Enigmatic Egypt: Roman Ruination – Desert

The academic consensus is that North Africa became “much drier” about 5,000 years ago.

The Neolithic Subpluvial, or the Holocene Wet Phase, was an extended period (from about 7500–7000 BCE to about 3500–3000 BCE) of wet and rainy conditions in the climate history of northern Africa.

It was both preceded and followed by much drier periods.

The Neolithic Subpluvial was the most recent of a number of periods of “Wet Sahara” or “Green Sahara”, during which the Sahara region was much moister and supported a richer biota and human population than the present-day desert.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Green_Sahara

However, this consensus narrative is contradicted by the formation of Lake Moeris about 5,000 years ago and it’s subsequent shrinking only beginning in 230 BC.

Birket Qarun (Arabic for Lake of Qarun), is located in the Faiyum Oasis and has an abundant population of fish, notably bulti, of which considerable quantities are sent to Cairo.

In ancient times this lake was much larger, and the ancient Greeks and Romans called it Lake Moeris.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Faiyum_Oasis#Birket_Qarun_lake

The lake is first recorded from about 3000 BC, around the time of Menes (Narmer), however, for the most part it would only be filled with high flood waters.

The lake was eventually abandoned due to the nearest branch of the Nile shrinking from 230 BC.[citation needed]

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lake_Moeris

The academic consensus is that Lake Moeris was fed with Nile flood water and that the severing of this connection led to it becoming a “smaller saltwater lake”.

Eventually, the Nile valley bed silted up high enough to let the flooding Nile overflow into the Faiyum hollow, making a lake in it.

The lake is first recorded from about 3000 BC, around the time of Menes (Narmer), however, for the most part it would only be filled with high flood waters.
,,,
In 2300 BC, the waterway from the Nile to the natural lake was widened and deepened to make a canal that now is known as the Bahr Yussef.

The lake was eventually abandoned due to the nearest branch of the Nile shrinking from 230 BC.[citation needed]

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lake_Moeris

Lake Moeris… persists today as a smaller saltwater lake called Birket Qarun.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lake_Moeris

Unfortunately, there is a problem with this separation and “smaller saltwater lake” storyline.

This “smaller saltwater lake” has been noted by humans for it’s “extraordinary freshness”.

The phenomenon of the extraordinary freshness of the water of the Birket el Quriin has been commented on by Schweinfurth, who shows that the degree of concentration of salt in a lake whose volume has been continually reduced, and to which salt has constantly been added, should be many times greater than the actual existing amount.

An analysis of the water at the west end of the lake (where the concentration is greatest, owing to the distance from the feeder canals) showed that the total salts amounted to only 1.35% of which 0.92% was sodium chloride.

Dr. Schweinfurth concludes that the lake has a subterranean outlet, which alone would enable it to maintain its comparative freshness.

The Topography and Geology of the Fayum – Hugh John Llewellyn Beadnell – 1905
https://archive.org/stream/cu31924004049338#page/n25/mode/1up

And this “smaller saltwater lake” is greatly appreciated by fish that only tolerate brackish water.

Birket Qarun… has an abundant population of fish, notably bulti, of which considerable quantities are sent to Cairo.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Faiyum_Oasis#Birket_Qarun_lake

The Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) is a species of tilapia, a cichlid fish native to Africa from Egypt south to east and central Africa, and as far west as Gambia.

It tolerates brackish water and survives temperatures between 8 and 42 °C…

Nile tilapia, called bulti … most common in regions far from the coast.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nile_tilapia

https://www.researchgate.net/publication/230709930_Invasive_potential_of_exotic_aquaculture_fish_in_American_freshwater_systems

Furthermore, the academic consensus is challenged by the history of human occupation in the Western Desert which shows that settlements have progressively descended to lower altitudes [firstly] as surface water drained away and [secondly] as ground water levels dropped.

