Gunnar Heinsohn: Finding Bede’s Missing Metropolis – Part Two

The End of Lundenwic, Londinium, and Roman Civilization

In many cities of the 1st millennium, excavators find traces of massive destruction, which not only bring temporary setbacks, but the final demise.

They almost never ask for supra-regional causes for their explanation.

This is, in part, due to application of strikingly different dates.

In the western part of the empire with Rome, the disaster is dated to the end of Imperial Antiquity, i.e. to the first decades of the 3rd century.

In the London area, Londinium was hit at this time.

In the eastern part of the Empire with Constantinople the end of Late Antiquity, i.e. the 6th or 7th century is favoured.

In the periphery, which extends from Norway via the Slavic region to Mesopotamia, the extinctions took place at the end of the Early Middle Ages, i.e. in the early 10th century.

All three periods are marked by Roman culture.

The two later phases are often referred to as renaissances of the earlier phase.

Roman small finds and coins are found up to the Early Middle Ages.

Often, there is massive Roman architecture in that period, too (Aachen, Ingelheim, Pliska, Preslav etc.).

Nowhere do we find archaeological traces for two or even three annihilations of entire cities above each other.

In the London area Lundenwic was hit in the Early Middle Ages.

Survivors of the Tenth Century Collapse

“had the feeling of living through a revolution, attributed it to the advent of the Anti-Christ, and presumed that they were witnessing, not the end of the ‘Dark Ages’, as the modern historian assumes, but the first signs of the end of the world”
(Brooke 1964, 1 f.).

To assess the severity of Lundenwic’s destruction, a look at the stratigraphically simultaneous destruction of Londinium is helpful.

The annihilation of its Roman culture is reflected not only in the loss of at least 80 percent of the city’s population, but also in the loss of naval technology.

The capacity of Roman cargos ships “could easily exceed 100 tons, such as the 3,000-amphora (150-tonne) vessels mentioned in written sources, and as also confirmed by numerous underwater discoveries.

However, there were also ships with higher tonnage capacity.

The hull of the Madrague de Giens shipwreck in France (1st century B.C.) originally measured 40 metres in length and had a capacity of 400 tonnes.

In this case we have confirmation of ancient written sources which considered the muriophorio –– the ‘10,000-amphora carriers‘ (500 tonnes)” (Boetto c. 1990).

The primitive new beginning in London‘s High Middle Ages saw ships carrying a maximum of 20 tons (c. 1000 AD).

Only around 1200 AD. More than a quarter millennium after the event, are 100 tons reached again (Milne 2016).

Although the researchers are not aware of the simultaneity of the “three” catastrophes, their descriptions are very similar (see next page).

The author has described the Tenth Century Collapse from Yucatan via Iraq to China using many examples (Heinsohn 2017b).

So it is not only the downfall of the Imperium Romanum that is mysterious, but the simultaneous end of civilizations around the globe.

If you only want to understand the end of Rome and don’t look at the blows all over the world, you won’t find a solution.

Since England was an integral part of the Empire, the amazing marching in step with London is to be brought into focus –– pars pro toto –– in its capital.

In Rome –– as in Londinium –– residential areas and latrines are only built in Imperial Antiquity (1st-3rd century).

The city of Rome was also being shattered in a terrible way.

Only about five percent of its population survived.

Rome also ended under dark earth.

No one knows where the pilgrims of Late Antiquity (4th–6th century) might have lived:

“Unfortunately, the archaeological and historical data that would enable us to reconstruct the urban plan [of Rome] during the sixth to eighth centuries is almost nonexistant” (Schofield/Steuer 2013, 131).

“The eleventh century marked another turning-point in Rome’s urban history.

Excavations have revealed that this period [of the 8th-10th century] is characterized, in all strata, by a significant rise in paving levels, and the consequent obliteration of many structures and ancient ruins”
(Santangeli Valenzani 2013, 133).

Regarding the Early Middle Ages

“nothing is known of the shape of the residential houses” 3
(Krautheimer 1987, 126).

3 Über den Zustand der Wohnhäuser ist nichts bekannt.

Rome‘s new start with simple houses also began only in the 10th/11th century of the High Middle Ages.

After Elagabal (218-222), no emperor resided on the Palatine and after Julia Domna (+217) no empress was buried in Rome.

On the splendour of the early 3rd century –– always on the same site –– followed
the modest houses from the 10th/11th century, which resorted to stable round structures such as theatre ranks from supposedly 700 years before as miniature city walls.

Churches attributed to the 5th or 9th century have the same ground plans as basilicas of the 2nd century (as seen by Richard Krautheimer as early as 1942).

It is therefore believed that a renaissance took place in the 5th and then again in the 9th century.

However, basilicas of the 5th or 9th century never stand above those of the 2nd century or basilicas of the 9th century above those of the 5th century.

All lie in the same stratigraphic horizon, directly above which follow the poor buildings of the 10th/11th century from the High Middle Ages.

Since round structures were best able to survive the catastrophe, survivors used them immediately afterwards as miniature city walls to ward off other survivors and wild animals in search of food.

