The warm and woozy world of western archaeology has been stunned by the remarkable discoveries of a criminal lawyer from the Dominican Republic: Kathleen Martinez.
The mainstream malaise was disturbed when Kathleen Martinez started to excavate the Temple of Osiris at Taposiris Magna which is about 45 kilometre south west of Alexandria in Egypt.
The name Taposiris Magna denotes the name of a city as well as a temple of the same name at the same location established by the Pharaoh Ptolemy II between 280 and 270 BC.
According to Plutarch the temple denotes the tomb of Osiris (which is translation of the name).
The actual Temple of Osiris has gone, but the high, massive walls of its enclosure remain.
This enclosure, which dates from the fourth century B.C., is nearly 100 yards square with immensely thick walls, and it is small wonder that its later uses were as a fortress and as a quarantine station for caravans from the west destined for Alexandria.
Inside are vestiges of the Christian Church which replaced the Temple, in A.D. 391, probably, when similar temples were destroyed in Alexandria.
Mareotis – Anthony De Cosson – 1935
Osiris is an Egyptian god, identified as the god of the afterlife, the underworld, and the dead, but more appropriately as the god of transition, resurrection, and regeneration.
Osiris was at times considered the oldest son of the god Geb, though other sources state his father is the sun-god Ra, and the sky goddess Nut, as well as being brother and husband of Isis, with Horus being considered his posthumously begotten son.
Although Alexandria was a Greek city, the Egyptian gods continued to be worshipped.
The most widely worshipped of these were the goddess Isis, the god Osiris who was her husband and brother, and their son, Horus.
Together, they formed a triad, or group of three gods.
The cult of Isis was so popular, that her worship spread to other countries in the Mediterranean.
Bibliotheca Alexandrina – Ancient Alexandria – 2012
Between 1998 and 2004, Hungarian excavations, led by charismatic archaeologist Gyözö Vörös, revealed many of the hidden secrets of the history of this important site.
Within the Egyptian-style pylons and enclosure walls, the team discovered the foundations of a Greek-style sanctuary-the only Greek temple so far found in Egypt.
That sanctuary was carefully and deliberately dismantled in the Roman period in order to turn the whole temple into a garrisoned fortress: columns from the sanctuary were used to heighten the enclosure walls.
Later, at the end of the fourth century, a Christian basilica was constructed inside the fortress complex, and the temple became a monastery.
This fully illustrated book reveals all the discoveries of the Hungarian excavations at this remarkably protean site, including plans and reconstructions of the Greek sanctuary and the Byzantine basilica, as well as a series of stunning finds: a beautiful basalt statue of Isis, a cache of Roman bronze cultic paraphernalia, and a hoard of Byzantine gold coins and jewellery.
To the dismay of the warm and woozy world of western archaeology Kathleen Martinez found the foundational tablets and evidence suggesting the construction began during the reign of Ptolemy IV 221–204 BC.
In 2010 archaeologists discovered a huge headless granite statue of a Ptolemaic king, and the original gate to a temple dedicated to the god Osiris.
According to Dr Zahi Hawass the monumental sculpture, which is a traditional figure of an ancient Egyptian pharaoh wearing collar and kilt, could represent Ptolemy IV, the pharaoh who constructed the Taposiris Magna temple.
The team also found limestone foundation stones, which would once have lined the entrance to the temple.
One of these bears traces indicating that the entrance was lined with a series of Sphinx statues similar to those of the pharaonic era.
Ptolemy IV Philopator (reigned 221–204 BC), son of Ptolemy III and Berenice II, was the fourth Pharaoh of Ptolemaic Egypt.
Amongst Kathleen Martinez’s many stunning discoveries was the Temple of Isis.
Martinez said that the expedition has so far found a beautiful head of Cleopatra, along with 22 coins bearing her image.
The team has also found many amulets, along with a beautiful headless statue dating to the Ptolemaic Period.
Among the most interesting finds is a unique mask depicting a man with a cleft chin.
Isis was a major goddess in ancient Egyptian religion whose worship spread throughout the Greco-Roman world.
