offspring of concupiscence, as will appear from the indignant repudiation of those to whom it was addressed – ” We were not born of fornication ; we have one Father, even God. ”

The part which the serpent plays in Brahminism is well known.

In Mexico a widespread faith called Nagualism had the Culebra, or snake, for one of its principal deities ; whilst the Gadelglas of the ancient Irish (Gadelians) meant simply the green snake-god, from which latter, and not from the verdure of its soil, Ireland may have obtained the designation of the Emerald Isle.

In fact, Sabaism, Ophiolatry, and Gadelianism were one and the same ; and, while purporting to be the worship of the serpent, or of the stars, were in reality the worship of Sabh or Yoni, the representative of female nature.

Hopi Snake Dance

Unlike ophiolatry (serpent worship), the Snake Dance is a plea for agricultural fertility and rain in a beautiful but harsh desert landscape.

However, many spectators would be surprised to learn that this bizarre rite came from India, the traditional land of snake charmers.

Originating in India, the Nagas established religious centers throughout the country, including the Kingdom of Kashi on the Ganges, Kashmir to the north, and Nagpur in central India.

The Nagas also inhabited the great metropolitan centers of Mohenjo-Daro and Harrappa in the Indus River Valley.

The Nagas – The Origin of the Hopi Snake Clan by Gary A. David
http://www.bibliotecapleyades.net/esp_orionzone_7.htm

The word Naga in the Sanskrit language means snake or serpent.

It seems likely that the Naga people were a serpent-worshipping group who were later described as serpents themselves in ancient Indian literature.

Ayus people were Serpent cult people from the beginning.

Serpents are reptiles with “hoods”.

Snakes are reptiles without hoods.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Naga_Kingdom

Mahabharata

The Naga are traditionally considered one of the ancient-most kshatriya tribes of India and to have spread throughout India during the period of the epic Mahabharata.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Naga_%28clan%29

The Mahabharata or Mahābhārata is one of the two major Sanskrit epics of ancient India, the other being the Ramayana.

The oldest preserved parts of the text are thought to be not much older than around 400 BCE, though the origins of the epic probably fall between the 8th and 9th centuries BCE.

Many historians estimate the date of the Kurukshetra war to Iron Age India of the 10th century BCE.

The setting of the epic has a historical precedent in Iron Age (Vedic) India, where the Kuru kingdom was the center of political power during roughly 1200 to 800 BCE.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mahabharata

Snake sacrifice of Janamejaya

It was, however, masculinity (Budh) that was typified in the phallic form of those round towers, which the author now proceeds to describe with more minuteness of detail than heretofore.

Incidentally, he disposes of the argument in favour of the Christian origin of these towers, which is based upon the assumption that remains of Christian churches are invariably found in their vicinity, by adducing an instance to the contrary (at Giant’s Ring, County Down).

W. H. C.

Dashed Line

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