The Arabian Horizon – The Lost Lands: Dilmun


The Gradualist Skool of Historians encounter a few narrative problems whenever they fail to recognise natural catastrophes.

For example:

Gradualist Historians have a problem locating the ancient country of Dilmun.

Dilmun or Telmun was an ancient Semitic speaking country mentioned throughout the history of Mesopotamia from the 3rd millennium BC onwards.

It is regarded as one of the oldest civilizations in the Middle East.

Dilmun was an important trading center from the late fourth millennium to 800 BC.

At the height of its power, Dilmun controlled the Persian Gulf trading routes.

In 600 BC, the Neo-Babylonian Empire, and later the Persian Empire, ruled Dilmun.

Some Gradualist Historians believe there is a “scholarly consensus” that Dilmun was located in Bahrain, Kuwait, Qatar and coastal eastern Saudi Arabia.

Based on textual evidence, it is located in the Persian Gulf on a trade route between Mesopotamia and the Indus Valley Civilisation, close to the sea and to artesian springs.

Dilmun was mentioned by the Mesopotamians as a trade partner, a source of copper, and a trade entrepôt.

The scholarly consensus is that Dilmun encompassed Bahrain, Kuwait, Qatar and the coastal regions of the Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia.

This area is certainly what is meant by references to “Dilmun” among the lands conquered by king Sargon of Akkad and his descendants.


Other Gradualist Historians believe the location of Dilmun is “still unidentified”.

In 1987, Theresa Howard-Carter proposed that Dilmunz of this era might be a still unidentified tell near the Shatt al-Arab between modern-day Qurnah and Basra in modern-day Iraq.


A tell or tel, is a type of archaeological mound created by human occupation and abandonment of a geographical site over many centuries.

A classic tell looks like a low, truncated cone with a flat top and sloping sides.

Even though there is a “scholarly consensus” regarding the location of Dilmun the Gradualist Historians have failed to locate an archaeological site that was continually occupied between 3300 BC and 556 BC.

As of 2008, archaeologists have failed to find a site in existence during the time from 3300 BC (Uruk IV) to 556 BC (Neo-Babylonian Era), when Dilmun appears in texts.

But the Gradualist Historians have managed to blow a 1,300 year hole in their “scholarly consensus” by failing to find any settlements between 3,300 BC and 2,000 BC.

According to Hojlund, no settlements exist in the Gulf littoral dating to 3300–2000 BC.

Thus in 2008, archaeologists failed to find a site for Dilmun dating to the time period in which Dilmun first appears in ancient texts (3300–2000 BC).

In other words:

The “scholarly consensus” has been cobbled together with fragmentary evidence.

However recently, it was discovered that in 2000 B.C., Mesopotamians inhabited Failaka island.

Failaka had many Mesopotamian-style buildings typical of those found in Iraq dating from around 2000 B.C.

At a site on the Bay of Kuwait, the model of a sailing craft has been discovered, that has been dated to c. 4000 BC.


The fragmentary nature of the archaeological evidence has encouraged some scholarly speculation that an ancient Gulf Oasis refuge might be found beneath the waters of the Persian Gulf.


There is now ample evidence indicating that prehistoric peoples occupied the margins of the Gulf Oasis at various times throughout prehistory, although radiometric dates still remain elusive.

In recent years, several new Late Pleistocene archaeological sites have been discovered around the periphery of the basin, all of which are located on drainage systems emptying into the Gulf.

As early humans occupied the semiarid fringes of this refugium, it is reasonable to presume that their range also included the mosaic of favorable microenvironments found within the core of the basin.

New Light on Human Prehistory in the Arabo-Persian Gulf Oasis
Jeffrey Rose – Current Anthropology 51.6 – December 2010

However, there are several problems with the “scholarly” endeavours undertaken by the Gradualist Historians because they assume the Arabian Peninsula has been geographically [and geologically] stable for the last 6,000 [odd] years.

