In 1590, nearly a century after Christopher Columbus arrived in the New World, a Spanish Jesuit named Jose de Acosta postulated that humans and animals had arrived in the New World via a northern land connection to the Old World.
In 1492 a Spanish-based transatlantic maritime expedition led by Christopher Columbus resulted in the discovery of the Americas, a continent which was previously unknown in Europe, as well as the colonization of the Americas.
It is chiefly the Historia natural y moral that has established the reputation of Acosta, as this was one of the very first detailed and realistic descriptions of the New World.
In it, more than a century before other Europeans learned of the Bering Strait, Acosta hypothesized that Latin America’s indigenous peoples had migrated from Asia. He also divided them into three barbarian categories.
426 years later the Abysmal Academics are still singing the same hymn.
The prehistory of the Americas (North, South, and Central America, and the Caribbean) begins with people migrating to these areas from Asia during the height of an Ice Age.
These groups are generally believed to have been isolated from peoples of the “Old World” until the coming of Europeans in the 10th century from Norway and with the voyages of Christopher Columbus in 1492.
The most popular theory asserts that migrants came to the Americas via Beringia, the land mass now covered by the cold ocean waters in the Bering Strait.
More enlightened minds have [unsuccessfully] tried to reason with the Abysmal Academics.
In 1607, for example, Gregorio Garcia argued some Americans were descended from the Carthaginians, some from the Lost Tribes of Israel, Atlantis, Greece, and Phoenicia, and still others from the Chinese, Tartars, and other groups.
350 years later Charles Boland couldn’t reason with the Abysmal Academics.
Stone ruins in New Hampshire from the Bronze Age, Carthaginian coins on Mid-Atlantic islands… Phoenician inscriptions on rocks in Pennsylvania… Roman coins in Venezuela… rumors of bronze shields, daggers and swords… these are just a few of the clues which testify to the fact that many people came to this hemisphere long before Columbus!
In the tradition of the great mystery writers, the author of this absorbing book has woven fact, myth and theory into the adventures of nineteen groups of explorers, including Chinese, Irish, Vikings, Portuguese and Romans.
They all discovered America – Charles Michael Boland – 1963
In 1976 Barry Fell tried to reason with the Abysmal Academics but they only [very briefly] interrupted their hymn singing to complete a survey that showed 95.7% of teaching archaeologists had a negative view of his “pseudo-archaeology”.
Barry Fell (1917-1994) was a professor of invertebrate zoology at the Harvard Museum of Comparative Zoology.
While his primary professional research included starfish and sea urchins, Fell is most well known for his controversial work in New World epigraphy, arguing that various inscriptions in the Americas are best explained by extensive pre-Columbian contact with Old World civilizations.
His writings on epigraphy and archaeology are generally rejected by those mainstream scholars who have considered them.
A survey of 340 teaching archaeologists in 1983, showed 95.7% had a “negative” view of Barry Fell’s claims (considering them pseudo-archaeology), 2.9% had a “neutral” view, and only 1.4% had a “positive” view (regarding them as factual).
This highly and widely acclaimed book provides substantial evidence that Celts from Spain… daring Semitic seafarers from Carthage, Libya, and Egypt were living and trading in America thousands of years before Columbus.
When Barry Fell’s AMERICA B.C. first exploded on the literary scene it was acclaimed by critics as “…The first major work to penetrate the mysteries of ancient European inhabitants in America” and its support has grown even stronger over the years.
It has long been taken for granted that the first European visitors to American shores either sailed with Columbus in 1492 or with Norseman like Lief Erickson a full five centuries earlier.
But the history of America before that date has remained so far lost in native Indian legends.
This was the case until the late Harvard Professor Barry Fell uncovered evidence including astonishing new discoveries to replace those legends with myth-shattering fact.
America BC: Ancient Settlers – Barry Fell – 1976 New 2015 Edition
However, in the modern era of DNA Analysis, its very easy to demonstrate that the indigenous population of the New World were not isolated from the Old World and that access to the New World was not limited to the Bering Strait.
The Abysmal Academics proudly proclaim DNA links between Asia and the Americas.
Haplogroup C-M217, also known as C2 (and previously as C3), is a Y-chromosome DNA haplogroup.
It is the most frequently occurring branch of the wider Haplogroup C (M130).
M217 is found at high frequencies among Central Asian peoples, indigenous Siberians, and some Native peoples of North America.
Several branches of haplogroup Q-M242 have been predominant pre-Columbian male lineages in indigenous peoples of the Americas.
In the indigenous people of North America, Q-M242 is found in Na-Dené speakers at an average rate of 68%.
The highest frequency is 92.3% in Navajo, followed by 78.1% in Apache, 87% in SC Apache, and about 80% in North American Eskimo (Inuit)–Aleut populations. (Q-M3 occupies 46% among Q in North America)
Haplogroup Q-M242 has been found in approximately 94% of Indigenous peoples of Mesoamerica and South America.
Q-M242 originated in Asia (Altai regions), and is widely distributed across it.
But the Abysmal Academics pray nobody notices the decimation caused by the devastating Canada Basin impact event which indicates the land links between the New World and the Old World weren’t simply limited to the Bering Strait.
