Flipping Geology: Walking on Sunshine

The 21st century Earth Scientists have a problem with their medieval mysticism that defines nine concentric circles of Hell within the Earth.

In the poem, Hell is depicted as nine concentric circles of torment located within the Earth; it is the “realm … of those who have rejected spiritual values by yielding to bestial appetites or violence, or by perverting their human intellect to fraud or malice against their fellowmen.”

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Inferno_(Dante)

It’s an observational problem Dante describes as a “river of boiling blood and fire”.

In the first round of the seventh circle, the murderers, war-makers, plunderers and tyrants are immersed in Phlegethon, a river of boiling blood and fire.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Inferno_(Dante)

It’s an observational problem the Bible describes as a “lake which burneth with fire and brimstone”.

“The fearful, and unbelieving … shall have their part in the lake which burneth with fire and brimstone.” — Revelation 21:8

Skeptics Annotated Bible – What the Bible says about Burning People to Death
http://skepticsannotatedbible.com/says_about/burning.html

The problem being that hellishly hot conditions are surface features.

According to the Earth Scientists about 75% of the Earth’s surface has [at one time or another] experienced these hellishly hot conditions.

Igneous rock is formed through the cooling and solidification of magma or lava.

Igneous rocks form about 15% of the Earth’s current land surface.

Most of the Earth’s oceanic crust is made of igneous rock.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Igneous_rock

Saline water covers approximately 360,000,000 km2 (140,000,000 sq mi) and is customarily divided into several principal oceans and smaller seas, with the ocean covering approximately 71% of Earth’s surface and 90% of the Earth’s biosphere.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ocean

These hellishly hot conditions are also found lurking beneath the surface.

The Iceland Deep Drilling Project, while drilling several 5,000m holes in an attempt to harness the heat in the volcanic bedrock below the surface of Iceland, struck a pocket of magma at 2,100m in 2009.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Magma

The Lone Star Producing Co. 1–27 Bertha Rogers hole or well was an oil-exploratory hole drilled in Washita County, Oklahoma in 1974, and was formerly the world’s deepest hole until in 1979 surpassed by the Kola Superdeep Borehole, dug by the USSR.

It took Lone Star a little over a year and a half to reach 31,441 feet (9,583 m), a depth of almost six miles. During drilling, the well encountered enormous pressure – almost 25,000 psi (172,369 kPa).

No commercial hydrocarbons were found before drilling hit a molten sulfur deposit (which melted the drill bit).

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bertha_Rogers

Which leaves the independent observer to ponder:

Do these hellishly hot conditions really originate deep down in the Earth?

One the one hand:

The Earth Scientists claim magma is “upwelling” from “3,000 km deep in the Earth” and that temperatures get progressively higher towards the centre of the Earth.

Volcanism away from plate boundaries has also been explained as mantle plumes.

These so-called “hotspots“, for example Hawaii, are postulated to arise from upwelling diapirs with magma from the core–mantle boundary, 3,000 km deep in the Earth.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Volcano

The temperature at the inner core boundary is approximately 5700 K (5400 °C).

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Inner_core

A report published in the journal Science concludes that the melting temperature of iron at the inner core boundary is 6230 ± 500 K, roughly 1000 K higher than previous estimates.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Inner_core

One the other hand:

Observational science has only scratched the surface of the Earth down to 12,262 metres.

From these limited observations the Earth Scientists have arrived at an average geothermal gradient of “about 25 °C per km of depth”.

Geothermal gradient is the rate of increasing temperature with respect to increasing depth in the Earth’s interior.

Away from tectonic plate boundaries, it is about 25 °C per km of depth (1 °F per 70 feet of depth) near the surface in most of the world.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Geothermal_gradient

The Kola Superdeep Borehole is the result of a scientific drilling project of the Soviet Union in the Pechengsky District, on the Kola Peninsula.

The deepest, SG-3, reached 12,262 metres (40,230 ft) in 1989 and still is the deepest artificial point on Earth.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kola_Superdeep_Borehole

Based purely upon this mainstream temperature gradient the centre of the Earth is calculated to be [as a first approximation] 159,275 °C i.e. 25 °C/km for 6,371 km.

This is over 150,000 °C hotter than the temperatures promoted by the Earth Scientists.

This is over 150,000 °C hotter than the surface of the Sun promoted by the Space Cadets.

The Sun is a G2V star, with G2 indicating its surface temperature of approximately 5,778 K (5,505 °C, 9,941 °F)

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sun

Either way:

There is a strong case for arguing that a highly [internally] pressurised Earth would have a tendency to pop like a balloon if it was actually punctured down to a depth of [about] 3,000 kilometres [as claimed by the Earth Scientists].

