Mark Blyth: Austerity

I unimpressed by Economists who call a spade:

A consumer durable that’s frequently deemed a minor capital investment because it significantly reduces labour costs by improving the efficiency of the human resources deployed to excavate, infill or move many forms of [frequently friable] terrestrial material.

I prefer Economists who can call a spade:

A spade.

But these lucid and straight-talking Economists are thin on the ground.

This is particularly true in the arcane world of blackboard comedians where Economists are encouraged to waffle with big bonuses paid for incomprehensibility and obscuration.

But there are exceptions to every generalisation.

Mark Blyth (born 1967) is a British political scientist from Scotland and a professor of international political economy at Brown University.

He is best known for his critique of austerity, Austerity: The History of a Dangerous Idea, described by Salon and AlterNet as “necessary reading” and as simultaneously functioning as an economics explainer, a polemic, and a history book offering “insight into austerity’s lineage, its theories, its champions and its failures.” Blyth characterized the argument advanced by austerity advocates as “a canard” and “complete horseshit.”

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mark_Blyth

And these exceptions can cover more ground in one [entertaining and thought provoking] hour than most blackboard comedians can achieve in three years of opaque waffle and omission.

Austerity: The History of a Dangerous Idea – Mark Blyth – Oxford University Press – 2012

Governments today in both Europe and the United States have succeeded in casting government spending as reckless wastefulness that has made the economy worse.

In contrast, they have advanced a policy of draconian budget cuts–austerity–to solve the financial crisis.

We are told that we have all lived beyond our means and now need to tighten our belts.

This view conveniently forgets where all that debt came from.

Not from an orgy of government spending, but as the direct result of bailing out, recapitalizing, and adding liquidity to the broken banking system.

Through these actions private debt was rechristened as government debt while those responsible for generating it walked away scot free, placing the blame on the state, and the burden on the taxpayer.

That burden now takes the form of a global turn to austerity, the policy of reducing domestic wages and prices to restore competitiveness and balance the budget.

The problem, according to political economist Mark Blyth, is that austerity is a very dangerous idea.

First of all, it doesn’t work.

As the past four years and countless historical examples from the last 100 years show, while it makes sense for any one state to try and cut its way to growth, it simply cannot work when all states try it simultaneously: all we do is shrink the economy.

In the worst case, austerity policies worsened the Great Depression and created the conditions for seizures of power by the forces responsible for the Second World War: the Nazis and the Japanese military establishment.

As Blyth amply demonstrates, the arguments for austerity are tenuous and the evidence thin.

Rather than expanding growth and opportunity, the repeated revival of this dead economic idea has almost always led to low growth along with increases in wealth and income inequality.

Austerity demolishes the conventional wisdom, marshaling an army of facts to demand that we austerity for what it is, and what it costs us.

https://www.amazon.com/dp/0199389446/ https://www.amazon.co.uk/dp/0199389446/

Great Transformations: Economic Ideas and Institutional Change in the Twentieth Century – Mark Blyth – Cambridge University Press – 2002

Mark Blyth argues that economic ideas are powerful political tools as used by domestic groups in order to effect change since whoever defines what the economy is, what is wrong with it, and what would improve it, has a profound political resource in their possession.

Blyth analyzes the 1930s and 1970s, two periods of deep-seated institutional change that characterized the twentieth century.

Viewing both periods of change as part of the same dynamic, Blyth argues that the 1930s labor reacted against the exigencies of the market and demanded state action to mitigate the market’s effects by “embedding liberalism” and the 1970s, those who benefited least from such “embedding” institutions, namely business, reacted against these constraints and sought to overturn that institutional order.

https://www.amazon.com/dp/0521010527/ https://www.amazon.co.uk/dp/0521010527/

Mark Blyth has argued the USA has a “revenue problem”.

You don’t really have a spending problem. You have a revenue problem.

