Indian Impacts: The Hole Story

The huge gaping holes in the Indian historical narratives present the independent researcher with a few challenges.

Firstly, the mainstream is coy and coquettish whenever the conversation turns to Indian craters.

Secondly, they’re tight lipped and evasive when the evidence challenges their preconceived ideas.

They openly admit there are “impact” structures and when pushed they concede there might be three or four “impact” structures in India.

Evidently, they take great pride in keeping the “impact” headcount way down.

They also appear to take great pride in keeping their critical thinking skills well camouflaged.

But the good news is that these three or four Indian “impacts” are really very curious.

Kachchh (Luna)

The crater that causes conventional conversations to crash is the Kachchh (Luna) structure in Western India which Wikipedia has tucked away on it’s list of Unconfirmed Impact Craters.

This serious attack of crater coyness is probably attributable to it’s dating.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_unconfirmed_impact_craters_on_Earth

https://www.google.com/maps/place/23%C2%B042’17.0%22N+69%C2%B015’37.0%22E/@23.704722,69.260278,2687m/data=!3m1!1e3!4m5!3m4!1s0x0:0x0!8m2!3d23.704722!4d69.260278?hl=en

By dating the Kachchh (Luna) crater to around 2,000 BC the mainstream has placed itself in a very uncomfortable position because the date is within spitting distance of the disintegration of the Indus Valley Civilisation which is said to have gone into decline around 1,900 BC.

Apparently this possibility is far too shocking to be mentioned in polite gradualist circles.

The mainstream narrative is that by 1700 BCE most of the Indus Valley Civilisation cities had been abandoned and that the civilization finally collapsed around 1300 BCE as the population migrated overland in an Easterly direction [driven by the irresistible linguistic jet stream].

See: https://malagabay.wordpress.com/2016/07/19/catastrophic-english-out-of-india/

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Indus_Valley_Civilization

However, as with all Settled Science, this dating is best swallowed with a pinch of salt.

And independent observers need a veritable salt cellar when consuming Indian “impacts”.

For example, the physical dimensions of the Kachchh (Luna) crater don’t conform to the conventional concept of an impact crater.

This site appears to be a unique site in the world, as it lacks the characteristics of a typical impact site.

Conventionally measured depth to diameter ratio is dismally low.

In the centre of the crater lies a near circular lake of around one square kilometre, which remains dry during summers.

Depth of the lake is hardly two metres and the rim of the depression is covered by thick vegetation of horny Acacia species Acacia nilotica and Prosopis juilfor.

The region in general is barely 4-5 m above the mean sea level and within this terrain the crater is scarcely noticeable but for the growth of plants in a circular fashion around the dry
bed of the lake.

Since the terrain does not contain hard rocks the rim that surrounds the impact crater does not stand out prominently, with up-turned beds and shutter cone.

Although the crater apparently appears about a kilometre-wide, study of the radar-generated data of the satellite imagery carried out by M S Gadhavi, the crater may have spread for over five kilometres radius.

The critical study of satellite imagery reveal that there could be a few more craters within the Kachchh, which are concealed by subsequent denudational activities.

The Unusual Impact Crater of Luna In Kachchh, Western India
R V Karan – Jour Geol Soc India – Vol 68 – Nov 2006

http://www.geosocindia.org/index.php/jgsi/article/viewFile/81609/62979

The confusion continues with the analysis of the Kachchh (Luna) minerals which ambiguously point towards a “hypervelocity meteorite impact” from above or an upwelling of magma from “about 70 km” below the Earth’s surface.

X-ray analysis of the materials adhering to meteorite fragments carried out by Dr George Mathew, Earth Science Department, the Indian Institute of Technology Bombay reveal stishovite and coesite, the high pressure polymorphs of sllica, which confirms the impact origin of the crater.

The Unusual Impact Crater of Luna In Kachchh, Western India
R V Karan – Jour Geol Soc India – Vol 68 – Nov 2006

http://www.geosocindia.org/index.php/jgsi/article/viewFile/81609/62979

Among the various objects/products expected in an impact site, (a) fragments appearing like metallic meteorites that are dark, heavy and magnetic with spherical cavities are found at the rim of the suspected crater, and (b) glassy objects comparable to tektites have been recovered.

A Preliminary Report on The Possible Impact Crater of Kachchh
R. V. Karanth, P. S. Thakker And M. S. Gadhavi
Current Science – Vol. 91 – No. 7 – 10 Oct 2006

http://www.iisc.ernet.in/~currsci/oct102006/877.pdf

Stishovite is an extremely hard, dense tetragonal form (polymorph) of silicon dioxide.

