Shaping Scotland In Two Shakes


Ancient maps are frequently held in high esteem for their artistic qualities.


But many observers simply dismiss the content of these ancient maps because modern maps are very different and very accurate.

These differences are particularly stark when [for example] reviewing an ancient map that includes Scotland.


However, ignoring these strange and unfamiliar maps can be a big mistake because ancient cartographers understood that the Earth’s geography changes over time.


The second redeeming feature of the Zeno Map is that it neatly dovetails with the narrative of Atlantic Expansion that’s been well documented by cartographers since [at least] 1606.


For example, many generations of cartographers updated the Gazetteer in Ptolemy’s Cosmographia with the latest longitude and latitude values as they changed over time.



The Geography, also known by its Latin names as the Geographia and the Cosmographia, is a gazetteer, an atlas, and a treatise on cartography, compiling the geographical knowledge of the 2nd-century Roman Empire.

Originally written by Claudius Ptolemy in Greek at Alexandria around AD 150, the work was a revision of a now-lost atlas by Marinus of Tyre using additional Roman and Persian gazetteers and new principles.

The Geography consists of three sections, divided among 8 books.

Book I is a treatise on cartography, describing the methods used to assemble and arrange Ptolemy’s data.

From Book II through the beginning of Book VII, a gazetteer provides longitude and latitude values for the world known to the ancient Romans (the “ecumene”).

The rest of Book VII provides details on three projections to be used for the construction of a map of the world, varying in complexity and fidelity.

Book VIII constitutes an atlas of regional maps.

Therefore, it should really come as no surprise that the strange and quirky map of Scotland [drafted by Nicolaus Germanus in 1467] fits snugly with the modern bathymetry of the North Sea.


Doggerland was an area now beneath the southern North Sea that connected Great Britain to continental Europe

In July 2012, the results of a fifteen-year study of Doggerland by the universities of St Andrews, Dundee, and Aberdeen, including artefacts survey results, were displayed at the Royal Society in London.

Richard Bates of St Andrews University said:

“We have speculated for years on the lost land’s existence from bones dredged by fishermen all over the North Sea, but it’s only since working with oil companies in the last few years that we have been able to re-create what this lost land looked like.…
We have now been able to model its flora and fauna, build up a picture of the ancient people that lived there and begin to understand some of the dramatic events that subsequently changed the land, including the sea rising and a devastating tsunami.”

The North Sea is a marginal sea of the Atlantic Ocean located between Great Britain, Scandinavia, Germany, the Netherlands, Belgium, and France.

For the most part, the sea lies on the European continental shelf with a mean depth of 90 metres (300 ft).

The only exception is the Norwegian trench, which extends parallel to the Norwegian shoreline from Oslo to an area north of Bergen. It is between 20 and 30 kilometres (12 and 19 mi) wide and has a maximum depth of 725 metres (2,379 ft).

The Dogger Bank, a vast moraine, or accumulation of unconsolidated glacial debris, rises to a mere 15 to 30 metres (50–100 ft) below the surface.

The Devil’s Hole is a group of deep trenches in the North Sea about 200 km (125 mi) east of Dundee, Scotland.

Soundings showed that the surrounding seabed is between 80 and 90 metres (260 – 300 ft) but the trenches are as deep as 230 m (750 ft).

They run in a north-south direction and are on average between 1 and 2 km (.6 – 1.25 mi) in width and 20 to 30 km (12 – 18 mi) long.’s_Hole_%28North_Sea%29

If the Nicolaus Germanus map of Scotland is accepted at face value then we are presented with the curious conundrum of how exactly Scotland morphed into it’s current familiar form shown on modern maps.

Solving this mystery is like piecing together a jigsaw puzzle.

After some trial and error it becomes apparent the only way this ancient form of Scotland can morph into its current shape is by splitting Scotland into two independent pieces which can move independently.

This insight reveals the disintegration of Doggerland was a two step operation and that Eastern Scotland was initially separated from the British mainland by the Doggerland outflow channel.

The first step nudged Western Scotland [along with English & Wales] Northwards.

This Northward nudge appears to have damned Doggerland’s natural Northern drainage channel [in the gap between the ancient two piece Scotland] and created a [roughly] circular depression that rapidly began to fill with water.

The expansion of the freshly damned Doggerland lake [aka the North Sea] ultimately created a Southerly overflow channel which is now known as the English Channel.

The 1467 Germanus map of Scotland captures the configuration after this first step.

The second step in the transformation is far more catastrophic.