But I think he realises the problems are far more fundamental and far more serious…

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10 Responses to Mark Blyth: Austerity

  1. TimE. says:

    “You can’t have overborrowing without overlending”.

    True – but then again, you can’t have that above described activity ongoing without those seeking CREDIT – those who wish to push future demand into the present – and thus consume resources at an ultimately unsustainable rate.

    To decommission – or not? That might be the question –

    “Decommissioning North Sea oil and gas facilities is projected to cost £40.6 billion ($66.3 billion) over the next 25 years in the North Sea, Oil & Gas UK says.

    According to Oil & Gas UK when the time is right, oil companies will seek to decommission as efficiently and cost effectively as possible while ensuring they meet their safety and environmental obligations.”

    http://www.offshoreenergytoday.com/decommissioning-north-sea-platforms-to-cost-66-3-b/

    Sure – and where will the energy and $$$ to decommission come from – because essentially the European Empire has no more excess supply of Oil or natural gas – they will need to either buy – with essentially worthless currencies – or steal via military force – supplies from an ambiguous “Elsewhere” – perhaps former colonies in Africa and the Middle East.

    Of course, perhaps the UK could attempt another War of 1812 against the Imperial American Empire – we still have oil.

    “War of 1812, (June 18, 1812–February 17, 1815), conflict fought between the United States and Great Britain over British violations of U.S. maritime rights. It ended with the exchange of ratifications of the Treaty of Ghent.

    The tensions that caused the War of 1812 arose from the French revolutionary and Napoleonic Wars (1792–1815). During this nearly constant conflict between France and Britain, American interests were injured by each of the two countries’ endeavours to block the United States from trading with the other”.

    https://www.britannica.com/event/War-of-1812

    Or perhaps it’s a $100B+ problem – or a dilemma which will only see the the infrastructure abandoned, and the Dark Ages once again cover Europe – as the cheap energy vanishes and the lights go out. It will be no different in the Imperial American Empire..

    https://www.bcg.com/publications/2017/energy-environment-north-sea-decommissioning-challenge.aspx

    Mark Blyth fails to recognize that energy consumption per person must increase – continuously – for GDP to grow and revenues increase. Governments are decreasing taxes because the exact opposite is occurring – as energy supplies deplete – it is a dilemma for which the only solution is complete collapse.

    Professor Albert Bartlett explains this in much greater detail here: Arithmetic, Population and Energy – FULL LENGTH

  2. TimE. says:

    Here is a *SHOCKER*

    How Energy-Rich Australia Exported Its Way Into an Energy Crisis

    On a sweltering night this February, the world’s No. 2 exporter of liquefied natural gas didn’t have enough energy left to keep its own citizens cool.

    A nationwide heat wave in Australia drove temperatures above 105 degrees Fahrenheit around the city of Adelaide on the southern coast. As air-conditioning demand soared, regulators called on Pelican Point, a local gas-fueled power station running at half capacity, to crank up.

    It couldn’t. The plant’s operator said it wasn’t able to get enough natural gas quickly to run its turbines fully. At 6:03 p.m., regulators cut power to 90,000 Adelaide homes to prevent a wider blackout.

    Resource-rich Australia has an energy crisis, one that offers lessons for America as it prepares to vastly increase natural-gas shipments abroad.

    Australia now exports so much liquefied natural gas, or LNG, it may overtake No. 1 exporter Qatar within several years. It exported 62% of its gas production last year, according to the BP Statistical Review of World Energy.

    Yet its policy makers didn’t ensure enough gas would remain at home. As exports increased from new LNG facilities in eastern Australia, some state governments let aging coal plants close and accelerated a push toward renewable energy for environmental concerns. That left the regions more reliant on gas for power, especially when intermittent sources such as wind and solar weren’t sufficient.

    Outages have become a familiar gas-crisis byproduct, including one last September in which 1.7 million households and businesses in South Australia state lost power after tornadoes damaged lines supplying power from Victoria. South Australia was relying on other states for electricity because volatile gas prices and other issues had forced its generators to cut capacity. Power wasn’t fully restored for 12 days.