It is very rare on the Earth’s surface, however, it may be a predominant form of silicon dioxide in the Earth, especially in the lower mantle.

Until recently, the only known occurrences of stishovite in nature formed at the very high shock pressures (>100 kbar or 10 GPa) and temperatures (> 1200 °C) present during hypervelocity meteorite impact into quartz-bearing rock.

Minute amounts of stishovite have been found within diamonds, and post-stishovite phases were identified within ultra-high-pressure mantle rocks.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Stishovite

Coesite is a form (polymorph) of silicon dioxide SiO2 that is formed when very high pressure (2–3 gigapascals), and moderately high temperature (700 °C or 1,300 °F), are applied to quartz.

After this report, the presence of coesite in unmetamorphosed rocks was taken as evidence of a meteorite impact event or of an atomic bomb explosion.

In metamorphic rocks, coesite was initially described in eclogite xenoliths from the mantle of the Earth that were carried up by ascending magmas; kimberlite is the most common host of such xenoliths.

Coesite is formed at pressures above about 2.5 GPa and temperature above about 700 °C.

This corresponds to a depth of about 70 km in the Earth.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Coesite

Lonar Crater Lake

The Lonar Crater Lake structure is the favoured Indian impact site amongst the mainstream talking heads that frequently fawn over its fabulous features and fascinating fauna.

Lonar Lake is a saline soda lake located at Lonar in Buldhana district, Maharashtra, India, which was created by a meteor impact during the Pleistocene Epoch and it is the only known hyper velocity impact crater in basaltic rock anywhere on Earth.

This lake, which lies in a basalt impact structure, is both saline and alkaline in nature.

Geologists, ecologists, archaeologists, naturalists and astronomers have published studies of various aspects of this crater lake ecosystem.

Lonar Lake has a mean diameter of 1.2 kilometres (3,900 ft) and is about 137 metres (449 ft) below the crater rim.

The meteor crater rim is about 1.8 kilometres (5,900 ft) in diameter.

The sides of the basin rise abruptly at an angle of about 75°.

The crater has an oval shape.

The meteorite impact came from the east, at an angle of 35 to 40 degrees.

There is a small circular depression at a distance of around 700m from the main lake, believed to be caused by a splinter of the meteor that hit the ground to also make a crater.

The chemical characteristics of the lake shows two distinct regions that do not mix – an outer neutral (pH 7) and an inner alkaline (pH 11) each with its own flora and fauna.

The lake is a haven for a wide range of plant and animal life.

Numerous temples surround the lake, most of which stand in ruins today, except for the temple of Daitya Sudan at the centre of the Lonar town, which was built in honour of Vishnu’s victory over the giant Lonasur.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lonar_crater_lake

Nonetheless, festering beneath the smug superficiality of the Settled Science is another avalanche of ambidextrous ambiguity.

Scratch beneath the surface of the mainstream temporal sequencing and the raconteur encounters a sizeable smorgasbord of dating delights that includes a mouthwatering 1,790 year old dainty for this curious crater that has miraculously retained it’s youthful good looks [aka “excellent state of preservation”] despite the disfiguring deluges delivered during the monsoon season.

The crater’s age is usually estimated to be 52,000 ± 6,000 years (Pleistocene), although a study published in 2010 gives an age of 570,000 ± 47,000 years.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lonar_crater_lake

The large variation in estimated ages of the crater ranging from some 13,000 years (Storzer and Koebrel, 2004) to about 52,000 years (Sengupta et al. 1997) too adds to the uncertainties that surround the Lonar crater and demands further investigations.

Lonar Crater – A Geological And Ecological Enigma
Dr. M. Bodas, B. Sen & K.K.K. Nair, GSI, CR.
Geological Survey of India

http://www.portal.gsi.gov.in/gsiDoc/pub/cs_lonar_lake.pdf

Published ages range from 15.3 ± 13.3 ka from fission-track counts in impact glass (Storzer and Koeberl, 2004), to 45–67 ka, using the thermoluminescence method on impact glass (Sengupta et al., 1997).

Unpublished radiocarbon dating of organic materials from drill cores in the lake sediments imply approximate lower limit ages between 15 and 30 ka (Sengupta and Bhandari, 1988).