See: https://malagabay.wordpress.com/2018/01/21/enigmatic-egypt-the-promised-land/
See: https://malagabay.wordpress.com/2018/01/12/enigmatic-egypt-sahara-seas/

Overall, if the Lake Moeris narrative [and chronology] accurately reflects events in Egypt then the draining of surface water and the dropping of ground water levels since [around] 230 BC will have left many Roman settlements stranded [literally] high and dry.

https://www.marhi.ru/eng/AMIT/2011/2kvart11/karelin/karelin.pdf

Faiyum Oasis

The Faiyum Oasis is a depression or basin in the desert immediately to the west of the Nile south of Cairo.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Faiyum_Oasis

Faiyum Oasis: Crocodilopolis

Faiyum has several large bazaars, mosques, baths and a much-frequented weekly market.

Mounds north of the city mark the site of Arsinoe, known to the ancient Greeks as Crocodilopolis, where in ancient times the sacred crocodile kept in Lake Moeris was worshipped.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Crocodilopolis

Faiyum Oasis: Dimé – Soknopaiou Nesos

The ancient settlements of the Greco-Roman era, still in excellent states of preservation in the desert around the Fayyum, were reached by new artificial canals and by farmers in these same years.

Papyri, Archaeology, and Modern History – Paola Davoli
http://www.lib.berkeley.edu/sites/default/files/files/PapyriArchaeologyandModernHistory.pdf

https://quod.lib.umich.edu/cgi/p/pod/dod-idx/soknopaiou-nesos-project-the-resumption.pdf?c=icp;idno=7523866.0025.125;format=pdf

Dwellings of the Roman period are built using unfired bricks, sometimes over foundations of local stone chips, with three basic plans: rectangular, square, and L-shaped or irregular.

Soknopaiou Nesos developed around an axial road to which minor roads are aligned so as to form a grid, which is quite orthogonal, though not regular.

Residential blocks seem to have developed during the Roman period with the construction of new building within the space previously left empty between the houses of the Hellenistic period.

The Archaeology of the Fayum – 2012 – Paola Davoli
http://www.utsc.utoronto.ca/~kblouin/CLAC05H3_calendar_files/OHRE%20ch.10.pdf

Faiyum Oasis: Dionysias – Qasr Qarun

Google Translation

Qasr Qarun is an archaeological site in Faiyūm in Egypt from Ptolemaic-Roman times.

The ancient city was built in the 3rd century BC. Founded in Roman times, with a fortress and left in the fourth century AD.

In the center of the ancient city is the imposing, well-preserved Ptolemaic Temple of Sobek-Re which was built from yellowish limestone blocks. Due to missing inscriptions, the construction time can only roughly between 323 and 330 BC.

Once the temple was surrounded by a wall, from which only remains of the pylon in front of the temple entrance are preserved. Between the pylon and the temple are columns of stone bricks. The temple facade was decorated with four half columns.

300 meters northwest of the temple, almost at the edge of the excavation area, are the remains of an approximately square Roman fortress from the time of the Roman Emperor Diocletian, of which only the foundations can be identified.

https://de.wikivoyage.org/wiki/Qa%E1%B9%A3r_Q%C4%81r%C5%ABn

During ancient times, it was the beginning (or end) of the caravan route to the Bahariya Oasis, and thus, of some importance.

Tour Egypt – Qasr Qarun: The Ancient Town Dionysias – Jimmy Dunn
http://www.touregypt.net/featurestories/qasrqarun.htm

Faiyum Oasis: Narmuthis – Medinet Madi

Medinet Madi is a site in the southwestern Faiyum region of Egypt with the remains of a Greco-Roman town where a temple of the cobra-goddess Renenutet (a harvest deity) was founded during the reigns of Amenemhat III and Amenemhat IV (1855–1799 BC). It was later expanded and embellished during the Greco-Roman period. In the Middle Kingdom the town was called Dja, in the Ptolemaic and Roman Periods it was called Narmuthis.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Medinet_Madi

Early in the 20th century, Jouguet investigated the site and he was the first to suggest that it consisted of two distinct towns, one measuring forty thousand square meters situated on an eastern kom, and another, some three or four times as large, on a western kom

Apparently, in 1930, a number of texts of some importance (known as A Manichaean Psalm-Book, Part II) were also discovered in this general location by Carl Schmidt which are thought to date from about 340 AD.

