According to Astronomers Comet Halley is a Dirty Snowball that is illuminated by reflected Sunlight and glowing Gases that have been ionised by Sunlight.
Both the coma and tail are illuminated by the Sun and may become visible when a comet passes through the inner Solar System, the dust reflects Sunlight directly while the gases glow from ionisation.
However, this self-assured Astronomical assertion has a few problems.
Firstly, it struggles to explain away the increased Total Visual Magnitude of Comet Halley as it sped away from the Sun after perihelion in 1986.
By the end of the decade The Ionization Enigma had been quietly dispatched to the black memory hole of astronomy [from where no enlightenment escapes] after it was realised solar irradiance couldn’t explain away Comet Halley’s increased Total Visual Magnitude as it sped away from the Sun after perihelion.
Secondly, it struggles to explain away Cometary outbursts that can change a Comet’s “brightness by a factor of about half a million”.
Occasionally a comet may experience a huge and sudden outburst of gas and dust, during which the size of the coma greatly increases for a period of time.
During its 2007 return, Holmes unexpectedly brightened from a magnitude of about 17 to about 2.8 in a period of only 42 hours, making it visible to the naked eye.
This represents a change of brightness by a factor of about half a million and is the largest known outburst by a comet. The outburst took place from October 23 to 24, 2007.
Comet Holmes not only became brighter, but it also swelled in size as its coma expanded.
Thirdly, it struggles to explain away the sporadic nature of Cometary outbursts that can occur well beyond the orbit of Jupiter.
Cometary Outbursts: A Review – D W Hughes
Quarterly Journal of the Royal Astronomical Society – 31 – Feb 1990
In late October 2007 the coma’s apparent diameter increased from 3.3 arcminutes to over 13 arcminutes, about half the diameter of the Moon in the sky.
At a distance of around 2 AU, this means that the true diameter of the coma had swelled to over 1 million km, or about 70% of the diameter of the Sun
The cause of the outburst is not definitely known.
Unravelling Cometary Illumination and Outbursts begins with Particulate Energy.
Particulate Energy is given many names depending upon it energy levels: X-Rays, Gamma Rays and several flavours of Cosmic Rays.
Particulate Energy also has many names depending upon it’s perceived structure: Electrons, Protons, Neutrons, Alpha Particles, Stripped Nuclei [and any other particle that create an impact].
Of primary cosmic rays, which originate outside of Earth’s atmosphere, about 99% are the nuclei (stripped of their electron shells) of well-known atoms, and about 1% are solitary electrons (similar to beta particles).
Of the nuclei, about 90% are simple protons (i.e., hydrogen nuclei); 9% are alpha particles, identical to helium nuclei; and 1% are the nuclei of heavier elements, called HZE ions.
The solar wind is a stream of charged particles released from the upper atmosphere of the Sun. This plasma consists of mostly electrons, protons and alpha particles with thermal energies between 1.5 and 10 keV.
The next step occurs when Particulate Energy collides with Matter and causes a Fission Event that fragments the target.
There are many types of Fission Events that are associated with different energy levels:
Photodissociation, photolysis, or photodecomposition is a chemical reaction in which a chemical compound is broken down by photons.
Since a photon’s energy is inversely proportional to its wavelength, electromagnetic waves with the energy of visible light or higher, such as ultraviolet light, x-rays and gamma rays are usually involved in such reactions.
Ionization is the process by which an atom or a molecule acquires a negative or positive charge by gaining or losing electrons to form ions, often in conjunction with other chemical changes.
Nuclear spallation occurs naturally in Earth’s atmosphere owing to the impacts of cosmic rays, and also on the surfaces of bodies in space such as meteorites and the Moon.
Cosmogenic isotopes of aluminium, beryllium, chlorine, iodine and neon, formed by spallation of terrestrial elements under cosmic ray bombardment, have been detected on Earth.
Cosmogenic nuclides (or cosmogenic isotopes) are rare isotopes created when a high-energy cosmic ray interacts with the nucleus of an in situ Solar System atom, causing nucleons (protons and neutrons) to be expelled from the atom (see cosmic ray spallation).
