Following the Terrestrial Thorium line of enquiry to the Far Side of the Moon very rapidly becomes a fascinating journey to the Far Side as the Settled Science turns to dust and this independent observer is led to conclude the once wandering Earth only settled into it’s current steady orbital rhythm after it became entrained with the Moon.
The point of departure for this journey to the Far Side is the Tale of Two Thoriums as narrated by the Near and Far sides of the Moon.
The asymmetry in the distribution of Thorium spread across the Lunar surface starkly highlights the scientific shambles that is the KREEP narrative.
The gamma-ray spectrometer data shows that the rocks rich in potassium, rare earth elements and phosphorus, known as KREEP, are concentrated in the Mare Imbrium rim, the nearside maria and highlands near Imbrium and the Mare Ingenii South Pole-Aitken basin and are distributed at a lower level in the highlands.
KREEP is rich in uranium and thorium and is thought to represent the last remaining melt after the lunar crust formed.
Lunar Prospector Science Results – D R Williams – Jan 2005
NASA Goddard Space Flight Center
Indirectly, it has been deduced that the origin of KREEP is contained in the origin of the Moon.
The problem being the massive Aitken Basin on the Far Side has only slightly elevated levels of iron, titanium, and thorium i.e. it’s not smothered in KREEP sand.
NASA – Astronomy Picture of the Day – 6 Sept 1996
The South Pole–Aitken basin is an impact crater on the far side of the Moon.
The lowest elevations of the Moon (about −6000 m) are located within the South Pole–Aitken basin, and the highest elevations (about +8000 m) are found on this basin’s north-eastern rim.
The orbital data indicate that the floor of this basin has slightly elevated abundances of iron, titanium, and thorium.
The mainstream struggles to “explain why” their KREEP narrative contains such a strange anomaly while it studiously ignores the evidence from the Aitken Basin for a Plagioclase Moon.
While other factors such as surface elevation and crustal thickness could also affect where basalts erupt, these do not explain why the farside South Pole–Aitken basin (which contains the lowest elevations of the Moon and possesses a thin crust) was not as volcanically active as Oceanus Procellarum on the near side.
In terms of mineralogy, the basin floor is much richer in clinopyroxene and orthopyroxene than the surrounding highlands that are largely anorthositic.
Anorthosite is a phaneritic, intrusive igneous rock characterized by a predominance of plagioclase feldspar (90–100%), and a minimal mafic component (0–10%).
Pyroxene, ilmenite, magnetite, and olivine are the mafic minerals most commonly present.
Plagioclase is a series of tectosilicate (framework silicate) minerals within the feldspar group.
The evidence for a Plagioclase Moon threatens to overturn the Newtonian apple cart because the remarkably similar densities of Plagioclase and Silicon Dioxide suggest the Earth and Moon share the same orbital space [around the Sun] because they have similar densities.
Silicon is a chemical element with symbol Si and atomic number 14.
Over 90% of the Earth’s crust is composed of silicate minerals, making silicon the second most abundant element in the Earth’s crust (about 28% by mass) after oxygen.
Silicon dioxide, also known as silica (from the Latin silex), is an oxide of silicon with the chemical formula SiO2, most commonly found in nature as quartz and in various living organisms.
Physical Properties of Quartz…
Density: 2.6 – 2.65, Average = 2.62
Physical Properties of Plagioclase…
Density: 2.61 – 2.76, Average = 2.68
The rot set in when Newton shoehorned mass into Kepler’s Third Law of Planetary Motion and then [somehow] shoehorned himself in as president of the Royal Society.
Sadly, dedicated believers in Mathematical Alchemists are unwilling to accept that the falsification of Newton’s Universal Law of Gravitation has been well documented.
The dense sand moves to the centre and forms a hemispherical island.
Initially, the less dense plastic bead orbits the island.
As the circular motion dissipates the plastic bead moves closer to the island…
For good measure the mainstream also buried the Moon’s “magnetic anomalies” [alongside the best forgotten corpse of the Plagioclase Moon] in the depths of the Aitken Basin on the Far Side.
Putative evidence for this comes from the high elevations north-east of the rim of the South Pole–Aitken basin that might represent ejecta from such an oblique impact.
The impact theory would also account for magnetic anomalies on the moon.
The Moon’s “magnetic anomalies” are difficult to explain away because the magnetic field strength in the Aitken Basin is up to 1,000 times greater than found in the Sea of Showers on the Near Side.
Strangely enough, the “magnetic anomalies” in the Aitken Basin contradict the mainstream Moon Origin narrative because the relative strength of the magnetic field indicate the Far Side was once stuck facing the Sun i.e. the Moon was once a moon of the Sun.
In 1838 David Brewster summarised the history of Violet’s magnetic personality.
He also detailed experiments that had produced magnetism using “the white light of the sun.”
Plus Brewster identified experiments that had shown the magnetism of loadstones could be “nearly doubled by twenty-four hours’ exposure to the strong light of the sun”.
Unsurprisingly, the pock-marked faces of the Moon confirm the Near Side hasn’t always been shielded by the Earth i.e. the Moon was once an unaccompanied moon orbiting the Sun.
