L for Leaguestone

Deciphering Latin texts includes the seraphic skill of sourcing missing letters and words.

For example.

The following inscription from Aquincum [Hungary] is physically incomplete and the only text physically present on the second line is “DIOCLETIANVS”.

The image database Ubi Erat Lupa

Aquincum was an ancient city, situated on the northeastern borders of the province of Pannonia within the Roman Empire.
The ruins of the city can be found today in Budapest, the capital city of Hungary.


In this case the seraphic skill of sourcing missing words transmogrifies “DIOCLETIANVS” into “Diocletianus et Maximianus”.

I(ovi) O(ptimo) [M(aximo)] / Diocletianus [et Maximianus] / Augusti ob d[evictos virtu] / te sua S[armatas dd(ederunt)]

HD020088 – Epigraphic Database – Heidlberg

The underlying logic behind the seraphic insertion of “et Maximianus” is probably associated with the narrative of Diocletian forming a diarchy (“rule of two”) with Maximian in 285/286.

The first phase, sometimes referred to as the diarchy (“rule of two”), involved the designation of the general Maximian as co-emperor—firstly as Caesar (junior emperor) in 285, followed by his promotion to Augustus in 286.

Diocletian took care of matters in the eastern regions of the empire while Maximian similarly took charge of the western regions.


Diocletian (Latin: Gaius Aurelius Valerius Diocletianus Augustus), born Diocles (22 December 244–3 December 311), was a Roman emperor from 284 to 305.


However, this seraphic insertion deserves closer inspection because Diocletian is deemed to be the “most radical” of the 300 Year Repeaters.

Correctly dating the construction of the Amphitheatre of Serdica is difficult because Diocletian is considered the “most radical” of the 300 Year Repeaters who probably belongs in the 1st century AD.

See: https://malagabay.wordpress.com/2018/07/06/amphitheatre-of-serdica/

Diocletian is seen as the most radical of all the Late Antiquity repeaters of everything 300 years out of fashion.

Rome’s Imperial Stratigraphy Belongs To The 8th-10th Century Period
Q-Mag – Gunnar Heinsohn – 22 June 2014


See: https://malagabay.wordpress.com/2018/04/19/gunnar-heinsohn-comments-on-300-year-repeaters/

A step towards validating this seraphic situation is searching the Epigraphic Database Heidelberg for inscriptions containing “Diocletianus et Maximianus”.


The search returns six “Diocletianus et Maximianus” inscriptions.

Three inscriptions use seraphic word insertion to arrive at “Diocletianus et Maximianus”.

Number 2:      HD020088 - Barbaricum (Hungary)
               Diocletianus [et Maximianus]
Number 4:      HD027116 - Roma (Italy)
              [Dioclet]ianus e[t Maximianus]
Number 6:      HD047785 - Germania superior (Switzerland)
              [DD(omini)? nn(ostri)? Diocletianus? Et] /
              [Maximi?]anus per[petui]

One inscription uses seraphic letter insertion to arrive at “Diocletianus et Maximianus”.

Number 5:      HD032314 - Etruria (Regio VII) (Italy)
               Diocletian(us) et Maximian(us)

Only two inscriptions required no seraphic insertions.

Number 1:      HD013192 - Etruria (Regio VII) (Italy)
Number 3:      HD024178 - Etruria (Regio VII) (Italy)

This is where things begin to get interesting.

The inscriptions that explicitly identify “Diocletianus et Maximianus” are from Etruria.

Etruria was a region of Central Italy, located in an area that covered part of what are now Tuscany, Lazio, and Umbria.

The Etruscans were a dominant culture in Italy by 650 BC, surpassing other ancient Italic peoples such as the Ligures, and their influence may be seen beyond Etruria’s confines in the Po River Valley and Latium, as well as in Campania and through their contact with the Greek colonies in Southern Italy (including Sicily).

The Etruscan civilization was responsible for much of the Greek culture imported into early Republican Rome, including the twelve Olympian gods, the growing of olives and grapes, the Latin alphabet (adapted from the Greek alphabet), and architecture like the arch, sewerage and drainage systems.


One of the inscriptions from Etruria is on a leaguestone [aka milestone].

A league is a unit of length… The league was used in Ancient Rome, defined as 1½ Roman miles (7,500 Roman feet, modern 2.2 km or 1.4 miles).

A Roman Milestone Detour
The Roman milestone is an academically neglected [aka glossed over] object.

A milestone is one of a series of numbered markers placed along a road or boundary at intervals of one mile or occasionally, parts of a mile.

Milestones were originally stone obelisks – made from granite, marble, or whatever local stone was available – and later concrete posts.