The Western section of Scotland rotates anti-clockwise by about 90° whilst the Eastern section of Scotland performs an amazing back-flip that arcs through [about] 180°.


Although this scenario may sound preposterous there is clear supporting evidence because the boundaries of the ancient two piece Scotland align with the Great Glen Fault and the Highland Boundary Fault.

Aligned northeast to southwest, the Great Glen Fault extends further southwest in a straight line through Loch Linnhe and the Firth of Lorne, and then on into northwestern Ireland, directly through Lough Foyle, Donegal Bay and Clew Bay.

The Highland Boundary Fault is a major fault zone that traverses Scotland from Arran and Helensburgh on the west coast to Stonehaven in the east.

It separates two distinctly different physiographic and geological terrains: the Highlands from the Lowlands, and in most places it is recognisable as a change in topography.

Where rivers cross the fault, they often pass through gorges, and the associated waterfalls can be a barrier to salmon migration.


To the north and west of the Highland Boundary Fault lie hard Precambrian and Cambrian metamorphic rocks: marine deposits metamorphosed to schists, phyllites and slates, namely the Dalradian Supergroup and the Highland Border Ophiolite suite.

To the south and east are Old Red Sandstone conglomerates and sandstones: softer, sedimentary rocks of the Devonian and Carboniferous periods.

Between these areas lie the quite different rocks of the Highland Border Complex (at one time called the Highland Boundary Complex), a weakly metamorphosed sedimentary sequence of sandstones, lavas, limestones, mudstones and conglomerates.


In other words: ancient Eastern Scotland was transformed into the Grampian Mountains.


The Grampian Mountains or Grampians (Am Monadh in Gaelic) are one of the three major mountain ranges in Scotland, occupying a considerable portion of the Scottish Highlands in northeast Scotland.

The range extends southwest to northeast between the Highland Boundary Fault and the Great Glen, occupying almost half of the land-area of Scotland and including the Cairngorms and the Lochaber hills.

The range includes many of the highest mountains in the British Isles, including Ben Nevis and Ben Macdui the two highest.

The official mainstream dating for this second step in the catastrophic Shaping of Scotland places these events somewhere between the original production of Ptolemy’s Cosmographia in [about] 150 CE and the drafting of the map by Germanus in 1467 CE.

The Old Japanese Cedar Tree chronology clearly highlights two catastrophic events during the 1st millennium: 637 CE [Arabian Horizon] and 914 CE [Heinsohn Horizon].

Therefore, it’s very likely that the catastrophic second step events occurred in 914 CE.



This timing conforms to the cartographic evidence that clearly documents the separation of Europe from North America as the North Atlantic expanded during the 2nd millennium.



Aligned northeast to southwest, the Great Glen Fault extends further southwest in a straight line through Loch Linnhe and the Firth of Lorne, and then on into northwestern Ireland, directly through Lough Foyle, Donegal Bay and Clew Bay.

The fault continues on the North American side of the North Atlantic Ocean, but is no longer part of a contiguous fault, as the complete fault was broken when the Mid-Atlantic Ridge formed 200 million years ago.

The North American side of the fault runs through the length of northwestern Newfoundland, Canada, as the Cabot Fault (Long Range Fault) and on into the Gulf of St. Lawrence. It is at least 300 miles (480 km) long.

This second step in the catastrophic Shaping of Scotland explains why the last remaining vestiges of Doggerland were swept away by a “catastrophic” tsunami which buried many mainland settlements under a thick blanket of mud.

Analysis suggests the tsunami over-ran Doggerland, a low-lying landmass that has since vanished beneath the waves.

Prof Vince Gaffney, an archaeologist at the University of Birmingham, said: “I think they (the researchers) are probably right, because the tsunami would have been a catastrophic event.”

Prehistoric North Sea ‘Atlantis’ hit by 5m tsunami
BBC News – Paul Rincon – 1 May 2014

Reconstructions of Viking port towns of the 8th-10th c. CE supposedly not
needed from 1-700 CE when wading through treacherous surf would do.


Vikings For 700 Years Without Sails, Ports, and Towns?
Gunnar Heinsohn – June 2014

Click to access heinsohn-viking-pdf-062014.pdf


Hedeby was an important Viking Age (8th to the 11th centuries) trading settlement near the southern end of the Jutland Peninsula, now in the Schleswig-Flensburg district of Schleswig-Holstein, Germany.

No wonder, centuries later, so many curious Europeans wanted to explore this New World.