Immanuel Velikovsky emphasised the wandering Earth once had an orbital period of 360 days.
Numerous evidences are preserved which prove that prior to the year of 365¼ days, the year was only 360 days long.
The texts of the Veda period know a year of only 360 days.
A month of thirty days and a year of 360 days formed the basis of early Hindu chronology used in historical computations.
The ancient Persian year was composed of 360 days or twelve months of thirty days each.
The old Babylonian year was composed of 360 days.
The Assyrian year consisted of 360 days;
The month of the Israelites, from the fifteenth to the eighth century before the present era, was equal to thirty days, and twelve months comprised a year;
The Egyptian year was composed of 360 days before it became 365 by the addition of five days.
Cleobulus, who was counted among the seven sages of ancient Greece, in his famous allegory represents the year as divided into twelve months of thirty days:
The ancient Romans also reckoned 360 days to the year.
the Mayan year consisted of 360 days; later five days were added, and the year was then a tun (360-day period) and five days; every fourth year another day was added to the year.
In ancient South America also the year consisted of 360 days, divided into twelve months.
The calendar of the peoples of China had a year of 360 days divided into twelve months of thirty days each… When the year changed from 360 to 365¼ days, the Chinese added five and a quarter days to their year, calling this additional period Khe-ying;
Worlds In Collision – Immanuel Velikovsky – 1950
However, the wandering Earth’s orbital period appears to have varied between 354 and 369 days.
In the earlier period of Greek history one of the chief functions expected of astronomers was the proper regulation of the calendar.
The Greeks, like earlier nations, began with a calendar based on the moon.
In the time of Hesiod a year consisting of 12 months of 30 days was in common use ; at a later date a year made up of 6 full months of 30 days and 6 empty months of 29 days
To Solon is attributed the merit of having introduced at Athens, about 594 B.C., the practice of adding to every alternate year a ” full ” month.
Thus a period of two years would contain 13 months of 30 days and 12 of 29 days, or 738 days in all, distributed among 25 months, giving, for the average length of the year and month, 369 days and about 29½ days respectively.
This arrangement was further improved by the introduction, probably during the 5th century b.c, of the octaeteris, or eight-year cycle, in three of the years of which an additional ” full ” month was introduced, while the remaining years consisted as before of 6 ” full ” and 6 ” empty ” months.
By this arrangement the average length of the year was reduced to 365¼ days, that of the month remaining nearly unchanged.
As, however, the Greeks laid some stress on beginning the month when the new moon was first visible, it was necessary to make from time to time arbitrary alterations in the calendar, and considerable confusion…
The Roman calendar was in early times even more confused than the Greek.
There appears to have been at one time a year of either 304 or 354 days ; tradition assigned to Numa the introduction of a cycle of four years, which brought the calendar into fair agreement with the sun, but made the average length of the month considerably too short.
A satisfactory reform of the calendar was finally effected by Julius Caesar during the short period of his supremacy at Rome, under the advice of an Alexandrine astronomer Sosigenes.
For the future the year was to be independent of the moon ; the ordinary year was to consist of 365 days, an extra day being added to February every fourth year (our leap-year), so that the average length of the year would be 365¼ days.
Short History of Astronomy – Arthur J. Berry – 1898
About fourteen centuries elapsed between the publication of the Almagest and the death of Coppernicus (1543), a date which is in astronomy a convenient landmark on the boundary between the Middle Ages and the modern world.
In this period, nearly twice as long as that which separated Thales from Ptolemy, almost four times as long as that which has now elapsed since the death of Coppernicus, no astronomical discovery of first-rate importance was made.
There were some important advances in mathematics, and the art of observation was improved ; but theoretical astronomy made scarcely any progress, and in some respects even went backward, the current doctrines, if in some points slightly more correct than those of Ptolemy, being less intelligently held.
Short History of Astronomy – Arthur J. Berry – 1898
At some point during these orbital wanderings the Earth appears to have acquired the Moon which, according to Aristarchus of Samos, was once significantly further away from the Earth.
Short History of Astronomy – Arthur J. Berry – 1898
Aristarchus of Samos (c. 310 – c. 230 BC) was an ancient Greek astronomer and mathematician who presented the first known model that placed the Sun at the center of the known universe with the Earth revolving around it (see Solar system).
Using correct geometry, but the insufficiently accurate 87° datum, Aristarchus concluded that the Sun was between 18 and 20 times farther away than the Moon.
(The true value of this angle is close to 89° 50′, and the Sun’s distance is actually about 400 times that of the Moon.)
Arguably, the emergence of Star and Crescent iconography suggests the Earth acquired the Moon when it was wandering closer to Venus.
The crescent shape is used to represent the Moon, and the Moon deity Nanna/Sin from an early time, visible in Akkadian cylinder seals as early as 2300 BC.
The Star of Ishtar or Star of Inanna is a symbol of the ancient Sumerian goddess Inanna and her East Semitic counterpart Ishtar… also known as the Star of Venus.
The less shielded Far Side of the Moon suggests Atomic Comet impacts are rare events.