Firstly, DNA evidence suggests the Arabian Peninsula separated from Africa after 1,300 BC.

The human Y DNA evidence reflects this dichotomy with significant clusters of haplogroup J-M267 appearing in [both] Arabia [Yemen] and North Eastern Africa [Sudan and Ethiopia].

The geographical evidence clearly indicates these two clusters of haplogroup J-M267 were once unified in a single geographic location centred upon the Afar Triple Junction.

Arabia was physically connected to North Eastern Africa until about 1300 BC [i.e. the eighteenth dynasty of ancient Egypt circa 1543–1292 BC].



Secondly, Ptolemy’s Geographia documents numerous geographical transformations experienced by the Arabian Peninsula since [about] 194 BC.

The contents of Ptolemy’s Geographia indicate it was a living document which incorporated inherited knowledge from the Greek tradition.

Ptolemy’s Geographia also incorporates knowledge contributed by successive generations of geographers and cartographers.



Thirdly, and most importantly, Ptolemy’s Geographia provides the base data for evaluating the catastrophic changes triggered by the Liwa Impact in [about] 637 CE.

The dating of the Liwa Impact Crater is a matter for informed debate because Ptolemy’s Geographia places the impact [sometime] between 194 BC and 1295 CE whilst the Old Japanese Cedar Tree chronology suggests the impact occurred at the Arabian Horizon in 637 CE.



The catastrophic changes triggered by the Liwa Impact suggest the Arabian Peninsula has pivoted [back] towards Africa [by about 10°] and that its possible ancient settlements might be found beneath the waters of the Persian Gulf.


Whether these [possible] ancient settlements are Dilmun settlements is a matter of scholarly debate because Ptolemy’s Geographia indicates they would have been adjacent to the Indian Ocean before the Liwa Impact.

Intriguingly, this positioning on the Indian Ocean would have enabled these settlements to function as an “entrepôt” [like Dilmun] in Arabia that traded with Africa, India and beyond.

This entry was posted in Arabian Horizon, Catastrophism, Geology, Heinsohn Horizon, History, Uniformitarianism. Bookmark the permalink.

5 Responses to The Arabian Horizon – The Lost Lands: Dilmun

  1. Louis Hissink says:


    The photo for the Tel is most revealing. It is supposed to be a hill made by continuous building of dwellings etc over time.

    This is vaguely right.

    From my perspective as a geologist a Tel is similar to a mesa where all the surrounding stratigraphy has been eroded away.

    So too a Tel, which is the remnant of an eroded area of urbanisation etc. It is NOT a lonely hill on which people built, but a fortuitous remnant of a much larger city. In other words the buildings etc would have continued laterally away from and around the “tel – mesa”.

  2. Louis Hissink says:

    In addition I have digitised an old geological map of Syria, circa 1964 from the USSR, and the Tell Barri is located in/on Pliocene sediments. There is thus a chronological anachronism here if my interpretation that the Pliocene sediments are post Tell. Oh dear,

  3. malagabay says:

    You might enjoy reading John Ackerman:

    The famous archaeologist, Sir Leonard Wooley, reported that ziggurats were coated on the outside with tar.

    The tells originally were flattened, but then as time went by the populated areas on their tops were surrounded by walls (Figure 3), some as thick as 40 meters, which were reinforced on the exterior by piling up earth glacies combined with lime.

    Fig. 3 Tell Urbil in Kurdistan (Iraq)
    As discussed in many posts on this site, Mars was in a geostationary orbit above Mt. Kailas for 14.4 years and then released into a holding orbit which intersected the orbit of the Earth for 15.6 years.

    This cycle was repeated one hundred times, resulting in the blasting of the crust, oceans, atmosphere, flora and fauna of the formerly living Mars to the Earth each time it passed through alignments with the Moon or the Sun and Moon combined.

