Taking a sideways look at the historical narrative encompassing the death of the Roman Republic and it’s subsequent resurrection as the Roman Empire highlights some curious characters and discordant data.
Julius Caesar – The Last Dictator.
The first curiously named character is: Julius Caesar.
Gaius Julius Caesar (100-44 BC), known by his cognomen Julius Caesar, was a Roman politician and military general who played a critical role in the events that led to the demise of the Roman Republic and the rise of the Roman Empire.
The first element of this character’s name [“Julius”] is synonymous with the number seven and the seventh month of the year: July.
July is the seventh month of the year (between June and August) in the Julian and Gregorian Calendars and the fourth of seven months to have a length of 31 days.
It was named by the Roman Senate in honour of Roman general Julius Caesar, it being the month of his birth.
Prior to that, it was called Quintilis, being the fifth month of the 10-month calendar.
The second element of this character’s name [“Caesar”] is synonymous with an imperial title.
Caesar is a title of imperial character.
It derives from the cognomen of Julius Caesar, the Roman dictator.
The change from being a familial name to a title adopted by the Roman Emperors can be dated to about AD 68/69, the so-called “Year of the Four Emperors”.[dubious – discuss]
A dictator was a magistrate of the Roman Republic, entrusted with the full authority of the state to deal with a military emergency or to undertake a specific duty.
In other words:
The character Julius Caesar generically represents the Seventh Dictator.
The Alphabet Mystery
The Julius Caesar narrative was [by definition] revitalised during the 2nd millennium because the Latin alphabet of his period didn’t include the letters “J” and “U”.
Using the Latin alphabet of the period, which lacked the letters J and U, Caesar’s name would be rendered GAIVS IVLIVS CAESAR; the form CAIVS is also attested, using the older Roman representation of G by C.
The standard abbreviation was C. IVLIVS CÆSAR, reflecting the older spelling.
(The letterform Æ is a ligature of the letters A and E, and is often used in Latin inscriptions to save space.)
It’s likely the revitalised “Julius” emerged [sometime] after the late 14th century.
The first recorded use of ‘u’ and ‘v’ as distinct letters is in a Gothic alphabet from 1386, where ‘v’ preceded ‘u’.
The letter J… A distinctive usage emerged in Middle High German.
Middle High German is the term for the form of German spoken in the High Middle Ages. It is conventionally dated between 1050 and 1350, developing from Old High German and into Early New High German.
Gian Giorgio Trissino (1478–1550) was the first to explicitly distinguish I and J as representing separate sounds, in his Ɛpistola del Trissino de le lettere nuωvamente aggiunte ne la lingua italiana (“Trissino’s epistle about the letters recently added in the Italian language”) of 1524.
Gian Giorgio Trissino (1478 – 1550), also called Giovan Giorgio Trissino, was an Italian Renaissance humanist, poet, dramatist, diplomat, and grammarian.
His culture recommended him to the humanist Pope Leo X, who in 1515 sent him to Germany as his nuncio; later on Pope Clement VII showed him special favour, and employed him as ambassador.
All Latin manuscripts in Carolingian Minuscule and Visigothic Script that are said to have been written before the late 14th century are misdated and/or flagrant forgeries.
Carolingian Minuscule is a version of the Latin alphabet derived from the Roman half uncial and insular scripts.
It was developed by Benedicitine monks at Corbie Abbey in France in about 780 AD. It was used in the Holy Roman Empire until about 1200.
The Visigothic Script is a variant form of the Latin alphabet.
It was used in the Visigoth kingdom of Hispania (modern Spain and Portugual), and to some extent in southern France from the late 7th century AD to the 13th century.
Working backwards through the mainstream historical narrative we arrive at the Heinsohn Horizon in the 930s where the mainstream narrative falls into The Academic Abyss and degenerates into fiction, fantasy and fabrication for a period of 700 [phantom] years.