The New World is one of the names used for the Earth’s Western Hemisphere, specifically the Americas (including nearby islands such as those of the Caribbean and Bermuda).

The term originated in the early 16th century after Europeans made landfall in what would later be called the Americas in the age of discovery, expanding the geographical horizon of classical geographers, who had thought of the world as consisting of Africa, Europe, and Asia, collectively now referred to as the Old World (a.k.a. Afro-Eurasia).

This entry was posted in British History, Catastrophism, Earth, Geology, Greenland, Heinsohn Horizon, History, Old Japanese Cedar Tree. Bookmark the permalink.

34 Responses to Shaping Scotland In Two Shakes

  1. Louis Hissink says:

    Rotating Scotland by that much is a wee difficult to explain tectonically. Mind you I’ve noticed the Scottish anomaly but if it was rotated into its present position, then the rock types have to be metamorphic and dominated by severe internal slippage, schists, and as the motion is counter-clockwise, or sinistral, then there will have to be an abundance of supporting structures at the micro and macro level.


  2. Louis Hissink says:

    They note a 200 degree rotation.

  3. malagabay says:

    A similar “extreme tectonic rotation” has been suggested for the “Cowhole Mountains crustal block” south of Death Valley in California.

    Curiously, two resultants in the Cowhole Mountains of southeastern California dip to the north or northwest, nearly 180° from the regional south to south-southwest pattern in the same general area (Marzolf, 1983b; Porter, 1985).

    This may be the result of extreme local variation in wind patterns due to the influence of topography where the erg lapped onto topographic highs of the magmatic arc.

    However, it seems more likely to have been the product of extreme tectonic rotation of the Cowhole Mountains crustal block about a vertical axis due to movement on nearby strike-slip faults (Marzolf, 1983b), as is known to have occurred later in the same general area (Carter et al., 1987).

    Pennsylvanian to Jurassic Eolian Transportation Systems In The Western United States
    Fred Peterson – Sedimentary Geology, 56 (1988) 207-260

  4. malagabay says:

    The noted “200 degree rotation” is also discussed in the following paper:

    This reveals a consistent counterclockwise sense of rotation across the study area, with rotation magnitudes varying from 30° (Qastal Maaf locality), through 99° (North Coast locality) and 160° (BAK/QT locality), reaching a maximum of 226° (West Coast locality).

    The possibility that the larger rotations occurred in a clockwise sense can not be excluded.

    Palaeomagnetic Results from The Baër-Bassit Ophiolite of Northern Syria and Their Implication for Fold Tests in Sheeted Dyke Terrains
    A. Morris and M.W. Anderson
    Physics and Chemistry of the Earth Parts A/B/C 27(25):1215-1222 – Dec 2002

  5. thx1138 says:

    So, did God damn Doggerland, or did dinosauran beavers dam it?

    This is not how mountains are formed, and once again, this tectonic idea has been falsified, so another explanation should be sought.

  6. malagabay says:

    The following comment is posted on behalf of Gunnar Heinsohn.
    * * * * *
    It sounds daring. Yet, when the Tiwanaku culture (peaking 600-900 CE; handling stones of up to 130 metric tons) ) was wiped out in the 10th century CE its location was lifted to nearly 4000 meters above sea level. Therefore, the area is known as the Altiplano (also Andean Plateau or Bolivian Plateau). It has an average height of 3,750 m, and is the second largest as well as second highest after the Tibetan Plateau. It extends over 170,000 km2 but still has not a single river reaching the ocean (a rare case of inland drainage). Lake Titicaca (8,300 km2; 900 km3 of water) must have formed in the 10th c. cataclysm because a submerged temple (200 x 50 m) was discovered beneath its surface in 2000 ( The Altiplano also holds a salt lake, Lake Poopó (between 1,000 and 3,500 km2; dry since December 2015). It was irregularly connected to another salt lake (or salt desert), Salar de Coipasa (2,218 km2 at 3,680 m above seal level). Active hot steam and sulfur sources around the Altiplano are witness to a very young volcanism. Still active are, e’s.g., Ampato (6,288 m), Tutpaca (5,816 m), Parinacota (6,348 m), Guallatiri (6,071 m), Paruma (5,728 m), Uturunku (6,008 m), Licancabur (5,916 m), Illampu (6,368 m), Huayna Potosi (6,088 m), Janq’u Uma (6,427 m), and Illimani (6,438 m). Nobody knows the height of the area now forming the Altiplano before the 10th c. disaster. The same is true of the force that could lift 170,000 km2.
    Gunnar Heinsohn
    * * * * *

  7. Louis Hissink says:

    Lake Titicaca was at sea level before the uplift since the lake bed hosts marine shell fish.