The Italian team, which is working to construct a three dimensional model of the monuments in the area in order to explore the chronological development of the site from the Middle Kingdom through the Greek and Roman periods, has also uncovered a large Roman town and ten Christian churches of the sixth and seventh century, indicating that the site saw activity perhaps well at least through Roman times.

We do not know what happened to spell the end of ancient Medinet Madi.

It seems to have simply been abandoned, even though it clearly had a presence up into the Christian era and beyond.

Tour Egypt – Medinet Madi (Madinat Madi) in the Fayoum of Egypt – Joerg Reid
http://www.touregypt.net/featurestories/Medinetmadi.htm

Bahariya Oasis

El-Wahat el-Bahariya or el-Bahariya is a depression and oasis in the Western Desert of Egypt. It is approximately 370 km away from Cairo. The roughly oval valley extends from north-east to south-west, has a length of 94 km, a maximum width of 42 km and covers an area of about 2000 km².

The valley is surrounded by mountains and has numerous springs.

A newly flourishing time occurs at the Greek-Roman time.

There is the ruin of a temple to Alexander the Great located in Qasr el-Miqisba (‘Ain et-Tibniya). It is believed by some Egyptologists that the Greek conqueror passed through Bahariya while returning from the oracle of Ammon at Siwa Oasis.

The southern part of the depression around El Heiz apparently never had a separate name.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bahariya_Oasis

Bahariya Oasis: Qarat el-Toub

This mud brick fortification was inaugurated under Diocletian and Maximian, in 288, to hold a unit of auxiliary cavalry as part of a huge military programme that touched all of Egypt.

It was subsequently occupied, maintained and restored without break until the 10th century.

Bahariya – History of the excavations – Qaret el-Toub
Institut Français d’Archéologie Orientale – Le Caire

http://www.ifao.egnet.net/archeologie/bahariya/#en

In Roman times, a big military fort was erected at Qarat el-Toub.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bahariya_Oasis

Google Translation

In the second / third century AD, Roman engineers built the local fortress, which was to serve as the site of a cavalry unit.

The fortress was inaugurated in 288 under Diocletian and Maximian.

The water for construction and later operation was obtained from the aqueducts of el-Qaṣr and el-Bāwīṭī.

As ceramic finds prove, the fortress area was used until the 10th century.

So Roman (2nd / 3rd century), late Roman (4th-6th century) and Arabic pottery (7th-10th century) is one of the finds.

https://de.wikivoyage.org/wiki/Q%C4%81rat_e%E1%B9%AD-%E1%B9%AC%C5%ABb

Bahariya Oasis: Qusur Muharib

Google Translation

Qusur Muharib or Qasr Muharib is an archaeological site in the northeast of the Valley el-Baḥrīya . Here are the remains of a Roman settlement and a basilica.

In Quṣūr Muḥārib is a Roman settlement from the second century AD (after Ahmed Fakhry ). Even if the name suggests it, this is not a military facility.

The settlement was later abandoned due to the drying up of the local well.

https://de.wikivoyage.org/wiki/Qu%E1%B9%A3%C5%ABr_Mu%E1%B8%A5%C4%81rib

Bahariya Oasis: El-Heiz aka El-Hayz

Google Translation

El-Heiz is a depression in the south of el-Bahrīya in the Western Desert in Egypt.

In the El-Ḥeiz valley there are five hamlets clustered around the local springs.