We collected histosols and organic-rich swamp muds for radiocarbon measurements beneath the distal ejecta blanket at: three locations at Kalapani Dam… two locations at the Road-to-
Kinhi Quarry… and one location at a large pit preserving 0.3 m of muddy histosol overlain by 0.7 m of ejecta with histosol clasts, in turn overlain by 3.8 m of clean ejecta…

Kalapani Dam histosols are 1.79 ± 0.045, 23.5 ± 0.20, and 27.5 ± 0.18 ka;
Kinhi Quarry histosols are 11.65 ± 0.07 and 13.15 ± 0.085 ka; and the pit histosol is 40.8 ± 1.1 ka.

One interpretation of the data is that the very young 1.79 ka age represents modern contamination, the 11.65 ka older, pre-impact histosols.

Such an interpretation would be broadly consistent with previous age estimates and the excellent state of preservation of Lonar Crater despite the seasonally wet monsoonal climate.

Geology of Lonar Crater, India
Adam C. Maloof, Sarah T. Stewart, Benjamin P. Weiss, Samuel A. Soule, Nicholas L. Swanson-Hysell, Karin L. Louzada, Ian Garrick-Bethell, and Pascale M. Poussart
Geological Society of America Bulletin, January/February 2010

https://www.princeton.edu/geosciences/people/maloof/papers_pub/18Maloof.pdf

Scratch beneath the surface of the mainstream “meteor” meme and the collector of incredible claims encounters dirty snowballs from space [see video above] as there’s uncertainty about the “exact nature” of the crater because the evidence only points towards “higher-pressure shock waves”.

This idea of Lonar crater being volcanic in origin prevailed in the geological literature till mid-1960s in spite of the fact that no tangible evidence of volcanic activity from it (such as lava flows) was ever found at Lonar.

advancements in the understanding of process and products of ‘impact cratering’ and availability of necessary instrumentation led to the discoveries of impactite (impact generated rocks; Fig.9) and minerals (like maskelynite: plagioclase showing
shock metamorphism) in it and in sub-surface breccia in bore-holes drilled in Lonar Lake.

However, the believers of the impact origin of Lonar crater, even today, have neither discovered a sample of the extra-terrestrial impactor that is responsible for creating such a unique feature nor are they certain about its exact nature.

This constraint is reflected in the publications by Osea et al. (2005) and Son and Koeberl (2007), who admit that no clear geochemical indication of an extraterrestrial component was found in any of the samples of impact glass and breccias collected by them. The absence of clear geochemical signatures has made them suggest very low level of mixing of meteorite component in these rocks or iridium-poor impactor.

Lonar Crater – A Geological And Ecological Enigma
Dr. M. Bodas, B. Sen & K.K.K. Nair, GSI, CR.
Geological Survey of India

http://www.portal.gsi.gov.in/gsiDoc/pub/cs_lonar_lake.pdf

In contrast, as the early visitors noted, Lonar Crater is contained entirely within basaltic volcanic rocks, and no meteorite fragments have been found.

Soon thereafter, direct evidence of shocked materials such as maskelynite and impact glass were found at Lonar, and an impact origin for the crater became the leading hypothesis (Nayak, 1972; Fredriksson et al., 1973a; Fudali et al., 1980; Nayak, 1993; Sengupta et al., 1997; Ghosh, 2003; Storzer and Koeberl, 2004).

Geology of Lonar Crater, India
Adam C. Maloof, Sarah T. Stewart, Benjamin P. Weiss, Samuel A. Soule, Nicholas L. Swanson-Hysell, Karin L. Louzada, Ian Garrick-Bethell, and Pascale M. Poussart
Geological Society of America Bulletin, January/February 2010

https://www.princeton.edu/geosciences/people/maloof/papers_pub/18Maloof.pdf

Maskelynite is a glassy phase found in some meteorites and meteorite impact craters.

At first, maskelynite was believed to result from solid-state transformation of plagioclase into diaplectic glass by a relatively low-pressure shock wave (250 to 300 kilobars) and low-temperature (350 °C), as in Milton and de Carli’s experiment.

Since 1997 this hypothesis has been challenged, and now it is believed that the glass is formed by the quenching of dense mineral melts produced by higher-pressure shock waves.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Maskelynite

Impactite includes shock-metamorphosed target rocks, melts (suevites) and mixtures of the two, as well as sedimentary rocks with significant impact-derived components (shocked mineral grains, tektites, anomalous geochemical signatures, etc.)