In the Hellenistic period (323–30 BCE), when Egypt was ruled and settled by Greeks, Isis came to be worshipped by Greeks and Egyptians, along with a new god, Serapis.
By Ptolemaic times she was connected with rain, which Egyptian texts call a “Nile in the sky”; with the sun as the protector of Ra’s barque; and with the moon, possibly because she was linked with Greek lunar goddesses like Artemis or to parallel the solar aspects of her Hellenistic consort Serapis.
Zahi Hawass and Kathleen Martinez have excavated the vicinity of the Temple of Isis since 2006.
Relying on these and the account of Plutarch, they believe that Cleopatra and Mark Antony are both buried in the vicinity, most likely below the Temple of Isis
A short distance from the temple complex an ancient tower marks the site of a necropolis.
The design of the tower appears to embody the principles of Hindu temple design.
Known colloquially under various names — the Pharos of Abusir, the Abusir funerary monument and Burg al-Arab (Arab’s Tower) — it consists of a 3-story tower, approximately 20 metres (66 ft) in height, with a square base, a hexagonal midsection and cylindrical upper section, like the building upon which it was apparently modeled. It dates to the reign of Ptolemy II (285–246 BC), and is therefore likely to have been built at about the same time as the Alexandria Pharos.
A Hindu temple is a symmetry-driven structure, with many variations, on a square grid of padas, depicting perfect geometric shapes such as circles and squares.
The appropriate site for a Mandir, suggest ancient Sanskrit texts, is near water and gardens, where lotus and flowers bloom, where swans, ducks and other birds are heard, where animals rest without fear of injury or harm.
The design of the tower is said to be based upon the Lighthouse of Alexandria.
Ruins of an ancient temple and an ancient replica of the Lighthouse of Alexandria are to be seen here.
A well-preserved ancient tomb is thought to be a scaled-down model of the Alexandria Pharos.
Atop the Taenia ridge, an outcropping of limestone which separates the sea from Lake Maerotis, stand two monuments that were partly restored in the 1930s.
One is a tower that has been used in the reconstruction of the lighthouse of Alexandria and the other is the remains of a temple of Osiris that is also believed to be the last resting place of Cleopatra.
However, the modern mainstream is very vocal when it comes to claiming this replica of the Lighthouse of Alexandria is not a lighthouse.
In the most scholarly study of the tower yet conducted, it was concluded that “The Tower of Abusir” was definitely not a lighthouse or even a watchtower.
It was probably constructed during the Ptolemaic reign after the Pharos was built and was only a funerary monument.
Trying to understand this marvellous manifestation of the mainstream mindset is a massive challenge when the evidence suggests these three-in-one towers could simultaneously act as watchtowers, lighthouses and funerary monuments.
The central issue is the mainstream’s lack of knowledge [and curiosity] regarding the light source employed by the Lighthouse of Alexandria.
On the one hand:
The mainstream [fittingly] promotes a smoke and mirrors solution.
We do not know exactly how the Pharos’ beacon light worked.
Some people believe that at night the light was created by a great fire, whilst, during the day time mirrors were used to reflect the sun’s rays.
Mirrors were sometimes used to create strong light.
The ancient Egyptians had used them to reflect the sun’s light into dark underground tombs.
Bibliotheca Alexandrina – Ancient Alexandria – 2012
The Arab authors indicate that the lighthouse was constructed from large blocks of light-coloured stone, the tower was made up of three tapering tiers: a lower square section with a central core, a middle octagonal section, and, at the top, a circular section.
At its apex was positioned a mirror which reflected sunlight during the day; a fire was lit at night.
On the other hand:
The mainstream avoids considering a sophisticated optical device for focusing natural light.
At the heavy duty end of the spectrum the mainstream is obsessed with downplaying the possibility Archimedes [the alumnus of Alexandria] used a parabolic reflector to create a “heat ray”.
Archimedes of Syracuse (c. 287 – c. 212 BC) was a Greek mathematician, physicist, engineer, inventor, and astronomer.