In nuclear physics and nuclear chemistry, nuclear fission is either a nuclear reaction or a radioactive decay process in which the nucleus of an atom splits into smaller parts (lighter nuclei). The fission process often produces free neutrons and gamma photons, and releases a very large amount of energy even by the energetic standards of radioactive decay.
High energy Fission Events can also trigger a Fission Cascade.
Fragmentation is naturally complemented by Fusion Events that combine Matter.
There are many types of Fusion Events that are associated with different energy levels:
Plasma recombination is a process by which positive ions of a plasma capture a free (energetic) electron and combine with electrons or negative ions to form new neutral atoms (gas).
Recombination is an exothermic reaction, meaning heat releasing.
Dissociation in chemistry and biochemistry is a general process in which molecules (or ionic compounds such as salts, or complexes) separate or split into smaller particles such as atoms, ions or radicals, usually in a reversible manner.
Dissociation is the opposite of recombination.
The current version of Wikipedia bizarrely states “Dissociation is the same as recombination” which is a bit like saying: Divorce is the same as Marriage.
In nuclear physics, nuclear fusion is a reaction in which two or more atomic nuclei come close enough to form one or more different atomic nuclei and subatomic particles (neutrons or protons). The difference in mass between the products and reactants is manifested as the release of large amounts of energy.
Fission Events [produced by Particulate Energy] and their complementary Fusion Events are the basic processes driving the creation of a Comet’s Coma and Tail.
Cometary activity begins with surface Sputtering.
Sputtering is a process whereby particles are ejected from a solid target material due to bombardment of the target by energetic particles.
Comet Hale–Bopp (formally designated C/1995 O1) is a comet that was perhaps the most widely observed of the 20th century, and one of the brightest seen for many decades.
One of the most remarkable discoveries was that the comet had a third type of tail.
In addition to the well-known gas and dust tails, Hale–Bopp also exhibited a faint sodium tail, only visible with powerful instruments with dedicated filters.
Sodium emission had been previously observed in other comets, but had not been shown to come from a tail.
Hale–Bopp’s sodium tail consisted of neutral atoms (not ions), and extended to some 50 million kilometres in length.
The source of the sodium appeared to be the inner coma, although not necessarily the nucleus.
There are several possible mechanisms for generating a source of sodium atoms, including collisions between dust grains surrounding the nucleus, and “sputtering” of sodium from dust grains by ultraviolet light.
The Comet’s Coma can then ramp-up as the intensity of Particulate Energy increases as it moves closer to [or travels through] a source of Particulate Energy.
On 2 June 2015, NASA reported that the ALICE spectrograph on Rosetta determined that electrons within 1 km (0.6 mi) above the comet nucleus — produced from photoionization of water molecules by solar radiation, and not photons from the Sun as thought earlier — are responsible for the degradation of water and carbon dioxide molecules released from the comet nucleus into its coma.
As Sputtering etches away the Comet’s surface the newly exposed material may facilitate a self-sustaining Nuclear Reaction [for a limited period] which causes the size and brightness of the Comet’s Coma to increase even if it’s moving away from the Particulate Energy source.
In nuclear engineering, a neutron moderator is a medium that reduces the speed of fast neutrons, thereby turning them into thermal neutrons capable of sustaining a nuclear chain reaction involving uranium-235 or a similar fissile nuclide.
The letter “r” stands for “rapid neutron capture”… where heavy seed nuclei such as 56Fe rapidly capture neutrons, running up against the neutron drip line, as neutrons are captured much faster than the resulting nuclides can beta decay back toward stability.
Neutron capture is the only way… to synthesise elements beyond iron because of the increased Coulomb barriers that make interactions between charged particles difficult at high atomic numbers and the fact that fusion beyond 56Fe is endothermic.
However, a “sustained nuclear chain reaction” can trigger a catastrophic Cometary outburst.
NASA’s Spitzer Space Telescope captured the picture on the left of comet Holmes in March 2008, five months after the comet suddenly erupted and brightened a millionfold overnight.
Every six years, comet 17P/Holmes speeds away from Jupiter and heads inward toward the sun, traveling the same route typically without incident.