They were widely used by Roman Empire road builders and were an important part of any Roman road network: the distance travelled per day was only a few miles in some cases. [citation needed]

Many Roman milestones only record the name of the reigning emperor without giving any placenames or distances.


The Roman milestone is also an academically abused object.

For example:

The mainstream promote the idea Roman milestones indicated the “number of miles from the center of Rome”.

Also arising from the Roman mile is the “milestone”.

All roads radiated out from the Roman Forum throughout the Empire – 50,000 miles of stone-paved roads.

At every mile was placed a shaped stone, on which was carved a Roman numeral, indicating the number of miles from the center of Rome – the Forum.

Hence, one always knew how far one was from Rome.


This concept has some validity in central Italy.

In central Italy the stones were for the most part numbered from Rome.

For example, of the Via Appia as far as Capua there are surviving in the originals or in Ms copies nearly two score of numbered milestones.

Their numbers range from I to CXXVI m. p., and they belong to periods as early as the second century B.C. and as late as the reign of Valentinian and Valens.

Roman Milestones and the Capita Viarum – Gordon J Laing – 1908
Transactions and Proceedings of the American Philological Association


Not so much validity in Northern Italy.

On the other hand, in north Etruria there is evidence that both Pisa and Florence
were the capita of roads
; one inscription, XI, 6665 (Gratian) reads : civit(ate) Pisana m. p. mi ; and another, 6668 (Hadrian), though somewhat mutilated, is probably numbered
LXXVI from Florence.

Roman Milestones and the Capita Viarum – Gordon J Laing – 1908
Transactions and Proceedings of the American Philological Association


In Southern Italy only the Via Appia has “traces of a continuous numbering from Rome”.

In southern Italy the situation is different.

The dominant system there is that of numbering from local centres.

To this there is but one exception ; namely, the Via Appia, on which we find traces of a continuous numbering from Rome.

Roman Milestones and the Capita Viarum – Gordon J Laing – 1908
Transactions and Proceedings of the American Philological Association


And [for example] in Iberia the Roman milestones appear to be locally numbered.



It’s said Roman milestones were “at intervals of one mile” [no mention of leagues].

A milestone is one of a series of numbered markers placed along a road or boundary at intervals of one mile or occasionally, parts of a mile.


The Roman mile consisted of a thousand paces as measured by every other step—as in the total distance of the left foot hitting the ground 1,000 times.

The ancient Romans, marching their armies through uncharted territory, would often push a carved stick in the ground after each 1,000 paces.

Well-fed and harshly driven Roman legionaries in good weather thus created longer miles.

The distance was indirectly standardised by Agrippa’s establishment of a standard Roman foot (Agrippa’s own) in 29 BC, and the definition of a pace as 5 feet.

An Imperial Roman mile thus denoted 5,000 Roman feet. Surveyors and specialized equipment such as the decempeda and dioptra then spread its use.


In reality:

Roman miles are “infinitely longer” in mountainous terrains.

This implies:

i) Physical geography has changed [dramatically] since Roman times.
ii) Roman miles were [somehow] based upon the concept of “horizontal miles”.

The exact length of the Roman mile, according to English measurement, must be considered a moot point.

The 1,000 paces composing it consisted of 5 Roman feet each, and while one theory assumes this foot to be equal to 11·6496 English inches, and the Roman mile to be, consequently, 1,618 yards, another makes the Roman foot 11·62 English inches, and the Roman mile only 1,614 English yards in length.

The question has naturally forced itself on the consideration of all those archaeologists who have endeavoured to determine the distances from each other of the stations given in the Itineraries.

In the scale of the map prefixed to Dr. Gale’s edition of Antoninus’s Itinerary, fifteen English miles answer to twenty Roman ones, and Horsley, commenting on this, remarks ‘ that the English miles in that scale must be common computed ones.’

He also says :

‘ It would, perhaps be thought impossible to lay down any proportion that statedly obtains between English computed miles and those in the Itinerary.

And yet on a thorough and impartial trial, I find that through most part of England, wherever we are sure, the proportion of miles in the Itinerary to English computed miles is generally as three to four, or three computed miles make four in the Itinerary.’

On this passage the late Mr. Leman wrote the following valuable manuscript note :

‘Nothing can be clearer than that the Roman miles were not always of the same length, but differed from each other like our computed ones, or like the leagues in France ; for on measuring a space of ground where the country is perfectly level, the Roman miles differ but little from our present measured ones, but are infinitely longer than ours where the iter passes over a mountainous country, for which reason I cannot help thinking that they calculated the distance between their several stations by “horizontal miles.”