This applies not only to Rome, but to many dozens of other Roman cities as well.

The enormous catastrophe wiped out cities around the world, so it is not surprising that, in addition to Londinium, the other Roman cities in the British Isles were destroyed, too.

Enemy armies and even garden-variety natural disasters were not powerful enough to have inflicted such terrible damage.

It was not until the late 19th century that advanced civil engineering techniques could be used to bring to light the ruins found many metres below the level of today’s streets.

This work is still in its infancy.

Entire towns and countless Roman agricultural estates are still hidden deep under the ground.

Scientific acceptance of this millennium disaster will take time.

Its horrible traces, however, cannot be erased.

Summary

The remains of metropolitan London from Bede’s 7th and 8th centuries cannot be found because, in our textbook chronology, residential quarters in the city of Londinium, a perfect fit for Bede’s description, are dated to the 1st-3rd century.

Stratigraphically, however, Londinium lies directly beneath the layers of the High Middle Ages, in which, from about 950 AD, residential buildings were built again within the walls of Londinium.

Above Londinium’s residential buildings and latrines, which are dated to the beginning of the 3rd century, no flats or latrines are built until c. 950 AD.

If one looks at Londinium stratigraphically instead of chronologically, housing construction does not end in the 3rd but in the early 10th century.

Accordingly, the buildings of Londinium’s Imperial Antiquity began 700 years later.

Londinium’s upscale residential buildings and latrines of the “3rd” century are separated from the impoverished huts of the High Middle Ages from circa 950 AD by layers of Dark Earth.

Stratigraphically, these marks of disaster could only have emerged a few decades before 950 AD.

The fact that Dark Earth is being created in the London area at exactly this time is completely undisputed in the archaeology of Lundenwic, which is only 1000 m to the west of Londinium.

In Lundenwic, however, Dark Earth layers from the 3rd century, into which one dates the beginning of Londinium’s Dark Earth, are mysteriously missing.

Both –– directly adjacent –– parts of today’s London have layers of Dark Earth that –– seen stratigraphically –– must have emerged together shortly before 950.

The stratigraphic parallelism of the Dark Earth layers of Lundenwic and Londinium makes both places chronologically simultaneous.

The fact that in the 8th and 9th centuries Lundenwic continued to use the completely intact Roman roads of the 1st and 2nd centuries, which connect with Londinium, also speaks for the simultaneity of the two sites.

The 700 years of mainstream chronology between the first residential quarters of Londinium in the 1st century and the first residential quarters of Lundenwic in the 8th century are thus fictitious.

The stratigraphic simultaneity of Londinium and Lundenwic, whose residential buildings supposedly begin at an interval of 700 years, once again confirms that, between 1 and 930 AD, even the largest Roman cities have only 230 years of construction layers.

Chronologically, this bloc of time may be attributed to Imperial Antiquity, Late Antiquity or the Early Middle Ages.

Stratigraphically, it is always located directly below the High Middle Ages, so it belongs to the period between c. 700 and 930 AD.

The simultaneity of Londinium and Lundenwic overcomes the supposed craziness of the inhabitants of Lundenwic.

They were by no means opposed to the protection of Londinium’s walls, which were still perfectly preserved in the 8th and 9th centuries, in order to settle in open fields.

They lived there because London was not empty at all, but densely populated.

Londinium’s houses, thus, were inhabited, and its inhabitants would have prevented any theft of building material.

Authors of the period, such as Bede, do not write the Latin of the 1st century in the 8th century because some miracle had interrupted the evolution of language.

They write it because the 1st century of mainstream chronology is the 8th century of stratigraphy.

In the early 10th century, Lundenwic was wiped out and Londinium was smashed down to a fraction of its population because both were hit by a catastrophe that annihilated Roman civilization everywhere.

Although this cataclysm is sometimes described as a “Crisis of the Third Century,” or sometimes as a “Crisis of the Sixth Century”, and sometimes as a Tenth Century Collapse, all “three” catastrophes are stratigraphically parallel and are found directly below the High Middle Ages.

Nowhere exists a stratigraphy that shows two or even three super-imposed annihilations of entire cities in the first millennium AD.

In short, Londinium is Bede’s supposedly untraceable London.

In almost fanatical loyalty to our chronological dogma, we have become blind to the facts that lie beneath our feet in the ground of London.

LundenWIC was, as its name has always shown, a VICus of Lundonium=Londinium.

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8 Responses to Gunnar Heinsohn: Finding Bede’s Missing Metropolis – Part Two

  1. Yry says:

    There IS an echo in South America to your research and that of Tim’s.

    I have been living in Brazil and currently more settled in Colombia for
    many years. I do many field surveys on my own, artifacts, geology, and
    backed by remote sensing know how.

    It has been very obvious to me that Colombia and Brazil were +90% devastated
    electrically RECENTLY and that the indigenous cultures which lived there
    previously have been vaporized.
    Those cultures we do see nowadays do not know much about their VERY ancient
    past, it feels as though they came from another continent to recolonize.
    Maybe from Asia because of their decidedly asiatic features.