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Impactite

Ramgarh Crater

The coy and concussed craterologists have obtained scant comfort from all their ducking and diving around the Ramgarh Crater during the last [nigh on] 150 years.

Ramgarh crater is a 4 km wide potential meteor crater located near Ramgarh village, Mangrol, Baran district, Rajasthan, India.

The crater is yet to be fully investigated in a systematic way.

It was first visited in 1869 by Mallet of Geological Survey of India.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ramgarh_crater

During this period of frantic arm waving the concussed craterologists have been juggling terms about as they grapple with this geological hot potato.

It is called by different names by different workers viz.
‘Ramgarh structure’,
‘Ramgarh meteoritic structure’,
‘Ramgarh ring structure’,
‘Ramgarh dome’,
‘Ramgarh dome structure’,
‘Ramgarh astrobleme’, etc.

The Curious Ring Structure of Ramgarh In Vindhyans of Rajasthan
A.K. Grover – Geological Survey of India

http://www.portal.gsi.gov.in/portal/page?_pageid=127,787831&_dad=portal

Impact structure is synonymous with the less commonly used term astrobleme meaning “star wound”.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Impact_structure

On the plus side there is some “evidence favoring an impact” although “some questions exist”.

The structure is suggested to be a meteorite impact crater by many workers though some questions exist.

The evidence favoring an impact origin are

(a) shape of the crater, which is similar to Arizona Crater, USA,
(b) occurrence of a small central peak inside the crater,
(c) multiply striated joint surfaces in quartzite occurring on crater’s rim,
(d) possible PDFs in quartz grains under microscope,
(e) occurrence of magnetic spherules both inside and outside of the crater, and on crater’s
rim, and
(f) high abundances of Co, Ni, and Co/Cr and Ni/Cr ratios of these spherules.

Time Of Formation Of Ramgarh Crater, India – Constraints From Geological Structures
S. Misra, A. Dube, P. K. Srivastava and H. E. Newsom
Lunar and Planetary Science XXXIX (2008)

http://www.lpi.usra.edu/meetings/lpsc2008/pdf/1499.pdf

Amongst these “questions” are it’s strange “rectangular” shape,

The Ramgarh Crater is a rectangular shaped feature with a prominent, more or less continuous, raised rim all along its periphery that rises ~ 250 m above the surrounding and dips outward with angles between 20-40º from the rim crest.

The N-S extension of the crater’s rim is ~1.4 times of its E-W extension.

Time Of Formation Of Ramgarh Crater, India – Constraints From Geological Structures
S. Misra, A. Dube, P. K. Srivastava and H. E. Newsom
Lunar and Planetary Science XXXIX (2008)

http://www.lpi.usra.edu/meetings/lpsc2008/pdf/1499.pdf

it’s “discontinuous” rim and

The crater’s rim is discontinuous at the southwest and displaced by a set of NE-SW dextral strike slip faults.

Time Of Formation Of Ramgarh Crater, India – Constraints From Geological Structures
S. Misra, A. Dube, P. K. Srivastava and H. E. Newsom
Lunar and Planetary Science XXXIX (2008)

http://www.lpi.usra.edu/meetings/lpsc2008/pdf/1499.pdf

it’s dating.

Time of formation of Ramgarh Crater: Studies on remote sensing images of greater areal extent shows that the Ramgarh Crater is situated on the old course of river Parbati, which is indicated by the presence of NNW-SSE paleochannel of this river at south of this crater.

Time Of Formation Of Ramgarh Crater, India – Constraints From Geological Structures
S. Misra, A. Dube, P. K. Srivastava and H. E. Newsom
Lunar and Planetary Science XXXIX (2008)

http://www.lpi.usra.edu/meetings/lpsc2008/pdf/1499.pdf

The only certainty regarding Ramgarh Crater is that it was probably formed sometime before [a very suspiciously familiar] 950 CE.

The Bhand Deva Temple, a 10th-century Shiva temple in the style of the Khajuraho Group of Monuments, is located near the centre of the crater.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ramgarh_crater

Most Khajuraho temples were built between 950 and 1050 by the Chandela dynasty.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Khajuraho_Group_of_Monuments

A Visit To The Largest Crater of India: Ramgarh Astrobleme
Ranthambhore Tale’s… 6 April 2013

http://ranthambhorediary.blogspot.com.es/2013/04/a-visit-to-largest-crater-of-india.html

Dhala Crater

The Dhala crater is deemed a “large complex impact structure” somewhere between 11 and 25 kilometres wide that’s been artistically etched into the Earth by an “asteroid”.