Thus, on the road from Colchester to London, or from Richborough to the same place, where the surface is nearly level, the Roman miles do not differ from our measured ones, while in mountainous countries, as between Manchester and Tadcaster, between Ribchester and Ilkley, between Corbridge and Riechester, or between Wroxeter and Caernarvon, it requires in some places a mile and a quarter, and in the last instance even a mile and a half to make our present miles coincide with the Roman ones.’

Our Roman Highways – Urquhart Atwell Forbes and Arnold C Burmester – 1904

Back to The Leaguestone in Etruria.
The precisely inscribed “Diocletianus et Maximianus” leaguestone from Etruria is particularly curious because the earliest part of the inscription is dated to 108 AD.


Fabro is a comune (municipality) in the Province of Terni in the Italian region Umbria, located about 40 km southwest of Perugia…


The commentary suggests it was inscribed in three stages [108, 305-306 and 313-324 AD] over a period of [roughly] 215 years.

Chronological data: 108 AD

Google Translation
The cylindrical milestone is on a rectangular base (30 x 60 x 60 cm).
3 inscriptions next to each other;
the dating refers to the oldest inscription a;
Dating inscription b: 1.5.305 – 25.7.306 n. Chr .;
Inscription c: 313-324 AD.

Text reproduction of inscription a after Bianchi Bandinelli, from b and c to Harris. (B): AE 1926; Bianchi Bandinelli: inscription b and c: reading deviations.
Inscription c: according to Harris in Z. 7, no erasure, but a spatium, in which the name of Licinius was originally to be inserted.

HD024178 – Epigraphic Database Heidelberg

Unsurprisingly, there are issues with this dating scenario.

A “cylindrical” milestone with “a rectangular base” suggests [based upon mainstream chronology] it was installed sometime between 14 AD [Tiberius] and 41 AD [Claudius].

There appears to be some grounds for believing that the shapes of these milliaria differed in the reigns of different Emperors.

Those of Augustus are said to have been cyhndrical, 24 inches in diameter, and bearing a simple inscription engraved without any ornament;

those of Tiberius, square pedestals, slightly polished ;

those of Claudius, cylindrical, with a border enclosing the inscription; as also were

those of Antoninus, but not so high, and with the portion in the ground square like a pedestal and much larger than the body of the column.

Several stone pedestals, answering to the last of these four varieties, with an opening on the top for the insertion of a circular column, were at one time still standing on the Roman way from Redesdale in Northumberland to Chew Green. Others similar to these — which were locally known as ‘ golden pots ‘ — have also been found on Roman ways in other parts of Britain, and both Roy and Stuart agree in considering such pedestals to be the remains of milliaria erected in the reign of Antoninus Pius, an opinion containing so many elements of probability that we cannot help regretting that no further evidence has as yet been forthcoming to confirm it.

Our Roman Highways – Urquhart Atwell Forbes and Arnold C Burmester – 1904

Tiberius was Roman emperor from 14 AD to 37 AD, succeeding the first emperor, Augustus.


Claudius was Roman emperor from 41 to 54.


Furthermore, it’s difficult to swallow the suggestion that after nearly 200 years of unblemished service anybody would suddenly decide to update a leaguestone inscription twice in a period of [about] 20 years.

A more rational [and visually credible] interpretation is that the leaguestone inscription was made in one hit and the suggested hiatus of 200 years is another example of The 200 Year Credibility Gap.

The 200 Year Credibility Gap
A less charitable interpretation of the data suggests the entire Roman Empire narrative is creative fiction that incorporates convenient characters and available artefacts from Greek Republics scattered across Europe and around the Mediterranean Sea.

The 200 Year Credibility Gap suggests the concept of the Roman Empire was created in the 2nd millennium to validate and encapsulate the narrative of Jesus of Nazareth.

See: https://malagabay.wordpress.com/2018/04/26/roman-chronology-credibility-gap/

However, as this particular milestone appears to have been installed between 14 and 41 AD then the The 200 Year Credibility Gap stretches out to become a 300 Year Credibility Gap which supports Gunnar Heinsohn’s concept of the 300 Year Repeaters.

Arguably, the evolving design of Roman milestones [and their intervals] can help academia unscramble the “multi-layered mix of man-made manipulation artefacts” they call Roman Chronology.

The saga of the Roman Empire then proceeds with the most extraordinary sequence of Emperors that contains a multi-layered mix of man-made manipulation artefacts.

See: https://malagabay.wordpress.com/2018/04/26/roman-chronology-credibility-gap/

I’m not holding my breath.

Gallery | This entry was posted in Epigraphy - Inscriptions, Geology, History, Language, Latin Languages. Bookmark the permalink.

4 Responses to L for Leaguestone

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