Ragnarok: The Age of Fire and Gravel

Ragnarok - The Age Of Fire And Gravel

Ignatius Donnelly was [amongst other things] a Catastrophist who [like Immanuel Velikovsky 70 years later] wasn’t destined to become an Authorised Academic Oracle.

Ignatius Loyola Donnelly (November 3, 1831 – January 1, 1901) was a U.S. Congressman, populist writer, and amateur scientist.

He is known primarily now for his theories concerning Atlantis, Catastrophism (especially the idea of an ancient impact event affecting ancient civilizations), and Shakespearean authorship, which many modern historians consider to be pseudoscience and pseudohistory.

Donnelly’s work corresponds to the writings of late 19th and early 20th century figures such as Helena Blavatsky, Rudolf Steiner, and James Churchward, and has more recently influenced writer Graham Hancock.

Donnelly’s writings on Atlantis have been rejected by scholars and scientists.

He has been described as a crank and pseudoscience promoter.

Gordon Stein has noted that “most of what Donnelly said was highly questionable or downright wrong.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ignatius_L._Donnelly

His first major work in 1882 was Atlantis: The Antediluvian World which can be read on-line at Archive.org.

Atlantis: The Antediluvian World – Ignatius Donnelly – 1882
https://archive.org/details/atlantisantedilu00donnuoft

Trans-Atlantic Architecture

Ignatius Donnelly -Trans-Atlantic Languages

His next book was just as startling.

Ragnarok: The Age Of Fire And Gravel – Ignatius Donnelly – 1883
https://archive.org/details/ragnarokageoffir00donn

In Ragnarok, Donnelly argues that an enormous comet hit the earth 12,000 years ago, resulting in widespread fires, floods, poisonous gases, and unusually vicious and prolonged winters.

Ignatius L. Donnelly - Comets

The catastrophe destroyed a more advanced civilization, forcing its terrified population to seek shelter in caves.

Ignatius Donnelly - Coins

As cave-dwellers, they lose all knowledge of art, literature, music, philosophy, and engineering.

Ignatius Donnelly - Drift Deposits in the Tropics

He cites as evidence 900-foot-deep cracks radiating out from the Great Lakes, and stretching for many miles away.

He admits it has been proposed that ice-sheets caused these cracks, but suggests that this explanation is improbable, likening them instead to ‘cracks in a window which has been struck with a stone.’

If ice sheets could produce such cracks, he asks, why haven’t similar cracks been found anywhere else on the globe?

He adds to this a discussion of surface rocks in New York City, which seem to have undergone a radical chemical change – the feldspar has been converted into slate and the mica has separated out from the iron, as if they had undergone tremendous heat and pressure, as they likely would in the event that a comet struck the earth.

He rules out other theories that could have caused this, such as nitric acid and warm rains, by pointing out that this is an isolated incident, whereas warm rains can occur at any time and place and there’s no archaeological evidence for the nitric acid’s origins.

Ignatius Donnelly - Comet Images

He points out many legends and myths from various cultures, such as Zoroastrian, Pictish, Hindu, and Ancient Greece, that are all suggestive of a comet striking the earth, the earth catching fire, poisonous gases choking people, and floods and tidal waves swamping large areas.

He also points out early culture’s tendency to heliotheism, which evolved from an insane gratitude to the Sun, after so many horrific days without it.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ragnarok,_the_Age_of_Fire_and_Gravel

In Norse mythology, Ragnarök is a series of future events, including a great battle foretold to ultimately result in the death of a number of major figures (including the gods Odin, Thor, Týr, Freyr, Heimdallr, and Loki), the occurrence of various natural disasters, and the subsequent submersion of the world in water.

Afterward, the world will resurface anew and fertile, the surviving and returning gods will meet, and the world will be repopulated by two human survivors.

It is as well the end of the world, and the start of eternal winter.

Ragnarök is an important event in the Norse canon, and has been the subject of scholarly discourse and theory.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ragnarok

Ragnarök Depictions

In Norse mythology, Fimbulvetr (or fimbulvinter), commonly rendered in English as Fimbulwinter, is the immediate prelude to the events of Ragnarök.