Another confounding issue for the medieval mysticism of the Earth Scientists is that the average geothermal gradient of “about 25 °C per km of depth” means the hellishly hot conditions associated with magma occur at a depth of [only] between 24 and 64 kilometres.

Magma is a complex high-temperature fluid substance.

Temperatures of most magmas are in the range 700 °C to 1300 °C (or 1300 °F to 2400 °F), but very rare carbonatite magmas may be as cool as 600 °C, and komatiite magmas may have been as hot as 1600 °C.

Most magmas are silicate mixtures.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Magma

In other words:

The observational data indicates all of the hellishly hot conditions encountered on the surface [and immediate sub-surface] are associated with the uppermost 1% of the Earth.

Putting it more bluntly:

Our insights into the interior of the Earth are limited [at best] to a depth of 64 kilometres and any deeper knowledge claimed by the Earth Scientists is pure medieval mysticism mixed with a lot of hellishly hot air.

The oceanic crust is 5 km (3 mi) to 10 km (6 mi) thick and is composed primarily of basalt, diabase, and gabbro.

The continental crust is typically from 30 km (20 mi) to 50 km (30 mi) thick and is mostly composed of slightly less dense rocks than those of the oceanic crust.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Crust_(geology)

The Mohorovičić discontinuity is 5 to 10 kilometres (3–6 mi) below the ocean floor, and 20 to 90 kilometres (10–60 mi), with an average of 35 kilometres (22 mi), beneath typical continental crusts.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mohorovi%C4%8Di%C4%87_discontinuity

Furthermore, the medieval mysticism of the Earth Scientists encounters serious problems long before they reach a depth of 64 kilometres.

The main problem being that the average geothermal gradient of “about 25 °C per km of depth” claimed by the Earth Scientists is very rarely observed.

For example, in the state of Rio de Janeiro the reported gradients range from 14 to 33 ºC/km.

The results obtained indicate that geothermal gradient values are in the ranges of 14 to 26ºC/km in Precambrian metamorphic terrain and 19 to 33ºC/km in areas of Phanerozoic sedimentary basins.

Geothermal Gradient and Heat Flow in the State Of Rio de Janeiro
Antonio Jorge de Lima Gomes and Valiya Mannathal Hamza
Revista Brasileira de Geofísica – Vol 23 No 4 – São Paulo – Oct/Dec 2005

http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0102-261X2005000400001

The diversity of reported geothermal gradients suggests:

1) The geothermal gradient does not originate from a common deep source.

2) The heat source is localised and is determined by local geological activity.

3) The resulting geothermal gradient is determined by the conductivity of the local formation[s].

These suggestions are underlined by the German Continental Deep Drilling Programme which encountered flowing rock at a depth of [only] 9 kilometres.

But whatever was causing the rock to flow, it helped put a halt to the drilling, because the hole began squeezing shut.

Each time the drillers hauled up a worn drill bit and sent down a fresh one, they found that in the meantime the lowest reaches of the hole had shrunk and had to be redrilled – a process so frustrating that Kehrer referred to it as “drilling backward.”

German Super-Deep Hole Hits Bottom
Richard A. Kerr – Science – Vol 266 – 28 Oct 1994

http://science.sciencemag.org/content/266/5185/545

The German Continental Deep Drilling Programme (in German: Kontinentales Tiefbohrprogramm der Bundesrepublik Deutschland), abbreviated as the KTB borehole, was a scientific drilling project carried out from 1987 to 1995 near Windischeschenbach, Bavaria.

The main superdeep borehole reached a depth of 9,101 metres in the Earth’s continental crust.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/German_Continental_Deep_Drilling_Programme

In other words:

Rock formations begin to behave like a viscous fluid long before the 50 kilometre depth determined by the medieval mysticism of the Earth Scientists.

Earthquakes at shallow depths are a result of stick-slip faulting; however, below about 50 km (31 mi) the hot, high pressure conditions ought to inhibit further seismicity.

The mantle is considered to be viscous and incapable of brittle faulting

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mantle_(geology)

Perhaps it’s time to look for a localised heat source that’s associated with geological activity…

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20 Responses to Flipping Geology: Walking on Sunshine

  1. If geology has problems, then a lot of them come from the crap published in Wikipedia. There’s no record at all of the Bertha Rogers hole being stopped because the drilling bit melted. It was stopped because of liquid sulphur and other factors. Mind you the drillers called a certain formation “granite wash” and I’m not sure what they meant by that. It was the formation that produced the gas.