Recent testimonies, buildings, graves and inscribed stone shards (ostraka), are mainly from Roman and Coptic times

From the Arabic period are reports of the Arab-Spanish historian El-Bakrī (1014-1094), who mentions that in the 11th century Christians and Muslims lived together in el-Ḥeiz, and by the Coptic historian Abū el-Makärim (* before 1160 † after 1190) in the lore of Abū Ṣāliḥ the Armenian before ( see’Ain Rīs ).

In 1988, in the area of the so-called Roman fortress, a winery was found…
The mud brick building was probably part of a production facility for the Roman forces.

South of the Roman fortress there is a settlement , which is largely silted up.

One can still make out a mudbrick palace and the wine cellars.

There are also suggestions that this could have been a bath.

For the wine factory says that one has found here numerous fragments of wine jugs and numerous grape seeds.

https://de.wikivoyage.org/wiki/%E1%B8%A4eiz

Farafra Depression

The Farafra depression is the second biggest depression by size in Western Egypt and the smallest by population, near latitude 27.06° north and longitude 27.97° east.

It is in the large Western Desert of Egypt, approximately midway between Dakhla and Bahariya oases. Farafra has an estimated 5,000 inhabitants (2002) mainly living in the town of Farafra and is mostly inhabited by the local Bedouins.

Due to its geographical location and geological formation it has more than 100 wells spread out over the lands of the Farafra, many of which natural.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Farafra,_Egypt

The few sites of archaeological interest in Farafra all date from the Roman Period onwards, when a fortress was built to guard this section of the ancient caravan routes to the other oases and to the Nile Valley.

Even then the oasis seems to have been sparsely populated.

Most of the Roman ruins are centred around Qasr el-Farafra, today the capital town of the oasis and in ancient times the only village.

The qasr or fortress on the northern side of the town dominated the top of a ridge overlooking the surrounding desert.

Possibly built on the site of an original Roman structure and constructed from stone and mudbrick, the present fortress was enlarged or rebuilt during Medieval times after which it contained at least 125 rooms.

Egyptian Monuments – Farafra Oasis – Su Bayfield
https://egyptsites.wordpress.com/2011/03/10/farafra-oasis-2/

Dakhla Oasis

Dakhla Oasis lies in the New Valley Governorate, 350 km (220 mi.) from the Nile and between the oases of Farafra and Kharga.

It measures approximately 80 km (50 mi) from east to west and 25 km (16 mi) from north to south.

The fortified Islamic town of Al Qasr was built at Dakhla Oasis in the 12th century probably on the remains of a Roman era settlement by the Ayyubid kings of Egypt.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dakhla_Oasis

Dakhla Oasis: Deir el-Hagar Temple

The Egyptian Antiquities Service, in about 1990, approached the Dakhleh Oasis Project to repair and restore this sandstone temple situated at the far western end of the oasis.

It was dedicated to the Theban deities Amun, Mut and Khonsu , and was built and used in the reigns of Roman emperors of the First Century A.D.

Dakhleh Oasis Project
http://dakhlehoasisproject.com/works/deir-el-hagar-temple/

Kharga Oasis

The Kharga Oasis is the southernmost of Egypt’s five western oases.

It is located in the Western Desert, about 200 km (125 miles) to the west of the Nile valley.

The oasis, which was known as the ‘Southern Oasis’ to the Ancient Egyptians, is the largest of the oases in the Libyan desert of Egypt.

It is in a depression about 160 km (100 miles) long and from 20 km (12 miles) to 80 km (50 miles) wide. Its population is 67,700 (2012).

All the oases have always been crossroads of caravan routes converging from the barren desert.

In the case of Kharga, this is made particularly evident by the presence of a chain of fortresses that the Romans built to protect the Darb El Arba’īn route.

The forts vary in size and function, some being just small outposts, some guarding large settlements complete with cultivation.

Some were installed where earlier settlements already existed, while others were probably started from scratch.