It simply means ”Mighty Winter”.

This mythology might be related to the extreme weather events of 535–536 which resulted in a notable drop in temperature across northern Europe.

There have also been several popular ideas about whether or not this particular piece of mythology has a connection to the climate change that occurred in the Nordic countries at the end of the Nordic Bronze Age dating from about 650 BC.

Before this climate change, the Nordic countries were considerably warmer.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fimbulwinter

Unfortunately, the mainstream has been busy forgetting all about “the incontrovertible elements of the problem” that were identified by Ignatius Donnelly in 1883.

Remember the essential, the incontrovertible elements of the problem :

1. Great heat.

2. A sudden catastrophe.

3. Great evaporation of the seas and waters.

4. Great clouds.

5. An age of floods and snows and ice and torrents.

6. The human legends.

Find a theory that explains and embraces all these elements, and then, and not until then, throw mine aside.

Ragnarok: The Age Of Fire And Gravel – Ignatius Donnelly – 1883
https://archive.org/details/ragnarokageoffir00donn

Similarly, the mainstream has been busy forgetting all about “the facts revealed by the study of geology” that were identified by Ignatius Donnelly in 1882.

WAS SUCH A CATASTROPHE POSSIBLE?

All that is needed to answer this question is to briefly refer to some of the facts revealed by the study of geology.

In the first place, the earth’s surface is a record of successive risings and fallings of the land.

The accompanying picture represents a section of the anthracite coal-measures of Pennsylvania.

Each of the coal deposits here shown, indicated by the black lines, was created when the land had risen sufficiently above the sea to maintain vegetation ; each of the strata of rock, many of them hundreds of feet in thickness, was deposited under water.

Here we have twenty-three different changes of the level of the land during the formation of 2000 feet of rock and coal ; and these changes took place over vast areas, embracing thousands of square miles.

All the continents which now exist were, it is well understood, once under water, and the rocks of which they are composed were deposited beneath the water ; more than this, most of the rocks so deposited were the detritus or washings of other continents, which then stood where the oceans now roll, and whose mountains and plains were ground down by the action of volcanoes and earthquakes, and frost, ice, wind, and rain, and washed into the sea, to form the rocks upon which the nations now dwell ; so that we have changed the conditions of land and water : that which is now continent was once sea, and that which is now sea was
formerly continent.

There can be no question that the Australian Archipelago is simply the mountain-tops of a drowned continent, which once reached from India to South America.

Science has gone so far as to even give it a name ; it is called “Lemuria,” and here, it is claimed, the human race originated.

An examination of the geological formation of our Atlantic States proves beyond a doubt, from the manner in which the sedimentary rocks, the sand, gravel, and mud – aggregating a
thickness of 45,000 feet – are deposited, that they came from the north and east.

” They represent the detritus of pre-existing lands, the washings of rain, rivers, coast-currents, and other agencies of erosion ; and since the areas supplying the waste could scarcely have been of less extent than the new strata it formed, it is reasonably inferred that land masses of continental magnitude must have occupied the region now covered by the North Atlantic before America began to be, and onward at least through the palaeozoic ages of American history.

The proof of this fact is that the great strata of rocks are thicker the nearer we approach their source in the east : the maximum thickness of the palaeozoic rocks of the Appalachian formation is 25,000 to 35,000 feet in Pennsylvania and Virginia, while their minimum thickness in Illinois and Missouri is from 3000 to 4000 feet ; the rougher and grosser-textured rocks predominate in the east, while the farther west we go the finer the deposits were of which the rocks are composed ; the finer materials were carried farther west by the water.” (” New Amer. Cyclop.,” art. Coal.)

Ignatius Donnelly - Pennsylvania

Atlantis: The Antediluvian World – Ignatius Donnelly – 1882
https://archive.org/details/atlantisantedilu00donnuoft

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Gallery | This entry was posted in Astrophysics, Books, Catastrophism, Earth, Geology, History, Solar System, Uniformitarianism. Bookmark the permalink.

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