However, twice in the last 116 years, in November 1892 and October 2007, comet Holmes mysteriously exploded as it approached the asteroid belt.
Astronomers still do not know the cause of these eruptions.
Anatomy of a Busted Comet – 10 Oct 2008
Jet Propulsion Laboratory – California Institute of Technology
A neutron bomb, officially defined as a type of enhanced radiation weapon (ERW), is a low yield thermonuclear weapon designed to maximize lethal neutron radiation in the immediate vicinity of the blast while minimizing the physical power of the blast itself.
The neutron release generated by a nuclear fusion reaction is intentionally allowed to escape the weapon, rather than being absorbed by its other components.
The neutron burst, which is used as the primary destructive action of the warhead, is able to penetrate enemy armor more effectively than a conventional warhead, thus making it more lethal as a tactical weapon.
The concept was originally developed by the US in the late 1950s and early 1960s.
These are exactly the same phenomena that cause Meteors to burn-up and explode.
The Chelyabinsk meteor was a superbolide caused by an approximately 20-metre near-Earth asteroid that entered Earth’s atmosphere over Russia on 15 February 2013 at about 09:20 YEKT (03:20 UTC), with a speed of 19.16 ± 0.15 kilometres per second (60,000–69,000 km/h or 40,000–42,900 mph).
It quickly became a brilliant superbolide meteor over the southern Ural region.
The light from the meteor was brighter than the Sun, visible up to 100 km (62 mi) away.
Some eyewitnesses also felt intense heat from the fireball.
On account of its high velocity and shallow angle of atmospheric entry, the object exploded in an air burst over Chelyabinsk Oblast, at a height of around 29.7 km (18.5 mi; 97,000 ft).
The explosion generated a bright flash, producing a hot cloud of dust and gas that penetrated to 26.2 km (16.3 mi), and many surviving small fragmentary meteorites, as well as a large shock wave.
The bulk of the object’s energy was absorbed by the atmosphere, with a total kinetic energy before atmospheric impact estimated from infrasound and seismic measurements to be equivalent to the blast yield of a nuclear weapon in the 400–500 kiloton (about 1.4–1.8 PJ) range – 26 to 33 times as much energy as that released from the atomic bomb detonated at Hiroshima.
And these are exactly the same phenomena that light up the very dark and dusty Moon [albedo: 0.136] and create it’s Sodium Tail.
… the Moon is known to have a sodium exosphere which is blown by the solar wind to form an extensive Sodium Tail.
Therefore, it is highly likely that the Moon’s sodium exosphere will fluoresce [just like a sodium lamp] when it is bombarded with electrons for the Earth’s magnetosphere during a lunar eclipse.
Unsurprisingly, when a sodium light is powering up we initially observe the same blood orange colours of the lunar eclipse.
Overall, complementary cycles of Fission and Fusion are indicative of a Steady State Universe that is constantly being [partly] destroyed and [partly] regenerated.
This implies the Big Bang monotheistic belief system is the Big Nonsense at the heart of the black memory hole of Astronomy [from where no enlightenment escapes].
The scientific community was once divided between supporters of two different theories, the Big Bang and the Steady State theory, but a wide range of empirical evidence has strongly favored the Big Bang which is now universally accepted.
Georges Henri Joseph Édouard Lemaître Associate RAS (1894-1966) was a Belgian Catholic Priest, astronomer and professor of physics at the Catholic University of Leuven.
He proposed the theory of the expansion of the universe, widely misattributed to Edwin Hubble.
He was the first to derive what is now known as Hubble’s law and made the first estimation of what is now called the Hubble constant, which he published in 1927, two years before Hubble’s article.
Lemaître also proposed what became known as the Big Bang theory of the origin of the universe, which he called his “hypothesis of the primeval atom” or the “Cosmic Egg“.
However, in this instance, the belief system is founded upon magical mathematical miracles.
This only demonstrates that the mathematician knows how to bend the rules of mathematics.
This is not science.
This is not even mathematically valid alchemy.
This is just Fool’s Gold.
But, as always: You Pays Your Tithe and You Takes Your Choice.