G for Gothicus

In theory: Inscribed “Gothicus” Victory Titles should be fairly rare before 337 AD.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_Roman_imperial_victory_titles

In practice: The Epigraphic Database Heidelberg only lists four “Gothicus” inscriptions.

Inscription HD018889 – Macedonia
This is the only inscription that contains a correctly spelt “GOTHICVS”.

Unfortunately, it isn’t a Victory Title.

ΗΜ[ ]ΑΖΟΥϹL [ ]ΑΙΙΟΥΤΟ[ ]

MAX[ ]S GOTHICVS FRANCICV[ ]

Transcription:

ΗΜ[—]ΑΖΟΥϹL [–]ΑΙΙΟΥΤΟ[—] // max[imus benefactor Alamannicu]s Gothicus Francicu[s —]

Chronological data: 569 AD – 600 AD

Epigraphic Database Heidelberg – HD045213
https://edh-www.adw.uni-heidelberg.de/edh/inschrift/HD045213

Inscription HD018889 – Hungary
The epigraphists somehow transform “GOT” into “Gothicus maximus restituit”.

VG P M GOT
G I AD P F

Transcription:

[Inv(ictus) A]ug(ustus) p(ontifex) m(aximus) Got[h(icus) max(imus) rest(ituit)] /
[per le]g(ionem) I ad(iutricem) p(iam) f(idelem) [Clau]/[dianam] / [a Brig(etione)] /
[m(ilia) p(assuum) XX]

Chronological data: 269 AD – 270 AD

Type of monument: mile-/leaguestone

Epigraphic Database Heidelberg – HD018889
https://edh-www.adw.uni-heidelberg.de/edh/inschrift/HD018889&lang=en

And then – by some unknown magic – associate it with Claudius Gothicus aka Cladius II.

Claudius Gothicus
(Latin: Marcus Aurelius Valerius Claudius Augustus; May 10, 214 – January 270),
also known as Claudius II, was Roman emperor from 268 to 270.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Claudius_Gothicus

Claudius II, 268–270
○ Gothicus Maximus (“The great victor against the Goths”), 269

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_Roman_imperial_victory_titles

Inscription HD026938 – Rome
The inscribed ”GOTHIC MAX II” is very credibly decoded to mean “Gothicus maximus II”.

IMP CAES FL CONSTANTINVS
P F VICT AC TRIVMFAT AVGVST
PONT MAX GERM MAX IIII SARM MAX II
GOTHIC MAX II DAC MAX TRIB POTEST XXXIII

Transcription:

Imp(erator) Caes(ar) Fl(avius) Constantinus / P(ius) F(elix) vict(or) ac triumfat(or) August(us) / pont(ifex) max(imus) Germ(anicus) max(imus) IIII Sarm(aticus) max(imus) II / Gothic(us) max(imus) II Dac(icus) max(imus) trib(unicia) potest(ate) XXXIII

Epigraphic Database Heidelberg – HD026938
https://edh-www.adw.uni-heidelberg.de/edh/inschrift/HD026938&lang=en

The Epigraphic Database Heidelberg doesn’t provide a date for this inscription but the extensive list of Victory Titles enables the inscription to be associated with Constantine The Great [aka Constantine I] and conventionally dated to 336-7 AD.

The titles of Constantine I listed in our inscription allow us to date it to 336-337 (Kienast 1990, 301-302).

University of Oxford – Last Statues of Antiquity
http://laststatues.classics.ox.ac.uk/database/discussion.php?id=3059

Constantine I, 307–337
○ Germanicus Maximus (“The great victor in Germania”), 307
Constantine claimed the title Germanicus Maximus three more times (in 308, 314, and 328)

○ Sarmaticus Maximus (“The great victor over the Sarmatians”), 323
Constantine claimed the title Sarmaticus Maximus one more time (in 334)

○ Gothicus Maximus (“The great victor over the Goths”), 328
Constantine claimed the title Gothicus Maximus one more time (in 332)

○ Dacicus Maximus (“The great Victor over the Dacian”), (336)

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_Roman_imperial_victory_titles

Constantine the Great
(Latin: Flavius Valerius Aurelius Constantinus Augustus; 27 Feb c. 272 – 22 May 337 AD), also known as Constantine I, was a Roman Emperor who ruled between 306 and 337 AD.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Constantine_the_Great

This honorific inscription [that “reproduces an imperial letter”] was unearthed in the scoundrel’s scrapyard [otherwise known as the Forum of Trajan] and is “still there, in a deposit”.