  8. Louis Hissink says:

    The uplift is conventionally dated to Tertiary, so this makes for a substantial compression of chronology that I expect will be fiercely resisted by the usual suspects. This makes me wonder that the NZ Moa extinction of 16th century CE might be the Pleistocene event, and the 6th CE event the Tertiary event.

  9. malagabay says:

    Either way: The Official Time Line is SNAFU.

  10. Pingback: Avalon | MalagaBay

  11. Pingback: The Fold Up Beds of Glen Roy | MalagaBay

  12. Thank you for these posts. I still have to go through some, slowly – to absorb better-, however this one prompts me to make a quick reply.
    This particular thread centres on what can be termed ‘abrupt’ geographical/geological change. The examples given are clear, quite clear, but equally quite difficult to accept (or more likely for the human being – difficult to stomach; a bitter pill). I link an example below, of man-made structure (yes calendars again), where these show such rotation, as when built, they were all axially aligned to the horizon point where the sun rose on the equinox day (~East). What is inferred is obvious.

  13. Brian Kerr says: … Ferrophotos (magnet field imprints), ferrocells, magnet field interactions, fields in magnet field viewing film.

  14. Pingback: Loch Ness Chronology: Getting to Grips with Gyttja | MalagaBay

  15. Tenuc says:

    What an intriguing idea! However, I think the scale of this event could be far bigger than just twisting a bit of Scotland around. The clue to the scale of this disaster lies in that strange geographic feature, the Altiplano, but I don’t think it has anything to do with the plateau being thrust up.

    Rather I think the Pacific Ocean was once a huge enclosed salt lake with its surface some 4,000 metres above the rest of the rest of the oceans of the world. The observed devastation occurred after the sudden collapse of one of its retaining walls freed a huge wall of water which. This huge sudden seething mass of water had enough force to rearrange many of the features of the world and even altered our planet’s angle of tilt. The tectonic movement we observe today is simply the aftereffects of that catastrophic event and this will likely continue at an ever decreasing rate until our planet regains its perfect balance again.

  16. This post raises the matter of the Planet’s change of angle of tilt (obliquity). There is evidence that tilt changes occurred – more than once, at least four times in the Holocene. The first record of that comes from Herodotus who quotes the Egyptian priests saying that four times the sun changed its place of rising/setting. Another, Pomponius Mela claims that four times the stars changed their course. And Plato – “declination…of the heavens..”

    Such changes alter the sun’s horizon movement from equinox to solstice. Again four changes are recorded in the megalithic calendars. The tilt changes appear to be a secondary response to cyclic dynamic instability, a characteristic of planet Earth.

    This appears far-fetched and complicated; except 1) such evidence is recorded. 2) such changes are destructive in nature, leaving evidence in several proxies from different sources, 3) are supported by archaeological evidence, and 4) the dating provided by proxies ties in well with archaeology, 5) — and explain why ‘established’ academia is lost when it comes to explaining the earth’s history, particularly the recurring glaciations.

    For timing of changes look here:

    A reason for the periodic abrupt changes may be as explained by a theory “Climate Friction” by D Rubincam.

  17. Pingback: European Islands of Culture | MalagaBay

  18. Jef Demolder says:

    Dear sir. Scotland has the same turned position on the map in the Nürnberger Chronik published by Hartmann Schedel in 1493. See my article If, following Gunnar Heinsohn, the catastrophe happened about 930, should mapmakers in the 15th century still draw Scotland (or Flanders) this way? I think the catastrophe happened after the publication of the Nürnberger Chronik in “1493” but on the other hand I think that “1493” belongs to another calendar than ours. Kind regards, Jef Demolder, Brussels

  19. Louis Hissink says:


    This is interesting – and seems to lend support to my suspicion that the Little Ice Age might have been a bit more than “little”. One hypothesis I work with is that the Australian Aboriginal Dreamtime might be the Little Ice Age period. The Korean Choson annals seem to support this idea as also the apparent destruction of Zheng-He’s chinese fleets.

    Perhaps the Antiplano uplift occurred during the LIA and not before.

    The impression I gain from Aboriginal narratives is that they were relating recent events.

    If the map is accurate and indeed western Europe looked like that, then a lot of recent history is also as problematical as the 1st millennium CE as Gunnar has noted.