All of them are made of mud bricks, but some also contain small stone temples with inscriptions on the walls.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kharga_Oasis

Kharga Oasis: Northern Settlements

The northern outskirts of Kharga, one of the five major oases of Egypt’s Western Desert, are punctuated by a scatter of Late Roman installations that survive in relatively good conditions, thanks to the dry desert environment and their remote position.

This network of sites, possibly belonging to the re-organisation of the empire’s southern frontier triggered by Diocletian, was built along the most important caravan routes that met in the Kharga Oasis, a desert hub for trans-saharan commercial movements.

Qasr al-Gib, Qasr al-Sumayra, Tuleib, Umm al-Dabadib, Qasr al-Lebekha, Al-Deir.

Wind, Sand and Water: The Orientation of the Late Roman Forts in the Kharga Oasis
Corinna Rossi and Giulio Magli – Politecnico di Milano

https://arxiv.org/pdf/1706.06765.pdf

Kharga Oasis: ‘Ain el-Bileida

Google Translation

‘Ain el-Bileida is a hamlet in the northwest of the city el-Chārga in the north of the Egyptian El-Chārga valley. In the northwest of the hamlet are the remains of a Roman settlement with several temples.

The ancient sites are located in the northwest of the village or its gardens.
They date from about the first to fifth centuries AD.

https://de.wikivoyage.org/wiki/%CA%BFAin_el-Bileida

Kharga Oasis: Ain Umm el-Dabadib Fort

The third- to fourth-century A.D. Roman fort of Ain Umm el-Dabadib was built near the el-Kharga Oasis in Egypt on an ancient route to the Dakhla Oasis.

The tallest of the el-Dabadib towers, on the south-western corner, still contains remains of a spiral staircase and rises to a height of about 15m.

HeritageDaily – Remote Roman Forts – Umm Balad Fort – Red Sea Hills
https://www.heritagedaily.com/2016/12/10-remote-roman-forts/113779

Google Translation

The Roman settlement ‘Ayn Umm ed-Dabādīb is located on the caravan route Darb’Ain Amur to Asyūṭ , 38 kilometers north-northwest of Charga, 20 kilometers west of Qaṣr el-Labacha and 40 kilometers east of’Ayn Amur.

It is located in a wadi bordered to the west, north and east.

The wadi is located at the lowest points in about 130 meters above zero, the adjacent rock plateau extends to 400 meters above zero.

The construction of a fortress served to control the Darb’Ayn Amur .

Ceramic finds indicate that the settlement was used until the 4th century AD.

https://de.wikivoyage.org/wiki/%CA%BFAin_Umm_ed-Dab%C4%81d%C4%ABb

Kharga Oasis: Deir el-Munira Roman Fort

Google Translation

Deir el-Munira, in short also ed-Deir, refers to a Roman fortification in the north of the Egyptian El-Kharga.

It is located about 23 km north of the city of el-Chārga and 3 kilometers east of the village el-Munīra .

Not far from the fortress there is also a Roman clay brick temple.

The spot east of the village of el-Munīra served the Romans as the site of a mighty fortress.
It was probably built under Emperor Diocletian (reigned 284-305) or his successors.

https://de.wikivoyage.org/wiki/Deir_el-Mun%C4%ABra

Kharga Oasis: Qasr Dusch Fort and Temple

Google Translation

Qasr Dusch

Dating (Occupancy) before 81 AD (?) until the end of the 4th century.

In order to secure the route threatened by raids and to collect taxes from the merchants entering the Roman province of Aegyptus , fortifications such as those of Dusch were erected after the Roman occupation of the country.

It is possible that the mud brick-built small fort was built before the construction of the immediately adjacent sandstone temple, which was built during the reign of Emperor Domitian (81-96).

https://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Qasr_Dusch

Selima Oasis

Google Translation

After 240 kilometers you reach the one and a half kilometer long sink and Oasis Salīma (21° 22′ 0″N 29° 19′ 0″ E), also Selima, Wāḥat Salīma, 303 meters high, which represents a kind of traffic junction.