    In the week that Adelaide’s February blackout cut power to 90,000 homes, five ships left Gladstone carrying out 314,000 tons of LNG altogether, according to the port operator. That’s enough to generate electricity for roughly 750,000 Australian homes for a year, according to calculations for the Journal by the Australian Bureau of Statistics.

    http://www.msn.com/en-us/money/markets/how-energy-rich-australia-exported-its-way-into-an-energy-crisis/ar-BBE9o5j?li=BBnbfcN&ocid=DELLDHP

    “Nearby, Gladstone’s LNG plants continue exporting. “It seems stupid,” she said, “to send the gas offshore when people want it here.””

    So Europe exported it’s surpluses in the good times – and now they have to import what they once exported – plus pay for decommissioning the extraction infrastructure – the only realistic option is to tax the rich to feed the poor until we are all equal – I am open to that. Then we can all once again settle into a low level post-industrial civilization – of perhaps 500,000,000 or so Humans – ruled by a Technocracy – as embodied in the Georgia Guidestones.

  3. melitamegalithic says:

    The rise and collapse of civilisations is a natural process. One outlook of this is from 13th century Arab author, Ibn Khaldun; The Muqaddimah. The following list of chapter is quite informative. A perspective from before the industrial revolution.

    Chapter III
    On dynasties, royal authority, the caliphate, government ranks, and all that goes with these things. The chapter contains basic and supplementary propositions
    1 Royal authority and large dynastic power are attained only through a group and group feeling
    2 When a dynasty is firmly established, it can dispense with group feeling
    3 Members of a royal family may be able to found a dynasty that can dispense with group feeling
    4 Dynasties of wide power and large royal authority have their origin in religion based either on prophecy or on truthful propaganda
    5 Religious propaganda gives a dynasty at its beginning another power in addition to that of the group feeling it possessed as the result of the number of its supporters
    6 Religious propaganda cannot materialize without group feeling
    7 Each dynasty has a certain amount of provinces and lands, and no more
    8 The greatness of a dynasty, the extent of its territory, and the length of its duration depend upon the numerical strength of its supporters
    9 A dynasty rarely establishes itself firmly in lands with many different tribes and groups
    10 By its very nature, the royal authority claims all glory for itself and goes in for luxury and prefers tranquility and quiet
    11 When the natural tendencies of the royal authority to claim all glory for itself and to obtain luxury and tranquility have been firmly established, the dynasty approaches senility
    12 Dynasties have a natural life span like individuals

    However there are other natural terminators; cataclysmic events. Here it can be shown also how civilisations are destroyed, but the seed to re-establish again always has survived, though sometimes at a much less level of quality-of-life.

    • TimE. says:

      “The rise and collapse of civilisations is a natural process”.

      Breathe in – breathe out.

      Revealed: City of London accuses France of plot to ‘wreck Britain’ – even if it gains nothing itself
      • A leaked memo says French bankers are plotting to ‘actively disrupt’ the City
      • The London financial centre is worth £66 billion a year to the Treasury
      • The City’s Brexit envoy says Macron has declared ‘open war’ on the Square Mile
      • French representatives are now offering firms big money to move to Paris

      Read more: http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-4700008/City-London-accuses-France-plot-wreck-Britain.html#ixzz4n12acKbx

      “However there are other natural terminators; cataclysmic events. Here it can be shown also how civilisations are destroyed, but the seed to re-establish again always has survived, though sometimes at a much less level of quality-of-life”.

      I agree.

      Being a citizen of the Imperial American Empire – of uncertain birth – and having no real knowledge of my past – I had a number of genetic tests done – to try and discover who I was – out of curiosity – and the results showed that I am basically 100% European – with a little less than 4% (293 Markers for those which they test for) Neanderthal DNA.