    Are there other maps from the period supporting Schedel’s map?

    As my family tree originates from 1326 CE, this needs to be reviewed in light of this information.

    Nothing surprises me anymore.

    Excellent discovery!

  20. Pingback: Fabrication of History | Louis Hissink's Crazy World

  21. Martin Sieff says:

    A hugely important point buried in this excellent posting:

    “The Old Japanese Cedar Tree Chronology clearly highlights two catastrophic events during the 1st millennium: 637 CE [Arabian Horizon] and 914 CE [Heinsohn Horizon].”

    But if Malaga Bay is correct in his/its interpretation then the Cedar Tree Chronology alone proves 700 ghost years are not missing in Arabian and therefore Western history since the 637 “Arabian” catastrophic event occurred 277 years before the 914 catastrophic event.

    Clearly, if 700 years did not exist between 230 CE and 914 CE as Gunnar Heinsohn claims, a separate 637 event could not have occurred in the middle of it, let alone be recorded in the Japanese Cedar Tree Chronology.

    Note also, the Anglo-Saxon London that Heinsohn repeatedly claims did not exist, DID exist.

    It has been found, dated and excavated.

  22. craigm350 says:

    Geologists reveal ancient connection between England and France

  23. malagabay says:

    Very interesting progress…
    Thank you.

  24. malagabay says:

    If looks like England and France were once geologically sutured together with lakes running along the suture line. Initially the lakes would have been similar to Loch Ness in Scotland.

    The bathymetry of the English Channel clearly suggests expansionary forces tore France and England apart.

  25. malagabay says:

    Hipparchus of Nicaea (c. 190 – c. 120 BC) was a Greek astronomer, geographer, and mathematician. He is considered the founder of trigonometry but is most famous for his incidental discovery of precession of the equinoxes.


  26. craigm350 says:

    You’re welcome Tim.

    Along with Welsh and Breton, Cornish is descended directly from the Common Brittonic language spoken throughout much of Britain before the English language came to dominate. It was the main language of Cornwall for centuries until it was pushed westwards by English, maintaining close links with its sister language Breton, with which it was mutually intelligible until well into the Middle Ages.

    During the Old Cornish period (800–1200), the Cornish-speaking area was largely coterminous with modern-day Cornwall; the region of Devon was isolated by Wessex in 936 AD and many inhabitants fled to Cornwall or Brittany.[25] The earliest written record of the Cornish language comes from this period; a 9th-century gloss in a Latin manuscript of De Consolatione Philosophiae by Boethius, which used the words ud rocashaas. The phrase means “it [the mind] hated the gloomy places”.[26][27] A much more substantial survival from Old Cornish is a Cornish-Latin glossary (the Vocabularium Cornicum or Cottonian Vocabulary) containing translations of around 300 words.[28] The manuscript was widely thought to be in Old Welsh until the 1700s when it was identified as Cornish. At this time there was still little difference between Welsh and Cornish, and even fewer differences between Cornish and Breton, with some scholars arguing that the terms “Old Cornish” and “Old Breton” are merely geographical terms for the same language.

    In the reign of Henry VIII, an account was given by Andrew Boorde in his 1542 Boke of the Introduction of Knowledge. He states, “In Cornwall is two speches, the one is naughty Englysshe, and the other is Cornysshe speche.And there be many men and women the which cannot speake one worde of Englysshe, but all Cornyshe.

    This all makes one wonder about expansionary forces, official time lines, language and druidic cultures. Hmm.

  27. malagabay says:

    It also provides insights into the British Empire of Carausius and Allectus.


    And pointers towards the location of Avalon-Atlantis.


  28. Pingback: Shaping Roman Scotland | MalagaBay

  29. Louis Hissink says:

    Drop the sea level to the edge of the continental shelf and one can walk from Dover to Calais.

  30. malagabay says:

    Louis: It’s an interesting puzzle 🙂

  31. Louis Hissink says:

    Everyone seems to assume the existing sea level and oceans where slabs of SIAL float about. The other error, of which I am as guilty as anyone, is starting the analysis from the past to the present. It’s back to front reasoning.

  32. 277 years is almost 11.5×23…..
    The period between two disasters is the solar polarity cycle by half of that cycle.

  33. Expansions only occur with removal of pinch or with a change in the ratio of the energy of that pinch to the energy in the body/structure that is shaped by the pinch. It may be measurable by red shift analysis, to ascertin the extent of the quantum ;levels of energy.

Comments are closed.