The depression has a well and a grove of about 2,000 palm trees, making it an important stopping point on the Darb el-Arba’īn.

From pre-Christian times, no remains are known.

Close to the source were found the remains of a ten-by-six-meter building with Arabic graffiti, which was probably used in Roman times as shelter for soldiers stationed here.
Bedouins reported that this building may have been a Christian monastery or the home of a woman named Salīma, who offered the guests intoxicating drinks.

https://de.wikivoyage.org/wiki/Darb_el-Arba%CA%BF%C4%ABn

http://www.heinrich-barth-gesellschaft.de/pdf/Kurier_01_15/HB-Kurier%201-2015_PDF%20Jesse.pdf

Systematic study of good stratigraphic sequences, such as in the Gilf Kebir, has yielded comparatively little direct archaeological association with the critical sedimentary units, while the model sequence at Selima Oasis lacks settlement evidence entirely, reflecting deep lakes or thick cover sands.

Encyclopedia of the Archaeology of Ancient Egypt – 1999
Kathryn A Bard and Steven Blake Shubert

https://archive.org/details/EncyclopediaOfTheArchaeologyOfAncientEgypt

https://www.asprs.org/wp-content/uploads/pers/2000journal/june/2000_jun_777-782.pdf

In southwest Egypt, a three-hundred-kilometer flat and sand-covered area straddles the border between Egypt and Sudan.

This region is called the Great Selima Sand Sheet, with the Selima Oasis on its eastern border.

This oasis is a prominent way station on the Darb El-Arbain (the forty-day trek) of camel caravans from Darfur in northwestern Sudan to the Nile valley in Egypt.

Faint drainage lines that led to the sand sheet from the west and its general setting suggested the potential of groundwater accumulation within the basin, although there was no tangible evidence of water.

In November 1981, during the first flight of the Space Shuttle Imaging Radar mission, the instrument was aimed at a flat region in northwest Sudan. Its imagery revealed sand-buried courses of river channels just south of the border of Egypt.

I then postulated that the flat area in southwest Egypt – part of the Great Selima Sand Sheet – was one depression where water collected during past humid episodes.

Quest for Water – Farouk El-Baz – Cairo Review – 5 / 2012
https://www.thecairoreview.com/wp-content/uploads/2014/11/CR5-ElBaz.pdf

https://repository.si.edu/bitstream/handle/10088/16127/201026.pdf

The data suggests the playa deposits were still accumulating early in the 1st millennium CE.

More significantly:

The data suggests the sampled playa deposits were transformed into an exposed “erosional breach” at [or after] the The Arabian Horizon in the 1st millennium CE.

See: https://malagabay.wordpress.com/2018/01/21/enigmatic-egypt-the-promised-land/

The Tifernine Dune Field is located at the southernmost tip of the Grand Erg Oriental, a “dune sea” that occupies a large portion of the Sahara Desert in eastern Algeria. This astronaut photograph illustrates the interface between the yellow-orange sand dunes of the field and dark brown consolidated rocks of the Tinrhert Plateau to the south and east (image right).

International Space Station program & JSC Earth Science & Remote Sensing Unit
https://eol.jsc.nasa.gov/SearchPhotos/photo.pl?mission=ISS017&roll=E&frame=13025

Throughout the Sahara, as shown by the global 1-km DEM data and orbital photographs, sand accumulations occur within topographic depressions.

This must be explained in any theory regarding the origin of the sand and the evolution of the dune forms in space and time.

Also, the dune sand is composed mostly of well-rounded quartz grains (El-Baz et al., 1979).

The exposed rocks to the north of the sand seas are mostly limestones, which could not have been the source of the vast amounts of quartz sand.

The majority of the sand appears to have formed by fluvial erosion of sandstone rocks exposed in the southern part of the Sahara.