The main trajectory of the impact blasted material forwards towards [primarily] Russia, Finland and Norway whilst the lateral blast damage can be clearly identified between Canada and Greenland.
And the Abysmal Academics hope by singing loudly that nobody will hear about the linkages between the Americas and Europe.
Haplogroup R or R-M207, is a Y-chromosome DNA haplogroup.
It is both numerous and widespread amongst modern populations.
Some descendant subclades are common throughout Europe, Central Asia and South Asia, and also common in parts of the West Asia, Africa and North America.
R-M173 was historically known as R1 and has been common throughout Europe and South Asia since pre-history. It has many branches (Semino 2000 and Rosser 2000).
It is the second most common haplogroup in Indigenous peoples of the Americas following haplogroup Q-M242, especially in the Algonquian peoples of Canada and the United States (Malhi 2008).
The paragroup for the R-M479 lineage is found predominantly in Pakistan and other parts of South Asia, although deep-rooted examples have also been found among Portuguese, Spanish, Tatar (Bashkortostan, Russia), and Ossetian (Caucasus) populations (Myres 2010).
Haplogroup X is found in approximately 7% of native Europeans, and 3% of all Native Americans from North America.
Overall, haplogroup X is found in around 2% of the population of Europe, the Near East and North Africa. It is especially common among Egyptians inhabiting El-Hayez oasis (14.3%).
Sub-group X1 is much less frequent, and is largely restricted to North Africa, the Horn of Africa and the Near East.
Sub-group X2 appears to have undergone extensive population expansion and dispersal…
Particular concentrations appear in Georgia (8%), Orkney (in Scotland) (7%), and amongst the Israeli Druze community (27%).
Subclades X2a and X2g are found in North America, but are not present in native South Americans.
The greatest frequency of haplogroup X is observed in the Druze, a minority population in Israel, Jordan, Lebanon, and Syria, as much in X1 (16%) as in X2 (11%).
Although it occurs only at a frequency of about 3% for the total current indigenous population of the Americas, it is a bigger haplogroup in northern North America, where among the Algonquian peoples it comprises up to 25% of mtDNA types.
It is also present in lesser percentages to the west and south of this area—among the Sioux (15%), the Nuu-chah-nulth (11%–13%), the Navajo (7%), and the Yakama (5%).
Given these DNA connections between the New World and the Old World its hardly surprising there are also very tangible cultural connections.
Intriguingly, Thomas Wilson discovered Swastika Symbols span the globe.
These international connections that link India to the Americas [via Europe and the Middle East] are well illustrated by the Hopi people.
Hopi values echo Vedic religions: Hinduism, Jainism and Buddhism.
And Hopi rituals echo Vedic rituals.
Amongst these tangible cultural connections there are clear echoes of the Chinese [colour coded] Four Symbols [and the yellow Centre] in the native American medicine wheel.
While it is true that the most common colors of the Medicine Wheel in Native America are Red, Yellow Black and White, these are not the absolute colors for all Native American Nations.
Some Nations use, Blue in wake of Black, others have Purple instead of Black. Yet some other Nations have used Green in lieu of Black.
The part points as well as the four sectors have been attributed to representing the following:
The Four Directions: East, South, West, North
The Four Seasons: Spring, Summer, Autumn, Winter
And there are many more!
Native American Medicine Wheel – Jamie K Oxendine – PowWows.com
The Mexica (Aztec) Medicine Wheel
“This is an ancient symbol used by all of North and South America.
There are many different ways that this basic concept is expressed: the four grandfathers, the four winds, the four cardinal directions and many other relationships that can be expressed in sets of four.”
6th Sun Ridaz – Mexica Medicine Wheel / Four Directions
The Cherokee, for example, use the Chinese colour coded Four Symbols [rotated by 90 degrees] to represent the four cardinal directions.
The sacred four has direct relation to the four cardinal points, while seven, besides these, includes also “above,” “below,” and “here in the center.”
In many tribal rituals color and sometimes sex are assigned to each point of direction.
In the sacred Cherokee formulas the spirits of the East, South, West, and North are, respectively, Red, White, Black, and Blue, and each color has also its own symbolic meaning of Power (War), Peace, Death, and Defeat.
Myths of the Cherokee – James Mooney – 1902
The Cherokee are a Native American People, originally indigenous to the Southeastern United States (principally Georgia, Tennessee, North Carolina, and South Carolina).
The Cherokee language is part of the Iroquoian language group.
In the nineteenth century, historians and ethnographers recorded an oral tradition that told of the tribe having migrated south in ancient times from the Great Lakes region, where other Iroquoian-speaking peoples lived.
Whether the Four Symbols arrived in the Americas from the East and/or West [or vice versa] is open to debate.
However, its clear that Barry Fell [and many others] have documented innumerable cultural artefacts that connect the New World and the Old World.
Some of these cultural artefacts are so weighty and overwhelming that even the Abysmal Academics can’t overlook them or accidentally lose the evidence in a museum basement.
North Salem is a town in the northeast part of Westchester County (proper), New York, United States. It is a suburb of New York City located approximately 50 miles north of Midtown Manhattan.
But they can close their eyes whilst singing the same old song…