      My ancestors had a 1500cc cranial capacity vs. Cro-Magnon at 1400cc – they lived with Nature and did not develop modern Industrial Civilization – Cro-Magnons bred them out of existence – in addition to committing genocide against my Ancestors.

      “When modern humans migrated out of Africa some 60,000 years ago, they found the Eurasian continent already inhabited by brawny, big-browed Neanderthals. We know that at least some encounters between the two kinds of human produced offspring, because the genomes of people living outside Africa today are composed of some 1 to 4 percent Neanderthal DNA”.

      http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2014/01/140129-neanderthal-genes-genetics-migration-africa-eurasian-science/

      So might I actually have a distant claim to territory in France – where brawny, big-browed Neanderthals lived – until Cro-Magnons wiped them out through Genocide and inter-breeding – the link below is NOT about me – but another.

      http://www.slate.com/articles/health_and_science/human_evolution/2012/10/neanderthal_and_denisovan_genetics_human_ancestors_interbred_with_extinct.html

      18,000 years ago – I had an ancestor in common with many of the Royal Families of Europe – and I DO BELIEVE that this is common for many Europeans and Migrants who left Europe – exporting an excess carrying capacity of the Land – it is by no means significant.

      Ibn Khaldun starts the Muqaddimah with a thorough criticism of the mistakes regularly committed by his fellow historians and the difficulties which await the historian in his work. He notes seven critical issues:

      “All records, by their very nature, are liable to error…

      …Partisanship towards a creed or opinion…
      …Over-confidence in one’s sources…
      …The failure to understand what is intended…
      …A mistaken belief in the truth…
      …The inability to place an event in its real context
      …The common desire to gain favor of those of high ranks, by praising them, by spreading their fame…
      …The most important is the ignorance of the laws governing the transformation of human society.”

      https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Muqaddimah

      The Transformation of the European Empire is coming –

      Italy Threatens EU With “Nuclear Option”: Give 200,000 Migrants EU Visas, Sending Them North

      Two weeks after Italy reacted with anger to Austria’s deployment of troops and armored vehicles to the border between the two nations, while reactivating border controls at the Brenner Pass over concerns that Italy will be unable to handle the roughly 85,000 migrants and refugees who have entered the country so far in 2017, the Italian government has threatened to retaliate in way that assures an imminent migrant crisis as well as an escalation of tensions between the two EU nations.

      According to The Times, an Italian minister and a senator have threatened to issue temporary EU visas to thousands of migrants in an effort to “resolve” Italy’s escalating migrant and refugee crisis, which would then allow the refugees to travel north. The move, which has been described as a ‘nuclear option,’ would allow the nearly 200,000 migrants currently stranded in Italy, to travel across Europe using a Brussels directive loophole.

      Paolo Gentiloni, the prime minister, is livid that the rest of Europe has refused to take its fair share of migrants and that they have closed ports to rescue ships as the number of refugees attempting the treacherous crossing from Libya to the Continent has surged.

      Italy previously called on its EU neighbors to help with the escalating humanitarian crisis but it has been disappointed by their complete lack of action. The face off prompted former Italian Prime Minister Matteo Renzi to shock the European liberal establishment, when last Friday he released excerpts from a new book in which he said that “we need to free ourselves from a sense of guilt. We do not have the moral duty to welcome into Italy people who are worse off than ourselves” adding that “we need to escape from our ‘do gooder’ mentality.”

      http://www.zerohedge.com/news/2017-07-15/italy-plots-nuclear-option-give-200000-migrants-eu-visas-sending-them-north

      Europe isn’t exactly undergoing “Austerity” – it is undergoing a radical TRANSFORMATION – the entire population will be replaced by the Islamic hordes – as long as (100%) Europeans don’t resist – in fact – they are welcoming it – and it must be noted that my Neanderthal ancestors in France did not resist the ferocious and conquering Cro-Magnon tribes – subsequently they were genocided/bred out of existence – hence I am a living fossil –

      I would suggest that the Islamic hordes are better suited to living under a Technocracy and Third World Conditions – and that at some level – it is known – or accepted that Cro-Magnons must be limited because of their destructive inbred/genetic tendencies. I am open to accepting that proposition – a Technocracy.