Dhala crater (N25°17’59.7″ and E78°8’3.1″) is a crater formed by an asteroid impact.

The diameter of the structure is estimated at 11 km and basement rocks are predominantly composed of granitoids.

Dhala crater is considered as the largest in India as well as between the Mediterranean and Southeast Asia.

The crater is considered a “large complex impact structure” with an estimated diameter extending up to 25 km.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dhala_crater

Asteroids vary greatly in size, from almost 1000 km for the largest down to rocks just 1 meter across.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Asteroid

However, there are indications that “complex” really means: convoluted and contrived.

Firstly, there is little agreement on it’s actual size.

The newly discovered Dhala structure, Madhya Pradesh State, India, is the eroded remnant of an impact structure with an estimated present-day apparent diameter of about 11 km.

The Dhala Structure, Bundelkhand Craton, central India; eroded remnant of a large Paleoproterozoic impact structure
J.K. Pati, W.U. Reimold, C. Koeberl, P. Pati
Meteoritics & Planetary Science – Vol 43 – 2008

http://www.univie.ac.at/geochemistry/koeberl/publikation_list/315-Dhala-MAPS-2008.pdf

The Dhala impact structure centered at 25°17’59.7″/ 78°8’3.1″, with an estimated diameter of ~15 km is located in the westernmost part of the Bundelkhand craton, Shivpuri District, Madhya Pradesh State, India.

Monomict Impact Breccia From Dhala Structure, Archean Bundelkhand Craton, Central India: Macro- And Mesoscopic Impact-Induced Deformation
J.K. Pati, M. Nadeem, R. Kundu, R. Bhusan and W.U. Reimold
69th Annual Meteoritical Society Meeting – 2006

http://www.lpi.usra.edu/meetings/metsoc2006/pdf/5184.pdf

The diameter of the structure is estimated at 11 km and basement rocks are predominantly composed of granitoids.

The crater is considered a “large complex impact structure” with an estimated diameter extending up to 25 km.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dhala_crater

Secondly, it has a very strange “structure” with a central elevated area composed of sediments.

The pre-impact country rocks are predominantly granitoids of ∼2.5 Ga age, with minor 2.0–2.15 Ga mafic intrusive rocks, and they are overlain by post-impact sediments of the presumably > 1.7 Ga Vindhyan Supergroup.

The Dhala structure is asymmetrically disposed with respect to a central elevated area (CEA) of Vindhyan sediments.

The Dhala Structure, Bundelkhand Craton, central India; eroded remnant of a large Paleoproterozoic impact structure
J.K. Pati, W.U. Reimold, C. Koeberl, P. Pati
Meteoritics & Planetary Science – Vol 43 – 2008

http://www.univie.ac.at/geochemistry/koeberl/publikation_list/315-Dhala-MAPS-2008.pdf

Thirdly, there is no trace of the impactor.

There is no trace of a meteorite.

No meteoritic component has so far been detected in the melt breccia, but further geochemical work is in progress.

The Dhala Structure, Bundelkhand Craton, Central India – Eroded Remnant of a Large Paleoproterozoic Impact Structure
Jayanta K. Pati, Wolf Uwe Reimold, Christian Koeberl and Puniti Pati
Meteoritics & Planetary Science – 43, Nr 8, 1383–1398 – 2008

http://www.univie.ac.at/geochemistry/koeberl/publikation_list/315-Dhala-MAPS-2008.pdf

And there is no trace of the “asteroid”.

But there is evidence of “shock metamorphic features” and “superheated impact melt”.

Many lithic and mineral clasts within the melt breccia exhibit diagnostic shock metamorphic features, including multiple sets of planar deformation features (PDFs) in quartz and feldspar, ballen-textured quartz, occurrences of coesite, and feldspar with checkerboard texture.

In addition, various thermal alteration textures have been found in clasts of initially superheated impact melt.

The impact melt breccia also contains numerous fragments composed of partially devitrified impact melt that is mixed with unshocked as well as shock deformed quartz and feldspar clasts.

The chemical compositions of the impact melt rock and the regionally occurring granitoids are similar.