The Inscription Mystery
A curious aspect of the “Julius Caesar” narrative is that his original Latin name – GAIVS IVLIVS CAESAR – doesn’t appear in the Epigraphic Database Heidelberg.
Only one inscription [discovered in 1968] explicitly makes a [less than overwhelming] reference to an augur called “IVLIVS CAESAR”.
L GAVIARIVS L F T N
AVG C IVLIVS CAES
ARIS L MEGES IIVIR QVINQVE
MVRVM EX D D REFICIVNDVM C
IDEMQVE PROBAVERVNT C HS ||MILIVMCC
L(ucius) Gaviarius L(uci) f(ilius) T(iti) n(epos) / aug(ur) C(aius) Iulius Caes/aris l(ibertus) Meges IIvir(i) quinque(nnales) / murum ex d(ecreto) d(ecurionum) reficiundum c(uraverunt) / i(s)demque probaverunt c(onstat) HS ||(quattuor milium)CC
Find spot: Lezha (Lissus) – Stadtmauer, bei
Province: Dalmatia (Albania)
Chronological data: 60 BC – 48 BC
HD000666 – Albania – 60-48 BC – Epigraphic Database Heidelberg
Note: Epigraphists suggest [via seraphic substitution] there may be three other inscriptions that potentially contain abbreviated references to “IVLIVS CAESAR”.
Overall, “IVLIVS CAESAR” presents the mainstream with a dilemma.
On the one hand:
If “CAESAR” was a family name then the mainstream has difficulties claiming any ancient reference to “IVLIVS CAESAR” is actually a reference to their revitalised “Julius Caesar”.
On the other hand:
If the word “CAESAR” means dictator then the mainstream has difficulties explaining way it’s usage as a family name.
Simply claiming the office of dictator was abolished after the death of “Julius Caesar” is more that a little threadbare when subsequent dictators clearly include Caesar in their titles.
The office was formally abolished after the death of Caesar, and not revived under the Empire.IMPERATOR CAESAR DIVI FILIVS AVGVSTVS TIBERIVS CAESAR DIVI AVGVSTI FILIVS AVGVSTVS GAIVS IVLIVS CAESAR AVGVSTVS GERMANICVS
Therefore, it’s no surprise the ever inventive historians have resorted to diversionary arm waving and creative writing over the centuries.
The cognomen “Caesar” originated, according to Pliny the Elder, with an ancestor who was born by Caesarean section (from the Latin verb to cut, caedere, caes-).
The Historia Augusta suggests three alternative explanations:
that the first Caesar had a thick head of hair (Latin caesaries);
that he had bright grey eyes (Latin oculis caesiis); or
that he killed an elephant (caesai in Moorish) in battle.
Caesar issued coins featuring images of elephants, suggesting that he favored this interpretation of his name.
The Augustan History (Latin: Historia Augusta) is a late Roman collection of biographies, written in Latin, of the Roman Emperors, their junior colleagues, designated heirs and usurpers of the period 117 to 284.
However, the true authorship of the work, its actual date, and its purpose, have long been matters for controversy amongst historians and scholars, ever since Hermann Dessau in 1889 rejected both the date and the authorship as stated within the manuscript.
Older historians, such as Edward Gibbon, not fully aware of its problems with respect to the fictitious elements contained within it, generally treated the information preserved within it as authentic.
Augustus – The First Emperor.
The second curiously named character is: Augustus.
Augustus was a Roman statesman and military leader who was the first Emperor of the Roman Empire, controlling Imperial Rome from 27 BC until his death in AD 14.
His status as the founder of the Roman Principate has consolidated an enduring legacy as one of the most effective and controversial leaders in human history.
His official images were very tightly controlled and idealized, drawing from a tradition of Hellenistic royal portraiture rather than the tradition of realism in Roman portraiture… The early images did indeed depict a young man, but although there were gradual changes his images remained youthful until he died in his seventies, by which time they had “a distanced air of ageless majesty”
The history of the Roman Empire begins with the outlier reign of Emperor Augustus who rules for 40 years from 27 BC.