      See: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Georgia_Guidestones

      A message consisting of a set of ten guidelines or principles is engraved on the Georgia Guidestones[8] in eight different languages, one language on each face of the four large upright stones. Moving clockwise around the structure from due north, these languages are: English, Spanish, Swahili, Hindi, Hebrew, Arabic, Chinese, and Russian.

      Maintain humanity under 500,000,000 in perpetual balance with nature.
      Guide reproduction wisely — improving fitness and diversity.
      Unite humanity with a living new language.
      Rule passion — faith — tradition — and all things with tempered reason.
      Protect people and nations with fair laws and just courts.
      Let all nations rule internally resolving external disputes in a world court.
      Avoid petty laws and useless officials.
      Balance personal rights with social duties.
      Prize truth — beauty — love — seeking harmony with the infinite.
      Be not a cancer on the earth — Leave room for nature — Leave room for nature.

      • First, those two videos, of Dr Mark Blyth and Profs Albert Bartlett are essential viewing. Puts things in proper perspective.

        Ibn Khaldun, in the rise and fall dynasties (family>political>civilization) explains the process by which this happens:

        “It reaches its end in a single family within four successive generations. This is as follows: The builder of the glory (of the family) knows what it cost him to do the work, and he keeps the qualities that created his glory and made it last. The son who comes after him had personal contact with his father and thus learned those things from him. However, he is inferior in this respect to (his father), in as much as a person who learns things through study is inferior to a person who knows them from practical application. The third generation must be content with imitation and, in particular, with reliance upon tradition. This member is inferior to him of the second generation, in as much as a person who relies (blindly) upon tradition Is inferior to a person who exercises independent judgment.

        The fourth generation, then, is inferior to the preceding ones in every respect. This member has lost the qualities that preserved the edifice of their glory. He (actually) despises(those qualities). He imagines that the edifice was not built through application and effort.”

        Being also myself of descent from an ancient lineage, my early years were lived in a setting not far removed from that described by Hesiod in ‘Works and Days’. Some 23 years later I graduated in Mech eng the same year that Man landed on the moon. That was a mighty big progress. We have gone further since then. In my case all of that was achieved in a single lifetime.

        I hark back to my early ancestors (a favourite topic, so be warned). They had developed an astronomical technology – a calendar- that brought big progress in agriculture. Repeated cataclysms took their toll, but each time some survived to rebuild, mainly because the scientific knowledge they had mastered had survived. But a time came when some survived but the knowledge was lost. Where science helped to regain a foothold, now cult –the result of bluff and fake knowledge- insured their undoing (the fourth stage of Khaldun). The lineage survived, but not as a civilisation but as a remnant of an ancient people.

        That calendar technique was never again acquired, up to present day: https://melitamegalithic.wordpress.com/2017/02/24/first-blog-post/ (I warned you ). Had it survived the cults that followed may not have had opportunity to sprout, and inflict so much misery on humanity. There is a lesson there for us. Today we have gained much more since Apollo 11. In view that the exponential curve of growth is today vertical>tending to infinity (exponential amplitude growth tends to self destruct), How will we fare?

  4. Great blog, the overspending by governments is just ridiculous. Only if businesses could be operated in such away. This mentality has been going on for decades and was enhanced in the 80’s by the US & UK by the introduction of the trickle-down economy.

  5. TimE. says:

    I couldn’t reply above – so forgive me…

    “I hark back to my early ancestors (a favourite topic, so be warned). They had developed an astronomical technology – a calendar- that brought big progress in agriculture”.

    Did they develop that calendar – OR – was the information provided by others?

    How about the Dogon of Africa?