    Each time Mars was captured, its great mass (the sum of the current masses of Mercury and Mars) only some 35,000 km above the Himalayas, exerted enormous tidal forces on the outer shell of the Earth (post), the lithosphere, which are unimaginable to modern geologists.

    The immediate effect of each capture was to draw a confluence of waters toward Mars nadir point, forming a stationary tidal bulge surrounding the Himalayas which attained an elevation of over 5,000 m high.

    The water which formed this bulge, called the samudra in the Rg Veda, was drawn from all directions and remained, a stationary tidal ocean covering northern India for each 14.4 years of each Mars capture.

    Pyramids, Tels & Ziggurats – Lifeboats
    John Ackermann

    The Erbil Citadel is a tell or occupied mound, and the historical city centre of Erbil in the Kurdistan Region of Iraq.

    The earliest evidence for occupation of the citadel mound dates to the 5th millennium BC, and possibly earlier.

    It appears for the first time in historical sources in the Ebla tablets around 2,300 BC, and gained particular importance during the Neo-Assyrian period.

    The citadel is situated on a large tell – or settlement mound – of roughly oval shape that is between 25 and 32 metres (82 and 105 ft) high.

    The area on top of the mound measures 430 by 340 metres (1,410 ft × 1,120 ft) and is 102,000 square metres (1,100,000 sq ft) large.

    Natural soil has been found at a depth of 36 metres (118 ft) below the present surface of the mound.

    The angle of the citadel mound’s slopes is c. 45°.

    Three ramps, located on the northern, eastern and southern slopes of the mound, lead up to gates in the outer ring of houses

    The perimeter wall of the citadel is not a continuous fortification wall, but consists of the façades of approximately 100 houses that have been built against each other.

    Because they have been built on or near the steep slope of the citadel mound, many of these façades were strengthened by buttresses to prevent their collapse or subsidence.

    A recent post discussed zircon crystals in Earth soils and rocks, noting they are Zircon silicate.

    Someone at NASA must have read the post because they immediately reported “Rocks Rich in Silica Present Puzzles for Mars Rover Team”.

    NASA’s Curiosity rover has found much higher concentrations of silica at some sites it has investigated in the past seven months on Mount Sharp, a series of sedimentary layers within Gale Crater (Fig. 1).

    Silica makes up nine-tenths of the composition of some of the rocks.

    “Adding to the puzzle, some silica at one rock Curiosity drilled, called “Buckskin,” is in a mineral named tridymite, rare on Earth and never seen before on Mars.

    The usual origin of tridymite on Earth involves high temperatures in igneous or metamorphic rocks, but the finely layered sedimentary rocks examined by Curiosity have been interpreted as lakebed deposits.”

    Amazing! Silicates on Mars!

    Ancient texts tell of ‘sky gods’ that ruled the world.

    Prior to 4000 BC there were only two terrestrial planets, a swollen Mars in an orbit similar to that of Venus today and the Earth.

    Both were full of life. Mars’ life forms were the same as ours today, but Earth’s life was reptilian, dominated by dinosaurs, a dead-end for intelligent life.

    Through a sequence of astronomical events, involving the creation of Venus via an impact on Jupiter and its destruction of all life on Earth, Mars was repeatedly placed in a geostationary orbit, only 44,400 km from the center of the Earth.

    In this position, above Mt. Kailas, it wrenched the entire lithosphere of the Earth as a entity, loose from the interior, forming a weak layer, the asthenosphere, which allowed the entire lithosphere to rotate about a new axis in central Canada, enabling Mt. Kailas (31° N latitude) to revolve in the plane of the solar system, not around the direction of Polaris.

    In this orbit, Mars was subjected to enormous tidal stresses every time the Moon or worse yet, the Sun and Moon combined, passed behind it and hundreds of volcanoes on its surface blasted all of its vital resources: rock, soil, minerals, ocean, atmosphere, vegetation (as manna) to the Earth. Animal life was carried here by arcs, pictured in most cultures as disk-shaped.