The first element of this character’s name [“Augustus”] is synonymous with the number eight and the eighth month of the year: August.
August is the eighth month of the year in the Julian and Gregorian calendars, and the fifth of seven months to have a length of 31 days.
It was originally named Sextilis in Latin because it was the sixth month in the original ten-month Roman calendar under Romulus in 753 BC, and March was the first month of the year.
In 8 BC, it was renamed in honor of Augustus.
According to a Senatus consultum quoted by Macrobius, he chose this month because it was the time of several of his great triumphs, including the conquest of Egypt.
The character’s name [“Augustus”] is also synonymous with an imperial title.
Augustus was an ancient Roman title given as both name and title to Gaius Octavius (often referred to simply as Augustus), Rome’s first Emperor.
On his death, it became an official title of his successor, and was so used by Roman emperors thereafter.
Augustus is from the Latin word Augere (meaning to increase) and can be translated as “the illustrious one”.
It was a title of religious authority rather than political authority.
According to Roman religious beliefs, the title symbolized a stamp of authority over humanity—and in fact nature—that went beyond any constitutional definition of his status.
In 27 BC, Octavian appeared before the Senate and offered to retire from active politics and government; the Senate not only requested he remain, but increased his powers and made them lifelong, awarding him the title of Augustus (the elevated or divine one, somewhat less than a god but approaching divinity).
An augur was a priest and official in the classical Roman world.
His main role was the practice of augury: Interpreting the will of the gods by studying the flight of birds – whether they were flying in groups or alone, what noises they made as they flew, direction of flight, and what kind of birds they were. This was known as “taking the auspices”.
Although ancient authors believed that the term “augur” contained the words avis and gero – Latin for “directing the birds” – historical-linguistic evidence points instead to the root aug-: “to increase, to prosper“.
In other words:
The character Augustus generically represents the Eighth Dictator.
The Dynamic Duo Dilemma
At this juncture the mainstream narrative [very suspiciously] contains two adjacent characters that are a) both generically named and b) whose names were bequeathed to subsequent emperors:
CAESAR : Dictator AUGUSTUS: Divine
At this juncture there is also a divergence of opinion.
On the one hand:
Modern historians regard Augustus as the first Emperor.
Modern historians conventionally regard Augustus as the first Emperor whereas Julius Caesar is considered the last dictator of the Roman Republic, a view having its origins in the Roman writers Plutarch, Tacitus and Cassius Dio.
On the other hand:
Roman writers thought Julius Caesar was the first Emperor.
However, the majority of Roman writers, including Josephus, Pliny the Younger, Suetonius and Appian, as well as most of the ordinary people of the Empire, thought of Julius Caesar as the first Emperor.
If the Roman writers are correct then the revitalising of the narrative in the 2nd millennium [also] involved reversing the roles of their generic characters.
Original - CAESAR : Divine AUGUSTUS : Dictator <<== empowered by the Gods Revitalised - CAESAR : Dictator AUGUSTUS : Divine <<== empowered by the Gods
This role reversal is explicitly confirmed by Augustus being the “son of the deified one”.
Augustus also styled himself as Imperator Caesar divi filius, “Commander Caesar son of the deified one“.
The Matthew Principle
The constructive revitalising of the Roman narrative in the 2nd millennium appears to have been guided according to the principles of the Roman church.
The revitalising encapsulated and emulated the resurrection narrative.
In other words:
The dead Roman Republic was resurrected as the Roman Empire.
Resurrection is the concept of coming back to life after death.
In a number of ancient religions, a dying-and-rising god is a deity which dies and resurrects.
The death and resurrection of Jesus, an example of resurrection, is the central focus of Christianity… The resurrection of the dead is a standard eschatological belief in the Abrahamic religions.
