The gradualist assumptions underpinning the Earth Sciences come into sharp focus when the geomagnetic history of Southern Africa is taken for a spin.
When it comes to geomagnetism the gradualist Earth Scientists are happy to assume the magnetic field of the Earth occasionally performs 180 degree flips.
This happy assumption has a few very beneficial side effects.
Firstly, the embarrassing, non-conformist 180 degree flip is cordoned off and strictly quarantined in the realm of Geomagnetism.
Secondly, the quarantined 180 degree flip can be encapsulated in a conceptual model that is safely entombed deep inside a conceptual Earth.
In physics, the dynamo theory proposes a mechanism by which a celestial body such as Earth or a star generates a magnetic field.
It was possible to show the generation of a strong, Earth-like field when the model assumed a uniform core-surface temperature and exceptionally high viscosities for the core fluid.
Computations which incorporated more realistic parameter values yielded magnetic fields that were less Earth-like, but also point the way to model refinements which may ultimately lead to an accurate analytic model.
Slight variations in the core-surface temperature, in the range of a few millikelvins, result in significant increases in convective flow and produce more realistic magnetic fields.
Thirdly, this boys and their toys approach to geomagnetism provides plenty of opportunities to tinker with an imaginary dynamo and tweak conceptual models.
Fourthly, Geomagnetism sidesteps a fundamental dilemma:
Is the Earth’s magnetic field regaining it’s equilibrium after a catastrophic event?
Is the Earth’s magnetic field preparing for another [envisioned] 180 degree flip?
In 2018 the realm of Geomagnetism was disturbed by results showing Southern Africa performed a “coherent loop” of 360 degrees between [about] 425 and 1370 CE.
The new results define a coherent loop in the archeomagnetic curve for southern Africa between ca. 425 and ca. 1370 CE.
In other words, the earliest site (SL, 400–450 CE) shows directions that are statistically indistinguishable from those more than 900 years later (AD 160, 1317–1415 CE).
Unsurprisingly, the realm of Geomagnetism has concluded it needs more modelling.
Rummaging through the [above] paper there are references to some very familiar events.
○ The Arabian Horizon is a period of “relatively rapid change between the sixth and seventh centuries CE.
○ The Hecker Horizon is a period of “rapid directional change between 1225 and ∼ 1550 CE” with “a sharp intensity drop (0.054 μ T/yr) after ca. 1270 CE”.
The first clue that the mainstream geological and geomagnetic history of Africa has missed a trick is the Central African Shear Zone which suggests Northern Africa and Southern Africa are geologically sutured together.
The Central African Shear Zone (CASZ) (or Shear System) is a wrench fault system extending in an ENE direction from the Gulf of Guinea through Cameroon into Sudan.
The structure is not well understood.
In structural geology, a suture is a joining together along a major fault zone, of separate terranes, tectonic units that have different plate tectonic, metamorphic and paleogeographic histories.
The suture is often represented on the surface by an orogen or mountain range.
The term was borrowed from surgery where it describes the sewing together of two pieces of tissue, but the sutures of the skull, where separate plates of bone have fused, may be a better metaphor.
The second clue that the mainstream has missed a trick is the Al-Mas‘udi world map which clearly indicates Northern Africa and Southern Africa were once separate land masses.
Al-Mas‘udi (c. 896–956) was an Arab historian, geographer and traveler. He is sometimes referred to as the “Herodotus of the Arabs”.
The mainstream dating of the Al-Mas‘udi world map is 947 AD.
However, the Al-Mas‘udi world map is more likely to have been drafted before 853 CE because there is [at least] a “mismatch of 94 years” between the Christian and Islamic calendars.
Meadows of Gold and Mines of Gems is an historical account in Arabic of the beginning of the world starting with Adam and Eve up to and through the late Abbasid Caliphate by medieval Baghdadi historian Masudi.
A first version of the book was allegedly completed in the year 947 AD but the author spent most of his life adding and editing the work as well.
Working backwards in time it appears the Nile river dataset that ends in 1480 AD is aligned with 1386 CE in Leona Libby’s chronology i.e. a mismatch of 94 years.
Therefore, it’s probable the 94 year mismatch identified in the Nile river dataset is partly associated with the religious nature of calendars and partly caused by the gradualist settled science belief that the Earth’s orbital period has been constant since [at least] 46 BC.
The evidence falsifies the gradualist assumptions of the Earth Scientists.
And the Al-Mas‘udi map also helps explain why the climate in much of Northern Africa and Southern Africa changed so dramatically when these land masses became sutured together.
Kharga Oasis: Ain Umm el-Dabadib Roman Fort
… the profusion of circular stone structures coupled with the remains of the the Great Zimbabwe city suggest South Africa was once densely populated.
Gradualist Historians have problems finding acceptable locations for the Biblical Havilah and Ophir which are [both] associated with gold and King Solomon.
Havilah was the auriferous land whence came the ‘gold of Ophir,’ and Havilah is here identified with Rhodesia, the mineralised region between the Lower Zambesi and the Limpopo – Mashona, Matabili, and Manica lands.
But it’s debatable whether burnt grain bins and houses really represent ritual cleansing.
In traditional Bantu-speaking societies in southern Africa, drought is caused by breaches in rules of pollution. At times of severe drought (3–5 consecutive seasons), rainmakers ascend special hills to perform special rituals. The archaeological signature of this unique activity forms a cultural proxy for drought. New research shows that burnt daga structures also correlate with high δ15N values for small stock. Burnt structures thus form a new component to the proxy. According to the ethnography, farmers implicated in the cause burnt their grain bins, and sometimes houses, as a ritual of cleansing.
A cultural proxy for drought: ritual burning in the Iron age of Southern Africa
Thomas N. Huffman – Journal of Archaeological Science 36(4):991-1005 – April 2009
In this wonderful example of the Mainstream Mindset it appears that for 4,000 years there was “a widespread and long-lasting tradition” of deliberately burning down entire settlements every 75-80 years in Southeastern and Eastern Europe.
As always: Earth Scientists and mere mortals are free to draw their own conclusions.
Hat Tip: Yves and Clark Whelton.