The Gradualist Skool of Historians encounter a few narrative problems whenever they fail to recognise natural catastrophes.
Gradualist Historians have a problem locating the ancient country of Dilmun.
Dilmun or Telmun was an ancient Semitic speaking country mentioned throughout the history of Mesopotamia from the 3rd millennium BC onwards.
It is regarded as one of the oldest civilizations in the Middle East.
Dilmun was an important trading center from the late fourth millennium to 800 BC.
At the height of its power, Dilmun controlled the Persian Gulf trading routes.
In 600 BC, the Neo-Babylonian Empire, and later the Persian Empire, ruled Dilmun.
Some Gradualist Historians believe there is a “scholarly consensus” that Dilmun was located in Bahrain, Kuwait, Qatar and coastal eastern Saudi Arabia.
Based on textual evidence, it is located in the Persian Gulf on a trade route between Mesopotamia and the Indus Valley Civilisation, close to the sea and to artesian springs.
Dilmun was mentioned by the Mesopotamians as a trade partner, a source of copper, and a trade entrepôt.
The scholarly consensus is that Dilmun encompassed Bahrain, Kuwait, Qatar and the coastal regions of the Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia.
This area is certainly what is meant by references to “Dilmun” among the lands conquered by king Sargon of Akkad and his descendants.
Other Gradualist Historians believe the location of Dilmun is “still unidentified”.
In 1987, Theresa Howard-Carter proposed that Dilmunz of this era might be a still unidentified tell near the Shatt al-Arab between modern-day Qurnah and Basra in modern-day Iraq.
A tell or tel, is a type of archaeological mound created by human occupation and abandonment of a geographical site over many centuries.
A classic tell looks like a low, truncated cone with a flat top and sloping sides.
Even though there is a “scholarly consensus” regarding the location of Dilmun the Gradualist Historians have failed to locate an archaeological site that was continually occupied between 3300 BC and 556 BC.
As of 2008, archaeologists have failed to find a site in existence during the time from 3300 BC (Uruk IV) to 556 BC (Neo-Babylonian Era), when Dilmun appears in texts.
But the Gradualist Historians have managed to blow a 1,300 year hole in their “scholarly consensus” by failing to find any settlements between 3,300 BC and 2,000 BC.
According to Hojlund, no settlements exist in the Gulf littoral dating to 3300–2000 BC.
Thus in 2008, archaeologists failed to find a site for Dilmun dating to the time period in which Dilmun first appears in ancient texts (3300–2000 BC).
In other words:
The “scholarly consensus” has been cobbled together with fragmentary evidence.
However recently, it was discovered that in 2000 B.C., Mesopotamians inhabited Failaka island.
Failaka had many Mesopotamian-style buildings typical of those found in Iraq dating from around 2000 B.C.
At a site on the Bay of Kuwait, the model of a sailing craft has been discovered, that has been dated to c. 4000 BC.
The fragmentary nature of the archaeological evidence has encouraged some scholarly speculation that an ancient Gulf Oasis refuge might be found beneath the waters of the Persian Gulf.
There is now ample evidence indicating that prehistoric peoples occupied the margins of the Gulf Oasis at various times throughout prehistory, although radiometric dates still remain elusive.
In recent years, several new Late Pleistocene archaeological sites have been discovered around the periphery of the basin, all of which are located on drainage systems emptying into the Gulf.
As early humans occupied the semiarid fringes of this refugium, it is reasonable to presume that their range also included the mosaic of favorable microenvironments found within the core of the basin.
New Light on Human Prehistory in the Arabo-Persian Gulf Oasis
Jeffrey Rose – Current Anthropology 51.6 – December 2010
However, there are several problems with the “scholarly” endeavours undertaken by the Gradualist Historians because they assume the Arabian Peninsula has been geographically [and geologically] stable for the last 6,000 [odd] years.
Firstly, DNA evidence suggests the Arabian Peninsula separated from Africa after 1,300 BC.
The human Y DNA evidence reflects this dichotomy with significant clusters of haplogroup J-M267 appearing in [both] Arabia [Yemen] and North Eastern Africa [Sudan and Ethiopia].
The geographical evidence clearly indicates these two clusters of haplogroup J-M267 were once unified in a single geographic location centred upon the Afar Triple Junction.
Arabia was physically connected to North Eastern Africa until about 1300 BC [i.e. the eighteenth dynasty of ancient Egypt circa 1543–1292 BC].
Secondly, Ptolemy’s Geographia documents numerous geographical transformations experienced by the Arabian Peninsula since [about] 194 BC.
The contents of Ptolemy’s Geographia indicate it was a living document which incorporated inherited knowledge from the Greek tradition.
Ptolemy’s Geographia also incorporates knowledge contributed by successive generations of geographers and cartographers.
Thirdly, and most importantly, Ptolemy’s Geographia provides the base data for evaluating the catastrophic changes triggered by the Liwa Impact in [about] 637 CE.
The dating of the Liwa Impact Crater is a matter for informed debate because Ptolemy’s Geographia places the impact [sometime] between 194 BC and 1295 CE whilst the Old Japanese Cedar Tree chronology suggests the impact occurred at the Arabian Horizon in 637 CE.
The catastrophic changes triggered by the Liwa Impact suggest the Arabian Peninsula has pivoted [back] towards Africa [by about 10°] and that its possible ancient settlements might be found beneath the waters of the Persian Gulf.
Whether these [possible] ancient settlements are Dilmun settlements is a matter of scholarly debate because Ptolemy’s Geographia indicates they would have been adjacent to the Indian Ocean before the Liwa Impact.
Intriguingly, this positioning on the Indian Ocean would have enabled these settlements to function as an “entrepôt” [like Dilmun] in Arabia that traded with Africa, India and beyond.