    The petroleum industry has its own idiosyncratic language that we mere hard-rock geologist have trouble interpreting. I discovered this when I supervised the deep hole Richter program at Kambalda in 1977. The company (WMC) contracted an oil well machine to drill deep precollars (700m) into ultramafics that were flowing at depth. Our diamond rigs could not progress because once a bit was worn out, pipe was tripped and bit replaced, the hole had closed up. At that depth we were drilling a very small diameter hole (BQ) However the oil guys managed to drill much faster and got the steel casing in before rock flow could close the hole. (I estimated the ultramafic-basalt contact at 1200 meters, but it ended up at 1204 metres because I forgot to include 4 metres of massive nickel sulphides above the basalt. That orebody has since been mined).

    Wikipedia – frequent fake information.

  2. Thx1138 says:

    Wikipedia is a misinformation disinformation website on just about any topic you can imagine. The Gatekeepers on each of these subjects are as ferocious as Cerberus in guarding their content.
    According to Electric universe theory magma is a plasma meaning that it contains at least 1% ionized material. Do deep bore drillers encounter any electrical phenomena in their drilling equipment while they are drilling?

    • Do deep bore drillers encounter any electrical phenomena in their drilling equipment while they are drilling?

      No, drilling to get into magma has never been done, and any electrical effects are quickly shorted out in the drilling fluid/muds, The only time we fear electrical phenomena is during lightning charged thunderstorms. A drilling machine is effectively an enormous earthing pole and the mast is always dropped during such events. Not easily done with an oil-well machine however, and why the Kola Deep Hole rig was put into a building, freezing temperatures being another issue in that region.

      The problem with lightning hitting drilling rods is that sometimes the current welds the pipes together at the screw-joints.

      Magma is totally plasma, of a viscous kind, of course. The lightning associated with volcanic eruptions is testimony to this fact.

  3. I suspect that like all stars, the Earth is hollow.

    Filled with charge, it is slowly creating crystals next to the magma layer. The crystal layer exerts force on the rocks above, making them plasma and viscous. The rapid expansion of the Earth upon expulsion from the star made the ocean basins, relieving much of the expansionary pressure from leaving the star’s plasma pinch.

    Your discourse offers some support for this. Thank you!

    • Thx1138 says:

      I completely disagree. Soho and Trace running difference images in the 171 angstrom and 195 angstrom wavelengths of iron ions show conclusively that the sun has a solid iron calcite core.

      Since planets are formed by parturition from the interior core of stars then it logically follows that the core of planets are also solid iron and calcium. since there is no known phenomenon of an anode being hollowed out by any electrical or heating process then I think your theory is incorrect.

      http://www.thesurfaceofthesun.com/running.htm?

      “When it comes to compelling evidence of a solid surface on the sun, seeing is believing. The TRACE and SOHO programs use very sophisticated software to create what are called “running difference” images like the top image from TRACE and the chronologically ordered examples from SOHO shown on the right. These images were created by NASA at the frequency of various iron ions, using software that essentially compares sequential snapshots, subtracting one set of images from the other, and thereby isolating only the more consistent and “stronger” features from each image. This image processing technique creates a very detailed “snapshot” of the stronger, more obvious features of the iron calcium ferrite surface of the sun that lies below the photosphere.

      It is said that a picture is worth a thousand words. If that is true, then the sequential photos on the right and these types of high resolution running difference SOHO images speak volumes. These movies were created by “stringing together” a series of these running difference images from many consecutive days, and they show persisted rigid surface features.

      The SOHO satellite took a remarkable series of these running difference images from October 5th 2004 through October 15th 2004 which I have put together into movie form. You’ll notice as you watch these movies and view the chronological images on the right, that the surface features are consistent from image to image and the surface features rotate uniformly from left to right in the same direction and at the same speed as the sun’s rotation.”

      “IMO, this series of “running difference” images represents the best and most compelling scientific evidence that we have available to us to demonstrate a solid surface on the sun. Seeing is certainly believing! These images not only only reveal the surface details with remarkable precision, they reveal these features with great REPETITION and complete consistency. It’s the repetitive nature of these features that is most intriguing. The consistency of these images prove that there must be a solid surface on the sun to create them and prove that the sun does not rotate at different speeds at the equator than it does at it’s poles. The frequencies of these filters suggest this surface is made of ferrite iron, and ferrite ions flow from the surface due to electrical activity.”

      It also seems likely that if the sun’s core is a solid iron calcium then the earth’s core is also solid and not liquid considering the apparent extreme heat of the Sun versus the relative coolness of the Earth.

      • The interesting conclusion from NASA’s work etc, that the Sun’s core, etc., is iron also puts a large hole in gravity theory as well. This theory predicts that the Suns’ density is slightly more than 1, which is a tad low for iron etc.