The inscription reproduces an imperial letter addressed to the Senate, acknowledging the prestige and virtues of a Roman senator.

Provenance and Current Location

Our monument was discovered in the Forum of Trajan.

It is still there, in a deposit

University of Oxford – Last Statues of Antiquity
http://laststatues.classics.ox.ac.uk/database/discussion.php?id=3059

The precise details of the Farnese Atlas discovery don’t appear to be in the public domain.

A century ago the public were led to believe it may once have been a fountain ornament.

Nowadays, it’s said the sculpture was “originally” located in the Library of the Forum of Trajan.

See: https://malagabay.wordpress.com/2018/09/02/f-for-fake/

However, if Constantine I is a 300 Year Repeater then the narrative has a real problem.

Those who prefer to date Constantine the Great (or Diocletian) with criteria of art history rather than archaeologically also come to the conclusion that he must have lived in the early 1st and not in the early 4th century.

See: https://malagabay.wordpress.com/2018/05/21/gunnar-heinsohn-finding-bedes-missing-metropolis-part-one/

180 AD – Goths reach the banks of the Black Sea.

250 AD – Gothic victory at the Battle of Beroe.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Germanic_Wars

The Visigoths arrived late because they took the scenic route [via Rome] on their forty two year marauding meander across Europe towards their Iberian retirement home.

See: https://malagabay.wordpress.com/2018/05/24/latin-languages-vanished-visigoths/

Inscription HD044214 – Serbia
This inscription – which contains a misspelt “GOHTICVS” – is very intriguing.

M P V
IMP CAES FLA IVL
CONSTANTIVS PIVS FEL
AVG VICTOR MAXIMVS
TRIVMFATOR AETERNVS
DIVI CONSTANTINI OPTIMI
MAXIMIQVE PRINCIPIS DIVO
RVM MAXIMIANI ET
CONSTANTI
NEPOS DIVI
CLAVDI PRONEPOS PONTI
FEX MAXIMVS GERMANIC
ALAMAMNICVS MAXIMVS
GERM MAX GOHTICVS
MAXIMVS ADIABIN MAX

TRIBVNICIAE POTESTATIS
XXXI IMP XXX CONSVLI VII
P P PROCONSVLI VIIS MVNI
TIS PONTIBVS REFECTI
RECVPERATA RE PVBLICA
QVINARIOS LAPIDES PER IL
LYRICVM
FECIT
AB ATRANTE AD FLVMEN
SAVVM MILIA PASSVS
CCCXLVI

Transcription:

M(ilia) p(assuum) V / Imp(erator) Caes(ar) Fla(vius) Iul(ius) / Constantius Pius Fel(ix) / Aug(ustus) victor maximus / triumfator aeternus / divi Constantini optimi / maximique principis divo/rum Maximiani et / Constanti nepos divi / Claudi pronepos ponti/fex maximus Germanic(us) / Alamanicus maximus / Germ(anicus) max(imus) Go

icus / maximus Adiabn(icus) max(imus) / tribuniciae potestatis / XXXI imp(erator) XXX consul{i} VII / p(ater) p(atriae) proconsuli viis muni/tis pontibus refecti(s) / recuperata re publica / quinarios lapides per Il/lyricum fecit / ab Atrante ad flumen / Savum milia passus / CCCXLVI

Chronological data: 354 AD

Epigraphic Database Heidelberg – HD044214
https://edh-www.adw.uni-heidelberg.de/edh/inschrift/HD044214&lang=en

Image: http://lupa.at/9695

The intrigue arises not from the decoding but the actual text.

The inscription is associated with Constantius II and dated to 354 AD via the Regnal Names.