    In Mali, West Africa, lives a tribe of people called the Dogon. The Dogon are believed to be of Egyptian decent and their astronomical lore goes back thousands of years to 3200 BC. According to their traditions, the star Sirius has a companion star which is invisible to the human eye. This companion star has a 50 year elliptical orbit around the visible Sirius and is extremely heavy. It also rotates on its axis.

    This legend might be of little interest to anybody but the two French anthropologists, Marcel Griaule and Germain Dieterlen, who recorded it from four Dogon priests in the 1930’s. Of little interest except that it is exactly true. How did a people who lacked any kind of astronomical devices know so much about an invisible star? The star, which scientists call Sirius B, wasn’t even photographed until it was done by a large telescope in 1970.

    The Dogon stories explain that also. According to their oral traditions, a race people from the Sirius system called the Nommos visited Earth thousands of years ago. The Nommos were ugly, amphibious beings that resembled mermen and mermaids. They also appear in Babylonian, Accadian, and Sumerian myths. The Egyptian Goddess Isis, who is sometimes depicted as a mermaid, is also linked with the star Sirius.

    The Nommos, according to the Dogon legend, lived on a planet that orbits another star in the Sirius system. They landed on Earth in an “ark” that made a spinning decent to the ground with great noise and wind. It was the Nommos that gave the Dogon the knowledge about Sirius B.

    http://www.bibliotecapleyades.net/mitos_creacion/esp_mitoscreacion_1.htm

    If Planet Earth history is only around 6,000 years – then how did the ancients know about the 26,000 year procession of the Equinoxes? We are now in the Age of Pisces – or that of the Two Fish – and moving towards that of Aquarius – that of the Water Bearer.

    Watch: https://youtu.be/jJSpujHhaGQ

    The misery upon Humanity has been inflicted upon a financial system which is based upon a fraud – interest – the amount of which is never created during the origination of the loan – and credit which brings future demand into the present.

    Capitalism – or whatever you want to name it – the economic system that currently rules Planet Earth is destructive and evil – enslaving and destroying People – creating classes – and oppressive regimes.

    Jay Hansen describes it here:

    “Economics is deliberately confusing, but after fifteen years of study, I have cut through the jargon and math and can now explain economics in just one sentence: Economics is an expression of political agendas that are hidden within known-false assumptions. If one accepts those false assumptions, then one also accepts those hidden agendas. This brilliant method for subliminal programming has been very effective in instilling libertarian ideals into university students for half a century. However, I am getting ahead of the bigger picture… ”

    http://www.jayhanson.org/oldindex.htm

    I still find my myself a “libertarian idealist” – yet recognize The Tragedy of The Commons.

    Michael Tellinger – who discovered 250,000 year old gold mines in South Africa – and who wrote Slave Species – also penned UBUNTU – which will – if Humanity is to survive – a blueprint for the future.

    “Let everyone contribute their natural talents or acquired skills to the greater benefit of all in the community. Let us utilise the wealth of our land to provide abundance in all areas of life for the people.” Michael Tellinger 2005.

    LET US RESTORE THE RIGHTS OF THE PEOPLE TO THE PEOPLE

    We, the people, have appointed the politicians as our servants to do the best they can for us – the people. The politicians and the government have failed us dramatically and have betrayed the dream of Nelson Mandela and many other humans of integrity who dedicated their lives to our freedom. Today, as South Africans and the rest of humanity, we face a greater threat than any other threat we have faced before. The threat of absolute enslavement by those who control the global economy and the financial systems.

    http://www.ubuntuparty.org.za/p/home.html

    It is – a World without money. If you can imagine it.

  6. TimE. says:

    Continued:

    “The fourth generation, then, is inferior to the preceding ones in every respect. This member has lost the qualities that preserved the edifice of their glory. He (actually) despises(those qualities). He imagines that the edifice was not built through application and effort.”