The 200 Year Credibility Gap suggests the concept of the Roman Empire was created in the 2nd millennium to validate and encapsulate the narrative of Jesus of Nazareth.
The narrative begins by invoking the Matthew Principle whereby “the last shall be first”.
So the last shall be first, and the first last: for many be called, but few chosen.
Matthew 20:16 – The Bible – King James Version
In other words:
The Matthew Principle reversed the roles of Caesar and Augustus.
Instead of being the last dictator of the Roman Republic Augustus became the first divine emperor of the Roman Empire narrative.
This restructuring had certain advantages.
The narrative was greatly expanded [and backdated] to create a truly impressive provenance.
The expanded narrative was beneficially structured by providentially borrowing suitable [or suitably modified] historical storylines along with their characters and artefacts.
And most importantly:
The divine authority of the Roman Emperors could be profitably exploited.
The Latin title of the Holy Roman Emperor was usually “Imperator Augustus”, which conveys the modern understanding of “emperor” as monarch of an empire.
The divine right of kings, divine right, or God’s mandate is a political and religious doctrine of royal and political legitimacy.
It asserts that a monarch is subject to no earthly authority, deriving the right to rule directly from the will of God.
In the Middle Ages, the idea that God had granted earthly power to the monarch, just as he had given spiritual authority and power to the church, especially to the Pope, was already a well-known concept long before later writers coined the term “divine right of kings” and employed it as a theory in political science.
However, this technique of auspicious acquisition and random rearrangement is flawed because the resultant historical fiction is contradicted by [amongst other things] the reality of Latin inscriptions.
The Augustorum Problem
In the abbreviated realm of Latin epigraphy the title “AVGVSTVS” [aka Augustus] is frequently shortened down to three letters: AVG.
However, the mischievous epigraphists whimsically translate “AVG” to mean “Augustus” or “Augur” [see the “IVLIVS CAESAR” inscription above] according to their capricious fancies.
The Roman narrative also includes co-emperors.
The first phase, sometimes referred to as the diarchy (“rule of two“), involved the designation of the general Maximian as co-emperor — firstly as Caesar (junior emperor) in 285, followed by his promotion to Augustus in 286.
Diocletian took care of matters in the eastern regions of the empire while Maximian similarly took charge of the western regions.
Co-emperors are referenced in Latin inscriptions using the plural form “AVGVSTORVM” and this is usually abbreviated down to just four characters: “AVGG”.
The inscription on the coin under description stands thus – SALVS DD NN AVGG -, for Salus Dominorum Nostrorum Augustorum, (The health of our lords, the Augustus’s), alluding to the associated emperors, the plural being expressed by two terminal letters instead of one, as AVGG for Augustorum, or Augusti ; or D D- for Domini, or Dominorum.
The Coin Collector’s Manual – Henry Noel Humphreys – 1853
Note: The Epigraphic Database Heidelberg reports 11,247 examples of “AVG” and only 966 examples of “AVGG”.
This is where the fun begins.
The dating of inscriptions is usually an exemplary exercise of confirmation bias that smoothly aligns the inscribed text with the consensus mainstream narrative text.
The formulation Augg NN (i.e., Augustorum Nostrorum– ‘of Our August Lords’) indicates that there were two Emperors when Volusianus held this office.
It is generally assumed that the Emperors concerned were Valerian and Gallienus; In other words, this posting occurred at some stage in the period 253-60 AD.
There are mismatches they explain away with speculation.
Claudius Apellinus was a Governor of Britannia Inferior, a province of Roman Britain during the reign of Severus Alexander (AD 222 and 235).
Anthony Birley notes that it is curious that Apellinus is known as leg. Augg. pr. pr., and speculates whether Aug. was amended to Augg. (the plural form) to indicate that Apellinus had become the legate of Maximinus and his son Maximus.
Maximinus Thrax (Latin: Gaius Julius Verus Maximinus Augustus), also known as Maximinus I, was Roman Emperor from 235 to 238.