Constantius II
(Latin: Flavius Julius Constantius Augustus; 7 August 317 – 3 November 361)
was Roman Emperor from 337 to 361.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Constantius_II

The text continues with a list of ancestors but it’s difficult to reconcile with Wikipedia’s list of Roman Emperors.

“CONSTANTINI”

Official translation: Constantini
No direct match

Google translation: Constantine
Fits with: Constantine the Great / Constantine I – 306-337 AD

“MAXIMIANI ET CONSTANTI”

Official translation: Maximiani et Constanti
No direct match

Google translation: Maximian, and Constantius
Fits with: Maximian – 286-305 AD
Fits with: Constantius Chlorus – 305-306 AD

“CLAVDI”

Official translation: Claudi
No direct match

Google translation: Claudius
No direct match in the Constantinian dynasty

See: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_roman_emperors

The extraordinary final ancestor is even more challenging.

“PONTI FEX MAXIMVS GERMANIC ALAMAMNICVS MAXIMVS GERM MAX GOHTICVS MAXIMVS ADIABIN MAX”

The official translation of “ALAMAMNICVS MAXIMVS” is “Alamannicus maximus” and the only “Alamannicus” referenced by Wikipedia is the 173 years in future Justinian I.

Justinian I, 527–565
○ Alamannicus (“Victorious over the Alamanni”), on accession

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_Roman_imperial_victory_titles

The Alemanni (also Alamanni; Suebi “Swabians”) were a confederation of Germanic tribes on the Upper Rhine River.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alamanni

The official translation of “ADIABIN MAX” is “Adiabenicus maximus” and the only ”Adiabenicus maximus” referenced by Wikipedia is Diocletian.

This actually makes sense because Diocletian marks the beginning of the Constantinian dynasty.

Diocletian, 284–305
○ Adiabenicus Maximus (“The great victor in Adiabene”), 298

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_Roman_imperial_victory_titles

Adiabene was an ancient kingdom in Assyria, with its capital at Arbela (modern-day Erbil, Iraqi Kurdistan).

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Adiabene

Diocletian‘s tetrarchic system collapsed after his abdication under the competing dynastic claims of Maxentius and Constantine, sons of Maximian and Constantius respectively.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Diocletian

And, quite remarkably, towards the end of the inscription the text refers to “ILLYRICVM” which suggests Diocletian belongs to the mainstream’s 1st century BC

Illyricum was a Roman province that existed from 27 BC to sometime during the reign of Vespasian (69–79 AD).

The province comprised Illyria/Dalmatia and Pannonia.

Illyria included the area along the east coast of the Adriatic Sea and its inland mountains.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Illyricum_%28Roman_province%29

or even the 2nd century BC.

In classical antiquity, Illyria was a region in the western part of the Balkan Peninsula inhabited by the Illyrians.

At least most of them spoke Illyrian languages, a group of Indo-European languages, which in ancient times perhaps had speakers in southern Italy.

The prehistory of Illyria and the Illyrians is known from archaeological evidence.

The Romans conquered the region in 168 BC in the aftermath of the Illyrian Wars.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Illyria

See: https://malagabay.wordpress.com/2018/08/03/e-for-epigraphy/

If the search is cut back to “GOTH” then the number of inscriptions only rises to a very modest 23.

https://edh-www.adw.uni-heidelberg.de/inschrift/suche?hd_nr=&land=&fo_antik=&fo_modern_fundstelle=&literatur=&dat_jahr_a=&dat_jahr_e=&hist_periode=&atext1=goth&bool=AND&atext2=&sort=hd_nr&anzahl=20&start=0

The extended scope of the search reveals “GOTHICO” and “GOTHICI” are used as alternate forms of the “GOTHICUS” Victory Title.

It also reveals the very tenuous nature of the epigraphic evidence.

Advertisements
Gallery | This entry was posted in Epigraphy - Inscriptions, History, Roman Chronology. Bookmark the permalink.

6 Responses to G for Gothicus

  1. Sheila says:

    Excellent article – lots to verify and think about.