Archimedes may have studied in Alexandria, Egypt, where Conon of Samos and Eratosthenes of Cyrene were contemporaries.
Archimedes may have used mirrors acting collectively as a parabolic reflector to burn ships attacking Syracuse.
The device, sometimes called the “Archimedes heat ray“, was used to focus sunlight onto approaching ships, causing them to catch fire.
At Athens in November 1973, a Greek engineer of imagination and determination, Dr. Ioannis Sakkas, used seventy flat bronze-coated mirrors to focus the sun’s rays on a tarred plywood silhouette of a Roman galley attached to a rowboat about 165 feet away from a pier on which the battery of mirrors were operated by sailors of the Greek Navy.
Within minutes the target was aflame, and the legend of the burning mirrors of Archimedes had apparently been verified.
However, most historians have doubted the burning mirrors.
Though Descartes had doubted Archimedes’ mirrors, the Jesuit scientist Athanasius Kircher believed that they were possible at close range, and in 1747 “the immortal Buffon imagined and executed a set of burning-glasses with which he could inflame planks at the distance of 200 feet.”
The issue for historians is not whether Archimedes could have performed the feat, since Buffon proved that it was possible, but rather did he in fact do it?
Archimedes through the Looking-Glass – Thomas W Africa
The Classical World – Vol. 68, No. 5 – Feb 1975
At the lighter end of the spectrum the mainstream is obsessed with downplaying the possibility optical devices were used to relay messages.
As a signal tower it was one of a series along the coast which passed signals between the Pharos of Alexandria and Cyrene, and the next tower west-wards was, perhaps, in the fortress on Khashm el Eish.
Furthermore, it seems that the Abu Sir tower would have been more useful in the capacity of a signal station to pass on details of news, government orders, and the movements of caravans and ships, than as the lighthouse of an obscure, exposed, little harbour, if a maritime harbour existed, which is very doubtful, as Strabo is particular in saying that this Taposiris was ” not that situated upon the sea.”
Mr. E. M. Forster confirms this view when he mentions that the possible second function of the Pharos of Alexandria was to heliograph messages, and he writes: “Westward it could signal . . . to Chersonese. And further west, the system was prolonged into a long line of watch towers and beacons that studded the north African coast, and connected Egypt with her daughter kingdom of Cyrène.”
Elsewhere he says that there can be no doubt that the tower of Abu Sir ” was modelled on its gigantic contemporary-scale about one-tenth-and it is thus of great importance to archaeologists and historians. ”
Mareotis – Anthony De Cosson – 1935
A heliograph is a wireless solar telegraph that signals by flashes of sunlight (generally using Morse code) reflected by a mirror.
Under ordinary conditions, a flash could be seen 30 miles (48 km) with the naked eye, and much farther with a telescope.
The maximum range was considered to be 10 miles for each inch of mirror diameter.
Mirrors ranged from 1.5 inches to 12 inches or more.
The record distance was established by a detachment of U.S. signal sergeants by the inter-operation of stations on Mount Ellen, Utah, and Mount Uncompahgre, Colorado, 183 miles (295 km) apart on September 17, 1894, with Signal Corps heliographs carrying mirrors only 8 inches square.
Evidently, the mainstream isn’t encouraging anyone to consider the possibility that three-in-one towers were once widely used around the Mediterranean and across Europe.
The Magne tower is a Gallo-Roman monument located in Nîmes , Gard.
The Magne Tower is a pre-Roman edifice transformed during the time of Augustus… 18 meters high at the end of the 3rd century BC then 36 m high during Roman times…
Augustus was the founder of the Roman Principate and considered the first Roman emperor, controlling the Roman Empire from 27 BC until his death in AD 14.
And lurking in the background is a mainstream reluctance to acknowledge the numerous connections that link the Sun God to the development of the Son of God.
The university is generally regarded as a formal institution that has its origin in the Medieval Christian setting.
European higher education took place for hundreds of years in Christian cathedral schools or monastic schools (scholae monasticae), in which monks and nuns taught classes; evidence of these immediate forerunners of the later university at many places dates back to the 6th century.