The Red Score: 96 Chieftains


Whenever vacuous vestal virgins frantically run about in headless chicken mode it usually means some bad news has triggered their fight-or-flight response.

If they also wave their arms about whilst bellowing Fake! Fraud! Fabricated! then they’ve received some really bad news and its safe to assume the lady doth protest too much.

When it comes to Constantine Rafinesque’s Red Score the mainstream is clearly displaying some of the classic symptoms triggered by really bad news.

… clear evidence that it was a fake
… had long suspected the document to be a fraud
… lumping it with many other famous archaeological frauds
… very good reason to believe that he fabricated important data …
… significant evidence that the document is a hoax
… also believed the text a hoax

One aspect of the Red Score that’s triggered arm waving is the chronology.

The chronicle encompassed nothing less than a Creation myth, a flood legend, the entry of the tribe from Asia to Alaska, their migration to the south and east to the Delaware/New Jersey/eastern Pennsylvania area, and a chronology of ninety six successive chiefs, all unfolding over 3,200 years – an unbelievable story.

The translation was first published in The American Nations (1836), along with twenty verses that extended the history of the Delaware Indians from about A.D. 1600, when the Walam alum closes, to A.D. 1800, a time when the Delaware Indians were residing in Indiana.

These later verses, which had been translated by a John Burns, were found on a”fragment” of unknown provenance and were undoubtedly authentic, according to the archaeologist C. A. Weslager.

Chapter 12 – Walam Olum
Constantine Samuel Rafinesque: A Voice in the American Wilderness
Leonard Warren – 2015

Rafinesque created his 3,200 year chronology by assuming each of the Chieftains mentioned in the Red Score was a Chieftain for 33.33 years [on average] i.e. 96 x 33.33 = 3,200.

Having obtained, through the late Dr. Ward of Indiana, some of the original Wallam-Olum (painted record) of the Linapi tribe of Wapahani or White River, the translation will be given of the songs annexed to each: which form a kind of connected annals of the nation.

In the illustrations of this history, will be figured the original glyphs or symbols, and the original songs, with a literal translation, word for word.

This will furnish a great addition to our knowledge of American graphics and philology ; but here the annals are chiefly interesting historically. I have translated, however, all the historical and geographical names, so as to afford a better clue to the whole.

We knew by all the writers who have had friendly intercourse with the tribes of North America, that they did possess, and perhaps keep yet, historical and traditional records of events, by hieroglyphs or symbols, on wood, bark, skins, in stringed wampuns &c.; but none had been published in the original form.

This shall be the first attempt.

Lederer saw 200 years ago in Carolina, wheels of 60 rays, recording events of 60 years.

Humboldt has mentioned the glyphical symbols of the Hurons on wood, seen by the Jesuits.

Heckwelder saw the Olumapi or painted sticks of the Linapis ; but did not describe them ; he merely translated some of their traditional tales : which agree in the main, with these historical songs ; yet the songs appear mere abridgments of more copious annals, or the bases of the traditions.

The Ninniwas or Chipiwas, the Ottowas, the Sakis and Shawanis &c., all Linapi tribes, have such painted tales and annals, called Neobagun (male tool) by the former.

Tanner has figured some of these pictured songs or Neobagun, in his interesting Narrative.

Loskiel has stated that the Linapis had complete genealogies, with symbols expressing the deeds of each king.

Beatty in 1766 saw records 370 years old.

Out of these materials and other kept by the Ozages, Cowetas, Tzulukis, Panis &c., might be formed or restored a peculiar graphic system of north America, different from the Mexican system ; and probably once imported from Asia: where it may be compared with the graphic symbols of the Kuriles, Yakuts, Koriaks &c., indicated by Humboldt; but which are unknown to me.

Meantime I shall give materials for such researches in my illustrations.

The symbols, when met alone, were inexplicable; but by obtaining the words or verses, (since they must commonly be sung) we may acquire enough to lead on further enquiries.

The most obvious peculiarity of this system, is that each symbol applies to a verse or many words ; as if the ideas were amalgamated in the compound system : yet they may often be analyzed, and the elements ascertained or conjectured, by their repetition.

These historical songs of the Linapi, are known to but few individuals, and must be learned with much labor.

Those obtained, consist of 3 ancient songs relating their traditions previous to arrival in America, written in 24, 16 and 20 symbols, altogether 60.

They are very curious, but destitute of chronology.

The second series relates to America, is comprised in 7 songs, 4 of 16 verses of 4 words, and 3 of 20 verses of 3 words.

It begins at the arrival in America, and is continued without hardly any interruption till the arrival of the European colonists towards 1600.

As 96 successive kings or chiefs are mentioned, except ten that are nameless : it is susceptible of being reduced to a chronology of 96 generations, forming 32 centuries, and reaching back to 1600 years before our era.

But the whole is very meagre, a simple catalogue of rulers, with a few deeds : yet it is equal to the Mexican annals of the same kind.

A last song, which has neither symbols nor words, consisting in a mere translation, ends the whole, and includes some few original details on the period from 1600 to 1820.