    The geology is unbelievably fresh and the marks are there in every mountain
    and every rio. The little rocks are twisted, wrapped in toruses, waving on
    the surface, rock balls have circular striations, etc…
    What’s more, there is dark earth and reddish-ochre earth galore in thick
    layers all over the Andes.

    In Bogota alone, the depth averages 15 to 30 m with flattened fossilized
    forest trees in places, 15 m below surface.
    On the Atlantic coast of Colombia most of the shoreline has been chiseled
    electrically while Rio in Brazil has been uplifted.

    These past years I was dating tentatively these formations and man-made
    artifacts somewhere between 200 BC to 900-1000 AD.
    Now that is a coincidence!

    — Thank you for the GREAT WORK you are both doing!

    • By Recent do you mean circa Little Ice Age period, or the slightly older Roman Termination Event Gunnar has identified?

      I’m not sure that 930 Ad to 1300 is all that accurately documented – there might be more phantom years lurking. The Libby Japanese Cedar data suffer from sampling protocols that resulted in 5 year averages. An awful lot geologically, in the catastrophic sense, could occur in that time span.

      Charles Darwin in his Beagle journal mentioned rather fresh remains of mega-fauna in South America in river gravels or conglomerates. He noticed overall a very recent extirpation of mega fauna elsewhere as well.

  2. Gunnar Heinsohn says:

    Postscriptum:
    Jan Beaufort (Bielefeld) has just found the solution for another famous riddle of English history in the first millennium AD. Beda mentions a wall of Emperor Honorius (395-423 AD). The enormous building could never be found by archaeologists. But a Diocletian cycle of 284 years earlier we have a massive building that fits Beda’s description perfectly. It is the well known wall of Emperor Hadrian (117-138 AD), who was assisted by Honorius (functioning as a sub-Caesar). Stratigraphically, the two emperors lie parallel, while the chronological dogma tears them apart by almost 300 years.
    Gunnar Heinsohn

    • Gunnar Heinsohn says:

      Postscriptum II

      ANGLO-SAXON ROADS

      Just as buildings of the Anglo-Saxon kings of the 9th century have to be looked for in Roman layers, which are wrongly dated 700 years too early, so the roads used by Anglo-Saxons must also be looked for in the 2nd = 9th century. It is indisputable that the Anglo-Saxons of Lundenwic drove on Roman roads of the “2nd“ century in the 9th century. But also in other regions British archaeologists have discovered that 9th century ceramics, considered to be Anglo-Saxon, were found in the context of Roman roads of the 2nd century. Since the simultaneity of Saxons and Romans––in the 9th century––is completely unimaginable, they can only express their amazement: “80% of late Saxon sites in the study area are within 5km of a Roman road and that the sites with the highest quantities of pottery are close to Roman roads. Symonds demonstrates that, perhaps surprisingly, roads were important arteries for the movement of pottery“ (Jervis 2010, 8).

      -Jervis, B. (2010), Pottery and Early Medieval Archaeology, file:///C:/Users/Admin/Downloads/Pottery_and_Early_Medieval_Archaeology.pdf

  3. johnm33 says:

    Leicester, has an abundance of ‘Roman’ roads, apparently founded by Lear who’s dad founded Bath, hence the direct road. There’s also a direct road to the celtic city the mainstream refuses to find, near Atherstone. Presumably sited there to access/ defend against traffic on the Trent. Close to where the two above roads meet there’s a convenient hill off fosse road south, up westcotes drive, which gives commanding views over the area, an ideal place for Lears ‘palace’ served by the spring which feeds the lake in braunstone park, there should be some evidence of an aquaduct. These roads were improved by Belin-e/us on his return from the sacking of rome and a temple/shrine in gratitude for his job creation scheme was founded in Belgrave [north leics.] and remained known as such for many generations, the Talbot Inn now stands on the site. I guess as the population grew they neede more water and moved the city about a mile down to where the then marshes of the soar could be bridged. Last time I was in that pub it was appropriately busy with tarmac road repair crews.
    http://english.nsms.ox.ac.uk/holinshed/texts.php?text1=1577_0136&text2=1587_0139#p1519

  4. Dan_Kurt says:

    I am just discovering this entire discussion of the missing centuries. If I may ask a question on this “missing time” here goes. How could the reconciliation of the Time Since the Julian Calendar was adopted be necessary by the Gregorian Calendar? The missing 700 years would not necessitate the magnitude the Reconciliation made, no?

    Dan Kurt

    p.s. Julian Calendar adopted the Julian Calendar in 44 BC (365 1/4 days, leap year every 4th year, final adoption 8 AD). Gregorian Calendar adjusted the Julian Calendar’s error to that of 325 AD by adding 10 days. Current discrepancy is 13 days and in 2100 it will be 14 days between the two calendars.

  5. Pingback: Gunnar Heinsohn: Londinium’s Dendrochronology | MalagaBay

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