The mainstream suggests the Aitken Basin may have been caused by a low-velocity, low angle, 200 km diameter impactor although the bulging Lunar surface to the North of the Aitken Basin is also suggestive of a glancing blow from a far larger body.
This has suggested to some that the basin was not formed by a typical high-velocity impact, but may instead have been formed by a low-velocity projectile around 200 km in diameter that hit at a low angle (about 30 degrees or less), and hence did not dig very deeply into the Moon.
The only tangible evidence [on the Far Side] of an Atomic Comet appears to be the “enigmatic” Compton–Belkovich Thorium Anomaly.
The Compton–Belkovich Thorium Anomaly was found in 1998 by the Gamma Ray Spectrometer (GRS) instrument on board the Lunar Prospector (LP) and subsequently identified as a hotspot, located around 61.1°N 99.5°E.
The estimated thorium concentration reaches 5.3 µg/g (5.3 micrograms per gram) while the surrounding highland basalts only contain between 0 and 2 µg/g.
Compared to the Earth’s thorium concentration of 0.06 µg/g, the Compton–Belkovich’s is very high.
It has unusually high reflectance, identified by a visible imaging study that was carried out later by the Clementine spacecraft in a Clementine Visible Images study.
Using infrared reflectance data from Clementine at 750 nm and 950 nm, the level of iron oxide was determined to be about 3% by mass.
However, there is an isolated thorium-rich area – the Compton–Belkovich thorium anomaly – on the lunar farside for which the origin is enigmatic.
We identify a central feature, 25 by 35 km across, that is characterized by elevated topography and relatively high reflectance.
The topography includes a series of domes that range from less than 1 km to more than 6 km across, some with steeply sloping sides.
Non-Mare Silicic Volcanism on The Lunar Farside at Compton–Belkovich
Bradley L. Jolliff, Sandra A. Wiseman, Samuel J. Lawrence, Thanh N. Tran, Mark S. Robinson, Hiroyuki Sato, B. Ray Hawke, Frank Scholten, Jürgen Oberst, Harald Hiesinger, Carolyn H. van der Bogert, Benjamin T. Greenhagen, Timothy D. Glotch and David A. Paige
Nature Geoscience 4 – 2011
However, the “elevated topography” and “high reflectance” associated with the Compton–Belkovich Thorium Anomaly has similarities with the Dhala “crater” in Indian which suggest theses surface features may have been etched out by the “gas” tail of an Atomic Comet.
The Dhala crater is deemed a “large complex impact structure” somewhere between 11 and 25 kilometres wide that’s been artistically etched into the Earth by an “asteroid”.
However, there are indications that “complex” really means: convoluted and contrived.
Firstly, there is little agreement on it’s actual size.
Secondly, it has a very strange “structure” with a central elevated area composed of sediments.
Thirdly, there is no trace of the impactor.
Overall, the main contribution from Atomic Comets appears to be KREEP enriched sand.
Lunar swirls are enigmatic features found across the Moon’s surface, which are characterized by having a high albedo, appearing optically immature (i.e. having the optical characteristics of a relatively young regolith), and (often) having a sinuous shape.
Their curvilinear shape is often accentuated by low albedo regions that wind between the bright swirls.
They appear to overlay the lunar surface, superposed on top of craters and ejecta deposits, but impart no observable topography.
Swirls have been identified on the lunar maria and highlands – they are not associated with a specific lithologic composition.
Swirls on the maria are characterized by strong albedo contrasts and complex, sinuous morphology, whereas those on highland terrain appear less prominent and exhibit simpler shapes, such as single loops or diffuse bright spots.
For the mainstream Lunar swirls are “enigmatic” even though they clearly resemble iron enriched grains being sprinkled upon magnet anomalies on the surface of the Moon.
Lunar swirls are enigmatic features found across the Moon’s surface…
There are three leading models for swirl formation.
Reiner Gamma (γ) is a geographical feature of the Moon known as a lunar swirl.
The central feature of Reiner Gamma resembles the dipolar formation created by iron filings on a surface with a bar magnet on the underside.
Personally, I favour the KISS approach to Science and Systems.
KISS is an acronym for “Keep it simple, stupid” as a design principle noted by the U.S. Navy in 1960.
The KISS principle states that most systems work best if they are kept simple rather than made complicated; therefore simplicity should be a key goal in design and unnecessary complexity should be avoided.
One of the more difficult questions to answer is:
Where did the Earth [and all the other wondering planets like the Moon] originate?
The only tangible clue I’ve discovered [so far] is based upon Axial Tilt which suggests the wandering planets are occasionally bowled into the Inner Solar by Saturn and Jupiter.
Unpicking and correcting the NASA data results in the following table based upon the [original] simple concept of Axial Tilt.
Upon first inspection, the planetary Axial Tilt data appears to be just random data.
There is no obvious relationship between Axial Tilt and Heliocentric Inclinations.
But when the data is sorted by Axial Tilt the terrestrial planets conspicuously fall into two sequenced groups – where only [the Velikovskian] Venus is very modestly out of kilter.
However, it is not unreasonable to assume that the Axial Tilt of Venus will be fully assimilated into the Jupiter Group sequence when her slowing retrograde rotation finally becomes a fully spun up prograde rotation.