The American Nations – Constantine Samuel Rafinesque – Volume One – 1836

Rafinesque’s 33.33 years per Chieftain is on the high side when compared with familial generations.

A familial generation is a group of living beings constituting a single step in the line of descent from an ancestor.

In developed nations the average familial generation length is in the high 20s and has even reached 30 years in some nations.

Conversely, generation length has changed little and remains in the low 20s in less developed nations.

On the other hand: Chieftains aren’t familial generations.


The 1954 translation of the Red Score drastically reduced the average years per Chieftain down to a more “reasonable tenure” of 13.67 years.

Book Review: Walam Olum or Red Score
Indiana Historical Society – 1954

Lilly has contributed a stimulating chapter, “Speculations on the Chronology of the Walam Olum and Migration of the Lenape.”

The time scale is based on the number OP chiefs mentioned in the Walam Olum and an averaged 13.67 years as the reasonable tenure period for each chief.

At the present time (November, 1954) many archaeologists have accepted a beginning date for the Woodland culture around 2000 to 1000 B.C., while the climax of the Hopewell culture seems to be of the order of 2000 years ago.

Even without radiocarbon dates, some archaeologists by cross-correlating Mississippi Valley materials into the Southwest were suggesting a date for Hopewell of the order of 1500 years ago.

This is important because Black suggests the possibility of the Delaware as the pre-historic group responsible for the Hopewell culture in the Ohio Valley, and the time of their occupancy would be around 1100 to 1300 A. D., according to Lilly’s estimates.

These latter dates are actually the ones which the majority of archaeologists accepted in the late 1930’s and early 1940’s.

James B. Griffin – Museum of Anthropology – University of Michigan
Indiana Magazine of History – Volume 51, Issue 1, March 1955

However, because the Red Score chronology runs backwards from 1,600 CE there are two very good reasons [914 and 637 CE] to think the average Chieftain tenure was less than 11 years.



Overall, the 1st Millennium North American historical narrative is heavily fragmented and the three pre-defined 1st Millennium outlier events are evident but not well defined.

This lack of definition is partly caused by some groupings being impossible to interpret [without expert knowledge] because they are heavily [and inconsistently] sliced and diced.

However, the big story in North America during the 1st Millennium is the [roughly] 300 year hiatus between the Hopewell Tradition and the Mississippian Culture.



Either way: Red Score chronologies give the mainstream apoplexy.

To fit the Settled Science of the Last Ice Age the average years per Chieftain has to be increased to [at least] an impossible 110.42 years i.e. 110.42 x 96 = 10,600.32.

A study of the Walum Olam funded by pharmaceutical magnate and amateur archaeologist Eli Lilly (a staunch believer) gave it a passing grade and produced another translation.

But the study revealed how problematic the Walum Olam was, and some prominent archaeologists began rejecting it.

Carbon dating, newly developed, further called it into question.

Rafinesque’s timeframe for the Bering Strait crossing, based on the legend, put it about 3,600 years ago, while carbon dating placed it at least 12,000 years ago.

Walam Olum Hokum – Archaeology Magazine – 2009

Beringia is defined today as the land and maritime area bounded on the west by the Lena River in Russia; on the east by the Mackenzie River in Canada; on the north by 72 degrees north latitude in the Chukchi Sea; and on the south by the tip of the Kamchatka Peninsula.

It includes the Chukchi Sea, the Bering Sea, the Bering Strait, the Chukchi and Kamchatka Peninsulas in Russia as well as Alaska in the United States.

It is believed that a small human population of at most a few thousand arrived in Beringia from eastern Siberia during the Last Glacial Maximum before expanding into the settlement of the Americas sometime after 16,500 years ago during the Late Glacial Maximum as the American glaciers blocking the way southward melted, but before the bridge was covered by the sea about 11,000 years Before Present.

This Settled Science problem only arose in 1969 when Willi Dansgaard dug-up his Holocene Hockey Stick that he’d mathematically conjured-up out of his own imagination [as enshrined in his Sandwich Model aka Humble Pie on Hubris].


In 1966 the mainstream mathematical flow model for ice sheets was defined by John Nye’s 1957 paper The Distribution Of Stress And Velocity In Glaciers And Ice Sheets and according to the Nye Model the Camp Century “ice 20 metres above the bottom was estimated at 16,000 years” old.

The 16,000 year estimate produced by the Nye Model was rejected outright by Willi Dansgaard because he believed the age of the Greenland Ice Sheet exceeded the 40,000 year limitation associated with radiocarbon dating.

Therefore, demonstrating a singular flare for confirmation bias, Willi Dansgaard developed his own Sandwich Model that produced a far more acceptable estimate of 160,000 years for the Camp Century ice situated 20 metres above the bottom.

The refined and polished Holocene Hockey Stick was then publicly unleashed in 1969.


Clearly, falsifying the Settled Science of the Last Ice Age is really bad news.

Gallery | This entry was posted in Arabian Horizon, Books, Catastrophism, Greenland, Heinsohn Horizon, History, Old Japanese Cedar Tree, Red Score - Walam Olum, Uniformitarianism. Bookmark the permalink.

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