The Dhala Structure, Bundelkhand Craton, Central India – Eroded Remnant of a Large Paleoproterozoic Impact Structure
Jayanta K. Pati, Wolf Uwe Reimold, Christian Koeberl and Puniti Pati
Meteoritics & Planetary Science – 43, Nr 8, 1383–1398 – 2008

http://www.univie.ac.at/geochemistry/koeberl/publikation_list/315-Dhala-MAPS-2008.pdf

Fourthly, and rather critically, there is no obvious “crater”.

But there are “two prominent morphological rings”, “scattered outcrops of impact melt breccia” and a “monomict breccia zone”.

The CEA is surrounded by two prominent morphological rings comprising pre-Vindhyan arenaceous-argillaceous and partially rudaceous metasediments and monomict granitoid breccia, respectively.

There are also scattered outcrops of impact melt breccia exposed towards the inner edge of the monomict breccia zone, occurring over a nearly 6 km long trend and with a maximum outcrop width of ∼170 m.

The Dhala Structure, Bundelkhand Craton, central India; eroded remnant of a large Paleoproterozoic impact structure
J.K. Pati, W.U. Reimold, C. Koeberl, P. Pati
Meteoritics & Planetary Science – Vol 43 – 2008

http://www.univie.ac.at/geochemistry/koeberl/publikation_list/315-Dhala-MAPS-2008.pdf

The presence of unequivocal and diagnostic shock metamorphic features, extensive macro-deformation, and a large impact melt breccia dyke has already been reported.

The Dhala structure has a well defined central uplift surrounded by largely eroded
multiple breccia rings.

The breccia rings are separated by crater-fill sediments and suevite deposits.

Monomict impact breccia outcrops occur as elliptical bodies with maximum elevation of 360 m.

Radial and concentric fractures are observed in and around the central uplift up to a distance of about 10 km from the center.

Monomict Impact Breccia From Dhala Structure, Archean Bundelkhand Craton, Central India: Macro- And Mesoscopic Impact-Induced Deformation
J.K. Pati, M. Nadeem, R. Kundu, R. Bhusan and W.U. Reimold
69th Annual Meteoritical Society Meeting – 2006

http://www.lpi.usra.edu/meetings/metsoc2006/pdf/5184.pdf

Basically, the Hole Story from India is that “shock metamorphic features” aren’t just created by impactors because there are other electrifying mechanisms…

The orbital path for 912 CE suggests a cometary “dust” tail encounter plus a “full on” plasma tail encounter when Comet Halley was close to perihelion.

The Transit of Venus in 912 CE also suggests 912 CE was a very powerful alignment and that a Halley-Venus-Earth alignment could have emulated the conditions associated with Immanuel Velikovsky’s “Comet Venus”….

See: https://malagabay.wordpress.com/2017/03/19/close-encounters-of-the-cometary-kind/

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3 Responses to Indian Impacts: The Hole Story

  1. thx1138 says:

    “Lonar Lake is an important site in Hindu mythology as it is considered to be the spot where an incarnation of Vishnu overpowered the demon-giant Lonasur by throwing off the lid and revealing his subterranean cave.”

    “Sculptures in the temples within the crater depict the mythological stories about the formation of Lonar Lake. In Sanskrit, salt is called as ‘Lavan’ and demon as ‘Asur’. It is believed that a demon named Lavansur created trouble to mother earth. Earth appealed the Lord Vishnu to kill the demon. Incarnation of Lord Vishnu was in the form of child. He killed the demon with a little damage to earth and the demon died & went inside the earth. The salt lake formed on the spot, known as Lonar (Lavanar). ”

    “This Lake was first mentioned in Skanda Purana, Padma Purana and the Aaina-i-Akbari.”

    When electricity encounters a solid body, like a planet, the current pulls charged material from where it makes contact. Neutral dust and stones can also be pulled along with the ionized particles. Craters formed by electric arcs are most often circular because electromagnetic forces cause them to maintain right angles to the surface. Rather than impacting the surface, electric arcs are stimulated by charged “leader strokes” that descend from above, attracting oppositely charged secondary strokes.

    Since two or more filaments rotate around the arc axis, it can behave like a drill, excavating steep side walls and “pinching” a rolled rim. Often, the filaments will leave behind a central peak. Minerals in the crater will be electrically heated, scorched, and melted. There will be a lack of blast debris, such as from a meteor strike, because such debris is lifted out of the environment and accelerated away.

  2. Pingback: Indian Impacts: Diamonds of the Gods | MalagaBay

  3. Pingback: The Atomic Comet: The Feathered Serpent | MalagaBay

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