  2. Pingback: Gothic Wars of The Roman Empire – No Sale | MalagaBay

  3. Pingback: P for Pederasty | MalagaBay

  4. tiami says:

    i want to mention there doesn’t exist a single piece of evidence for existence of ancient ”illiryian” language. a single one. for example there are illyrian dictionaries from 16th – 19th centrury in which illyrian language is synonim for slavic, slavonic, dalmatian, serbian. modern sience wants to link and promote brand new langueage (albanian) made up completely anew very recently as descendent of so called illyrian language. on former illyrian terriotory all ancient inscriptions are mostly in latin language as witnessed by epigraphic database heidelberg and countless artefacts throughout the balkans, ”greek” can be found too and slavic which are assosiated with middle ages. until recently on albanian territory people used to speak several not related languages, most commonly two local dialects (tosk and geg) that were not related and didn’t understand each other, turkish and slavic was spoken too. modern-albanian which is promoted as descendent of ancient illyrian was invented 100 years ago by austrians with blessing of vatican. today there’s strong tendency of political and other elite to turn catholic over-night, mosques are turning into christian churches etc. don’t want to go into detail too much, everything related can easily be found online. so the ”illyrian” language can only be south slavic like it was treated until 19th century or it can also be latin as official language of Diocletian court kingdom – republic – empire.

    historical sites and artefacts are being destroyed and cemented or covered literally in trash like Vinća near Belgrade, huge industry complex were built over world-class historical sites, many were destroyed in last 60 or 70 years, anythin related to roman empire or venetia especially is covered, there’s zero archeological activity happening right now in croatia for example.

    the official history of relations between roman empire and illyrians is very interesting. it becomes empire only after anexing illyricum and in 200 years all emperors are illyrians until justinian. it is my believe that ”illyrian wars” of 1st century bc really happened in 14th – 16th century when illyricum was conqured just like the rest of europe (and world). goths in spain is historical joke ofcourse, maybe iberia in caucasus was mixed up with spain. goths – germans in spain were first crusader and holly roman kings of (13th and) 14th century on. it seems obvious at least to me that historical narrative was manipulated when modern history was written and it shouldn’t surprise that the father of the father of modern history was Julius Caesar Scaliger.

    • malagabay says:

      there doesn’t exist a single piece of evidence for existence of ancient ”illiryian” language

      Thank you. Now why doesn’t that surprise me? 🙂

      Illyrian studies

      For more than a thousand years before the arrival of the Slavs in the sixth century ad, the lands east of the Adriatic were the home of peoples known to the ancient world as lllyrians.

      Their territory comprised much of what is now occupied by the Yugoslavs, along with northern and central Albania.

      They spoke a language of which almost no trace has survived.

      That it belonged to the ‘family’ of Indo-European languages has been deduced from the many names of Illyrian peoples and places preserved in Greek and Latin records, both literary and epigraphic.

      We cannot be sure that any of them actually called themselves lllyrians: in the case of most of them it is near certain that they did not.

      In general the lllyrians have tended to be recognized from a negative standpoint, in that they were manifestly not Celts, Dacians or Thracians, or Greeks or Macedonians, their neighbours on the north, east and south respectively.

      Not merely do all the surviving descriptions of lllyrians and their ways derive from ‘external’ sources, but what has made matters much worse, for history’s verdict upon them, is that many Greek and Roman writers seem to vie with each other in expressing their contempt and detestation for lllyrians.

      The Illyrians – John Wilkes – 1992
      https://archive.org/details/15826619JohnWilkesTheIllyrians

      Amazon US: https://www.amazon.com/dp/0631198075

      • tiami says:

        it’s not hard to understand why their history was suppressed and everything we think we know being fiction.

Leave a Reply

Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in:

WordPress.com Logo

You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. Log Out /  Change )

Google+ photo

You are commenting using your Google+ account. Log Out /  Change )

Twitter picture

You are commenting using your Twitter account. Log Out /  Change )

Facebook photo

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Log Out /  Change )

Connecting to %s

This site uses Akismet to reduce spam. Learn how your comment data is processed.