Maximinus appointed his son Maximus caesar around 236, but he held little real power.
There are mismatches they explain away by assertion.
AVG on the coins of Antony, before the title of Augustus was established, expresses Augur, an office held by that triumvir.
The Coin Collector’s Manual – Henry Noel Humphreys – 1853
Marcus Antonius, commonly known in English as Mark Antony or Marc Antony, was a Roman politician and general who played a critical role in the transformation of the Roman Republic from an oligarchy into the autocratic Roman Empire.
With the support of Caesar, who as Pontifex Maximus was head of the Roman religion, Antony was appointed the College of Augurs, an important priestly office responsible for interpreting the will of the Roman gods by studying the flight of birds.
There are mismatches they “cannot” explain away easily.
The question then arises as to the meaning of Augg. – Augustorum in the reigns of Claudius and Nero.
It cannot refer to co-emperors.
Augustorum Libertus – P R C Weaver
Historia: Zeitschrift für Alte Geschichte Bd. 13, H. 2 – Apr., 1964 – pp 188-198
There are mismatches they explain away in a torturous tangle of “Tetrarchies”.
(6.) Tetrarchy after 8 October 316 to the end of 316
Shortly before the turn of the year 316/317, Constantine, now Augustus in the West, appointed a Caesar, while Licinius briefly appointed one of his officers, Valerius Valens, as the third Augustus.
This was apparent from coins, though Valens was apparently inferior to Licinius, who soon executed him.
Even the chronology is unclear, as the date stamping could also be the turn of the year 314/315.
And there are mismatches they “don’t” even try to explain away.
“Concordia AVGGG” on the reverse side of coins between 378 and 383 AD.
In ancient Roman religion, Concordia is the goddess who embodies agreement in marriage and society.
Concordia, a Roman goddess, the personification of peace and goodwill.
Concordia (goddess) – Encyclopædia Britannica – 1911
“Concordia AVGGGG” decades after the “leadership of four” was officially abandoned.
Magnus Maximus: 384-388
Co-emperors: Theodosius I, Valentinian II, Flavius Victor
The term “tetrarchy” (“leadership of four [people]”) … instituted by Roman Emperor Diocletian in 293… This tetrarchy lasted until c. 313…
The authority of Saint Justinian being derived from the “will of the gods”.
Justinian I (Latin: Flavius Petrus Sabbatius Iustinianus Augustus;), traditionally known as Justinian the Great and also Saint Justinian the Great in the Eastern Orthodox Church, was the Eastern Roman emperor from 527 to 565.
At the very beginning of his reign, he deemed it proper to promulgate by law the Church’s belief in the Trinity and the Incarnation; and to threaten all heretics with the appropriate penalties; whereas he subsequently declared that he intended to deprive all disturbers of orthodoxy of the opportunity for such offense by due process of law.
An augur was a priest and official in the classical Roman world.
His main role was the practice of augury: Interpreting the will of the gods by studying the flight of birds – whether they were flying in groups or alone, what noises they made as they flew, direction of flight, and what kind of birds they were.
And, last but not least, the East-to-West flow of language and culture.
… derived from Latin rēs publica (“republic”), from rēs (“thing”) + pūblica (“public”); hence literally “the public thing”.
Constantine II (Latin: Flavius Claudius Constantinus Augustus) was Roman Emperor from 337 to 340.
The ancient Indian subcontinent had a number of early republics among Mahajanapadas [Sanskrit: ‘great realm’].
Mahajanapadas were 16 in number and consisted of both oligarchic republics and monarchies, of which Magadh eventually became the most powerful Mahajanapada and founded the Magadhan Empire, and these Mahajanapadas existed from the sixth century BCE to the fourth century BCE.
According to P. N. Oak the “blundering” Academics in Aspic have constructed a false historical narrative that has “forgotten” there was once a Worldwide Vedic Culture.
As Kurt Vonnegut very rightly said: So it goes.