    This took place between 3687 and 687 BC, exactly in coincidence with the Biblical timeline.

    Mars Close to Earth 3067 to 687 BC

    During these encounters its entire crust, oceans, atmosphere and biosphere were transferred to the Earth.

    In order to maintain the stability of the pairing, it was necessary to sustain fixed tidal bulges on both planets.

    Mars’ Lost Crust

    More slowly, the tidal effect of the Earth melted subsurface rock at Mars north pole and once mobile drew the magma upward, first appearing as the mythological ‘golden or world egg’ in many ancient mythologies.

    It eventually expanded to become an island at the north pole of Mars which is quite promenent to this day, rising some 3 km above the surrounding terrain, topped by the northern ice cap.

    Sudden convulsions occurred within Mars as it orbited the Earth.

    These were caused by alignments with the Moon and with eclipses, each of which lasted some 30 to 40 minutes, blasting enormous masses of rock into space, resulting in the northern third of the planet now being 7 km below the datum.

    Most of this rock and soil was blasted to the Earth.

    The rocks and red soil ejected during one hundred 14.4-year geostationary encounters cover our continents with hundreds of meters of Martian crustal material.

    Geologists estimating ages for these rocks are completely thrown off by magnetic field reversals due to the reorienting of the lithosphere during the Mars encounters, believing these are the result of very ancient continental drift or even actual reversals of the Earths geomagnetic field.

    Fig. 3. Correction curve for 14C datng is evidence for a complete change of the Earth’s atmosphere during the Vedic Period

    Mars’ Xenon Loss

    The NASA rovers on Mars have been attempting to prove that it lost its atmosphere, including all of its water very gradually over the last 3 to 4 billion years, by escaping into space.

    The latest means of studying the atmospheric loss has been the study of Xenon by the Curiosity rover’s SAM (Sample Analysis at Mars) instrument.

    Xenon, because it is a noble gas that does not chemically combine with any other elements, is ideal for a study of the atmosphere.

    Moreover it has a number of isotopes, that is, Xenon atoms with slightly different weights (different numbers of neutrons in its nucleus).

    As the atmosphere is lost to space the lighter weight Xenon isotopes should escape faster than the heavier ones.

    Another unique aspect of Xenon is that it is very heavy, with an atomic weight twice that of iron.

    In fact it is a wonder that any of this heavy gas would rise at all.

    The xenon experiment required months of careful testing at NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center.

    The results indicated exactly the opposite of the previously hypothesized, billion-year gradual loss of the Martian atmosphere, although not stated quite so strongly in NASA RELEASE 15-055, March 31, 2015 :

    “The SAM measurement of the ratios of the nine xenon isotopes traces a very early period in the history of Mars when a vigorous atmospheric escape process was pulling away even the heavy xenon gas. The lighter isotopes were escaping just a bit faster than the heavy isotopes.”

    Water, Xenon Lost from Mars

    Peleh: Hidden Knowledge – John Ackerman – 2013

    The primary idea on which this and my previous books, Firmament and Chaos, are based, is that the sacred myths of all ancient cultures were written for the single purpose of describing close encounters of Mars, Venus and Mercury with the Earth.

    Indeed, this planetary chaos has been the preeminent factor in shaping the Earth, the planets, mankind and his religions in the last 6,000 years.

    Review of Peleh: Hidden Knowledge by John Ackerman
    4.0 out of 5 stars Rating from Minitru Book Review, September 23, 2009
    By Gordon Comstock

    • Louis Hissink says:


      I am familiar with his ideas though some of his fundamental concepts seem awry. And his geological understanding seems a little incomplete. Reminds me of P.N Oats who starts off Hindu history with a more extreme starting point; creation over 7 days seems a slight improvement over instant creation of everything at once, much as Darwinian evolution could be considered an improvement on the 7 day long version.

      But he does list very useful data though his interpretations of that data are arguable. That said, his geology and ignorance of plasma universe physics limits the explanatory power of his approach.

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