Because areas presently covered by dune sand are topographically low, they must have received sediments from northward flowing stream channels in the geological past.

When the conditions of climate changed to dry, the wind from the north sculptured these sand deposits into various dune forms and sand sheets.

This suggests that the Great Sahara is a region of sand export; an area of negative sediment balance. The transported sand accumulates in the Sahel belt south of the Sahara; an area of positive sediment balance (Mainguet, 1992).

Satellite Observations of the Interplay between Wind and Water Processes in the Great Sahara – Farouk El-Baz
Photogrammetric Engineering & Remote Sensing – Vol 66 – No 6 – June 2000

https://www.asprs.org/wp-content/uploads/pers/2000journal/june/2000_jun_777-782.pdf

a) The Liesegang Ring evidence in sandstones strongly suggests that sandstone [primarily] formed from the hydrogel called quicksand.

b) The vast quantities of sandstone strongly suggest vast quantities of precursor quicksand.

c) The vast quantities of precursor quicksand strongly suggest vast quantities of silica rich “upwards flowing water” [Quicksand – Wikipedia] from within the Earth.

See: https://malagabay.wordpress.com/2013/11/04/liesegang-rings-5-geological-quicksand/

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5 Responses to Enigmatic Egypt: Roman Ruination – Desert

  1. Thx1138 says:

    Lichtenberg figures created by powerful electrical interactions with celestial bodies are often misinterpreted as water features. I would be willing to bet that comet shoemaker-levy is now 21 piles of sand, gravel and fine clay. I suggest that same thing created the Sahara.

    • malagabay says:

      The very evident and very widespread sand layer provides strong support for a cometary contribution… but the widespread occurrence of sandstone suggests there is also a erosional contribution… and there is always the possibility of a volcanic contribution.

      The problem is differentiating between all the potential sand sources – especially when the Saharan sand has been subsequently weathered into “well-rounded quartz grains”.

      • melitamegalithic says:

        One has to consider terrestrial sources when fossils are included in the Sahara sand. I have kept a note of a particular video because of some interesting content. See fossils at 04:00 in video.
        Link: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8vc3QacCTJY
        Then go to 32:00 in video where Dr P DeMenocal points to 5500BP as when the abrupt drying of the Sahara began. That particular date is very important because it put a finger precisely on a particular event, one of several cataclysmic. But you will only find more on that at this link: https://melitamegalithic.wordpress.com/2017/12/15/comparing-proxies/

        The range of dates in the quote: “The Neolithic Subpluvial, or the Holocene Wet Phase, was an extended period (from about 7500–7000 BCE to about 3500–3000 BCE) of wet and rainy conditions in the climate history of northern Africa.” covers a very turbulent time for the Earth. It was not from extraterrestrial sources, but from abrupt earth changes that are really characteristic of itself. Near the middle of the link there is the 2345bce date that is originally from GF Dodwell (recall https://malagabay.wordpress.com/2015/04/14/celestial-crystal-balls-and-the-temple-of-amen-ra/ ) (see obliquity change recorded in the calendar structure).

        Now that may sound way beyond the fringe, but statistically one cannot get so many coincidences all through the range 6200bce to 2345 bce. After that date the earth is only moving on more quietly to the next big event. Profs Lonnie Thompson has found that clear evidence at the Quelccaya icecap. Egypt happens to be one of the better known regions from ancient times. But it is only a 4000 year hiatus.

      • The fossils are in the limestone and not the sand overlying the limestone.

  2. melitamegalithic says:

    The fossils are exposed. The surrounding medium has weathered away. The fossils in the above link are extremely ancient. In this next link at 11:14 the fossils/skeletons are again semi buried, but from the period (if I’m not mistaken) post YD event. Link: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=S3g-93t4uRw&t=8s
    The sand – or whatever – which initially buried the the fossils/skeletons did not disturb them in any way. Unlikely a sudden cosmic event.

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