    You allude to The Fourth Turning –

    The Strauss–Howe generational theory, created by authors William Strauss and Neil Howe, describes a theorized recurring generation cycle in American history. Strauss and Howe laid the groundwork for their theory in their 1991 book Generations, which discusses the history of the United States as a series of generational biographies going back to 1584. In their 1997 book The Fourth Turning, the authors expanded the theory to focus on a fourfold cycle of generational types and recurring mood eras in American history. They have since expanded on the concept in a variety of publications.

    The theory was developed to describe the history of the United States, including the 13 colonies and their British antecedents, and this is where the most detailed research has been done. However, the authors have also examined generational trends elsewhere in the world and described similar cycles in several developed countries.

    Eric Hoover (2009) has called the authors pioneers in a burgeoning industry of consultants, speakers and researchers focused on generations.

    Academic response to the theory has been mixed—some applauding Strauss and Howe for their “bold and imaginative thesis”, and others criticizing the theory. Criticism has focused on the lack of rigorous empirical evidence for their claims, and a perception that aspects of the argument gloss over real differences within the population.

    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Strauss%E2%80%93Howe_generational_theory

    Perhaps so – Enjoy Thomas Coles “The Course of Empire”

    http://www.explorethomascole.org/tour/items/69/series/

    Pete Townsend suggested – Give Blood…

  7. @ TimeE: nothing to forgive from my end. I am hoping Malaga Bay may allow a little digressing from the main subject. However since like armies, civilization walk into the future ‘on their stomachs’, this may have a strong bearing to the subject.

    To answer your first question: There is a hint that basic calendar technique was already widely known, but in the form that it can certainly be said that it is intentional and engineered, it only appears at that one place. The earliest date – with some degree of reliability- is pre 5200bce. There followed 2500 years of design evolution, indicating a knowledge-core group. There is a reasonable chance that there is where it originated.

    Re the Dogon, they are an interesting people with an ancient lore. But here a first caveat: they have been contaminated by western ideas introduced by the early missionaries. Here a quote from my own research: “According to Nicholas Grimal the myth of Osiris contains elements that are very ancient, remanent recollections of the earliest thoughts of the ancient civilisations. Grimal says that the Osiris myth recalls the Lebe, where the resurrection of Osiris represents the re-growth of the millet. The Lebe is one of the four early gods of the Dogon people of West Africa. It was the agricultural deity that controlled the cycles of the seasons.”

    The Dogon, like the Egyptians and the Greeks, have remnants of an ancient lore that was widely diffused, but they have no indication of an origin. Here quoting Apuleius who states clearly common origins “I am she (Inanna/Asht’art/Demeter) that is the natural mother of all things, — my name, my divinity, is adored throughout all the world, in diverse manners, in variable customs and in many names. —the Phrygians that are the first of all men call me the mother of the gods. —the Athenians, which are sprung from their own soil, Ceropian Minerva; the Cyprians — Paphian Venus; the Cretans —Dictinnian Diana; the Sicilians — Proserpina; the Eleusians — Ceres; and the Ethiopians–and the Egyptians — Queen Isis”. The oldest sources I have found (it has been a long search of mine) are fourth millennium Mesopotamia, and contemporarily, the land of the megalithic calendars, with which the myth cum lore, is closely bound. It is the Dumuzi (plus mother and sister- the divine triad) myth. Those were no gods, but a metaphorical representation of cereal cultivation. That fact was also widely known. This may help: https://melitamegalithic.wordpress.com/2017/04/25/the-two-queens-in-different-eras/

    Note that the Dogon’s ‘Lebe’ is a reflection of Mesopotamian Dumuzi, but only a disjointed part of a much more extensive myth/agri-lore.

    My reference to the ‘Fourth generation’ is intended to mean as put by Ibn Khaldun, and refer to those that dominate, dynasties to governments. In a way it is also ‘The Tragedy of The Commons’ where the ones that dominate, use and waste what the dominated need to subsist and survive. Economics, like any other tool, can also be ‘misused’.

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