In the realm of British Medieval History the boundary between fact and fiction is indistinct and it should be no surprise that C S Lewis and J R R Tolkien are [both] “best known” for their works of fantasy fiction.
Clive Staples Lewis (1898-1963) was a British novelist, poet, academic, medievalist, literary critic, essayist, lay theologian, broadcaster, lecturer, and Christian apologist.
He is best known for his works of fiction, especially The Screwtape Letters, The Chronicles of Narnia, and The Space Trilogy, and for his non-fiction Christian apologetics, such as Mere Christianity, Miracles, and The Problem of Pain.
Lewis and fellow novelist J. R. R. Tolkien were close friends.
In 1954, he was awarded the newly founded chair of Mediaeval and Renaissance Literature at Cambridge University, and was elected a fellow of Magdalene College… Much of his scholarly work concentrated on the later Middle Ages…
John Ronald Reuel Tolkien, CBE FRSL (1892-1973) was an English writer, poet, philologist, and university professor who is best known as the author of the classic high fantasy works The Hobbit, The Lord of the Rings, and The Silmarillion.
He served as the Rawlinson and Bosworth Professor of Anglo-Saxon and Fellow of Pembroke College, Oxford, from 1925 to 1945 and Merton Professor of English Language and Literature and Fellow of Merton College, Oxford, from 1945 to 1959.
In the history of Europe, the Middle Ages (or Medieval Period) lasted from the 5th to the 15th century.
The dividing line is admittedly wafer thin when it comes to Tolkien and Beowulf.
In the essay, Tolkien also revealed how highly he regarded Beowulf:
“Beowulf is among my most valued sources“, and this influence may be seen throughout his Middle-earth legendarium.
Beowulf is an Old English epic poem consisting of 3,182 alliterative lines.
It may be the oldest surviving long poem in Old English and is commonly cited as one of the most important works of Old English literature.
So why was Beowolf ignored for the best part of a thousand years?
Possibly because this “unnoticed” manuscript only became amenable to academic interpretation after it was “badly damaged” by fire in 1731.
Moving further towards the modern era it becomes evident that the content of British History gained another layer of varnish when “German George” [George I] became king in 1714.
The very grey and amorphous Anglo-Saxon Period in British History is where academia has attempted to blindly bridge [aka fudge and fabricate] the knowledge gap between the Arabian and Heinsohn horizons.
In other words:
The Anglo-Saxon Period is the legendary land of Middle-Earth [and vice versa].
Historically, the Anglo-Saxon period denotes the period in Britain between about 450 and 1066, after their initial settlement and up until the Norman conquest.
Middle-earth is the fictional setting of much of British writer J. R. R. Tolkien’s legendarium. The term is equivalent to the term Midgard of Norse mythology, describing the human-inhabited world, that is, the central continent of the Earth in Tolkien’s imagined mythological past.
The Heinsohn Sandwich contains 277 years of history that are wedged between the Arabian Horizon [637 CE] and the Heinsohn Horizon [914 CE].
The implication of the Heinsohn Sandwich is that the Arabian Horizon [637 CE] represents a dramatic loss of historical records and knowledge.
Working backwards through the mainstream historical narrative we arrive at the Heinsohn Horizon in the 930s where the mainstream narrative falls into The Academic Abyss and degenerates into fiction, fantasy and fabrication for a period of 700 [phantom] years.
Trying to unravel the British historical narrative after [at least] a thousand years of fudge and fabrication is no easy task.
However, there are examples in the wider historical narrative that are more credible.
The Spanish narrative of the Umayyad Caliphate and the Emirate of Córdoba provides a credible narrative for the period between the Arabian and Heinsohn horizons.
Another intriguing [and serendipitous] example is the Khazar Khaganate.
The Khazars were a semi-nomadic Turkic people, who created what for its duration was the most powerful polity to emerge from the break-up of the Western Turkic Khaganate.
Astride a major artery of commerce between Eastern Europe and Southwestern Asia, Khazaria became one of the foremost trading emporia of the medieval world, commanding the western marches of the Silk Road and playing a key commercial role as a crossroad between China, the Middle East and Kievan Rus’.
For some three centuries (c. 650–965) the Khazars dominated the vast area extending from the Volga-Don steppes to the eastern Crimea and the northern Caucasus.
One of the more striking aspects of the Khazar Khaganate narrative is that it includes a “thoroughly routed and massacred” storyline [around] 913 CE which probably represents the Heinsohn Horizon.
In 913, however, two years after Byzantium concluded a peace treaty with the Rus’ in 911, a Varangian foray, with Khazar connivance, through Arab lands led to a request to the Khazar throne by the Khwârazmian Islamic guard for permission to retaliate against the large Rus’ contingent on its return.
The purpose was to revenge the violence the Rus’ razzias had inflicted on their fellow Muslim believers.
The Rus’ force was thoroughly routed and massacred.
The Khazar rulers closed the passage down the Volga to the Rus’, sparking a war.
Aligning the Gorsium Ceramic, Glen Turret Fan and Old Japanese Cedar chronologies provides some noteworthy perspectives into the events leading up to the Heinsohn Horizon [circa 912 CE].
First, and foremost, this combine chronology provides support for Gunnar Heinsohn’s 700 Phantom Year hypothesis by aligning 200 AD with 912 CE i.e. 712 phantom years.
Hopefully, serendipity will provide a few more curious coincidences.