        On the other hand a small iron kernel surrounded by a massive plasma cloud could also yield a gross density of 1 gm/cm^3. That’s the trouble with mathematical geophysics – an infinite number of solutions are possible, but are constrained by physical limits.

      • malagabay says:

        QUOTE
        planets are formed by parturition from the interior core of stars…
        UNQUOTE
        There are other [very interesting] possibilities…

        Georgi Gladyshev - Periodic condensation can be used to explain the empirical Titius-Bode rule of planetary distances

         Timo Niroma developed a cosmology based upon atomic weights

      • Liesegang’s ideas are based on our existing mainstream settled science of gravitational accretion, Lyellian age determination, and hence all the logical fallacies of that theory and its ad hocery. But,,,,,,,,,this theory does sort of work for our solar system but not for the external galaxies Peratt et al have been studying where gravity is ignored.

      • malagabay says:

        “Liesegang’s ideas are based on our existing mainstream settled science of gravitational accretion”

        I’m not so sure about that… the mainstream has some formulas – like they have for gravity. But viable explanations seem a bit thin on the ground.

        Timo Niroma’s very curious observations align atomic weights with distance in km.

        Timo Niroma’s cosmology is used to interpret the curious banding in the Asteroid Belt

        For me that points towards the dynamics of Density and Charge.

         Gerald Pollack - The Fourth Phase of Water - Like Likes Like

  4. The issue is that when you weigh something, what are you actually quantifying? I came across this problem during the study for my MSc. and wandered a little to the wild-side, and the dissertation, while accepted, was not to be pubelished, as the Gundars might say. 🙂

    The issue was, as is now, whether weight is a measure of the amount of matter in an object, or a measure of something else. I’ve worked out that it’s not the amount of matter inside a body, which leaves a lot of alternatives which need to considered one at a time.

    • malagabay says:

      “what are you actually quantifying?”
      That applies to so many things.

      “alternatives which need to considered…”
      Very true… especially because a result may have multiple causes.

      • In practical terms, we are likely to end up in a much longer orbit, should another body erupt from Sol. More so if it splits in tow, as may have happened with Venus and Mercury, Earth and Luna/Eve.

        The star will also have brightened and shrunk.

        The importance of resonance is agreed. The Universe is one large wave, with many disturbances within.

        To go back to the Birth of Venus. Earth would have been closes, and Mars and Abel/Apollo in the positions currently occupied by Venus and Earth. Abel/Apollo was destroyed by Mars. Venus created the Cordillera and Rockies, as well as setting off Thira. Exodus and YHWH and all that? Alfred DeGrazia made that association. Earth may escape much disturbance, unless the second body has so much energy that it is split into pieces and fired off into the Ecliptic…..

    • Thx1138 says:

      The self-similarity between small and large is called a fractal relationship. The fractal nature of the universe is being discussed lately among the electric universe people. Kongpop U-Yen has also discussed harmonic resonance in systems from small to large. I think that’s what you’re looking at when you see such things as Bode’s law and other similar harmonic resonances.

      I think I may have also mentioned previously about Milo Wolff’s theory of the wave structure of matter. In it there are no particles at all and everything is composed of spherical standing waves of energy. That could explain why we see harmonic resonance everywhere we look.

      • Thx1138 says:

        I don’t think Earth was born from our current Sun but from Saturn and likewise with Mars and Venus. Saturn was of course a brown dwarf star at the time. The other gas giant planets may have once been born from the Sun during the period of time when everything belong to the herbig-haro object.

      • malagabay says:

        “I don’t think Earth was born from our current Sun but from Saturn

        The Earth is from Saturn – The Moon is from Jupiter

      • http://www.fractaluniverse.org/v2/?page_id=2

        “Wal has said” that matter newly created is at 0 level. As it acquires more energy, the inherent red shift drops. These levels suggest a mechanism for filling in. Clearly from the Aether.

        levels of ionization ~ levels of energy?

      • Thx1138 says:

        What is this graphic? Where does it come from? Is this from a mainstream source?

        Also I think you guys term for it is gobsmacked. I’m absolutely gobsmacked that calcium ferrite boiling point is the same as water. So I don’t think the surface of the Sun is calcium ferrite. But I do think that there is calcium and iron involved. By virtue of the wavelength involved which is 170 angstroms and 195 angstrom we know that iron ionized to level 9 10 and 12 is involved.

      • Thx1138 says:

        I’ve never seen chemistry of iron beyond ferrous or ferric which is one and two levels of ionization. We must be certain that chemistry changes when ionization levels of 9 10 and 12 of iron become part of the equation.

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