Some academic topics are edited to remove anything shocking, electrifying or illuminating while other topics are cynically manipulated to support false fire-and-brimstone narratives.
1859 Electro-Magnetic Event
Nowadays, anodyne academics euphemistically label electro-magnetic events as geomagnetic storms and the earliest event they’re likely to mention is the 1859 Carrington Event.
The solar storm of 1859 (also known as the Carrington Event) was a powerful geomagnetic storm during solar cycle 10 (1855–1867).
A solar coronal mass ejection (CME) hit Earth’s magnetosphere and induced one of the largest geomagnetic storms on record, September 1–2, 1859.
Auroras were seen around the world, those in the northern hemisphere as far south as the Caribbean; those over the Rocky Mountains in the U.S. were so bright that the glow woke gold miners, who began preparing breakfast because they thought it was morning. People in the northeastern United States could read a newspaper by the aurora’s light. The aurora was visible from the poles to the low latitude area, such as south-central Mexico, Queensland, Cuba, Hawaii, southern Japan and China, and even at lower latitudes very close to the equator, such as in Colombia.
But, once upon a time, it was openly stated auroras were “the result of a combination of the two powers of magnetism and electricity”.
Aurora Borealis and Aurora Australis
These splendid meteors are generally considered as the result of a combination of the two powers of magnetism and electricity.
When the lights, or aurora, appears chiefly in the north part of the heavens, it is called the Aurora Borealis, or Northern Lights ; and when chiefly in the south part, the Aurora Australis, or Southern Lights.
Where the coruscation is more than ordinarily bright and streaming, which, however, seldom occurs in the north, it is denominated Lumen Boreale ; and where these streams have assumed a decided curvature, like that of the rainbow, they are distinguished by the name of Luminous Arches.
The aurora is chiefly visible in the winter season, and in cold weather. It is usually of a reddish colour, inclining to yellow, and sends out frequent coruscations of pale light, which seem to rise from the horizon in a pyramidal, undulating form, shooting with great velocity up to the zenith.
This meteor never appears near the equator ; but of late years has frequently been seen towards the south pole.
The aurora borealis has appeared at some periods more frequently than at others.
Cabinet of Curiosities – Volume 1 – Hartford – 1822
Those were the days long before the Maunder prolonged sunspot minimum was invented.
The Maunder Minimum, also known as the “prolonged sunspot minimum”, is the name used for the period around 1645 to 1715 during which sunspots became exceedingly rare, as was then noted by solar observers.
The term was introduced after John A. Eddy published a landmark 1976 paper in Science.
Those were the days before really Crap Carbon14 Chronologies were created by specialists in dendro-derangement who arbitrarily amalgamate and bridge specially selected tree-ring samples from numerous different sources.
Natural philosophers pondering the lack of sunspots during the Maunder Minimum should remember that just because the sunspots weren’t seen [from the surface of the Earth] it doesn’t mean the sunspots weren’t there.
There is an academic counter culture that suggests “sunspot activity was moderate or even high” during the Maunder Minimum.
Those were the days when scholars wrote about the electro-magnetic events of 1716 when streaks of light [aka meteors] and auroras [aka Northern Lights] were seen in England and Southern Europe.
This phenomenon was so rare in England, or so little regarded, that its appearance was not recorded in our annals between a remarkable one observed on the 14th of November, 1554, and a very brilliant one on the 6th of March, 1716, and the two succeeding nights, but which was much strongest on the first night.
Hence it may be inferred, that the state of either the air or earth, or perhaps of both, is not at all times fitted for its production.
The extent of these appearances is surprisingly great.
The very brilliant one referred to above, was visible from the west of Ireland to the confines of Russia, and the east of Poland, extending over, at the least, thirty degrees of longitude, and, from about the fiftieth degree of latitude, over almost all the northern part of Europe.
In every place, it exhibited, at the same time, the same wonderful features.
The elevation of these lights is equally surprising : an aurora borealis which appeared on the 16th of December, 1737, was ascertained, by a mean of thirty computations, to have an average height from the earth of 175 leagues, equal to 464 English miles.
Cabinet of Curiosities – Volume 1 – Hartford – 1822
In 1716 Halley observed an intense auroral display over London (Halley, 1716).
He collected reports from distant places and plotted the forms of the auroral arcs.
They followed the lines of the Earth’s magnetic field and were most intense around the magnetic, not the geographic, pole.
Halley argued that matter circulating around the field lines produced the aurorae.
He thought the matter leaked out of hollow spaces in the Earth, perhaps between the core and the mantle. He did not explain the colors.
As there were then no instruments to detect the daily variation of the geomagnetic field or magnetic storms, Halley could not relate aurorae to events on the Sun.
Encyclopedia of Geomagnetism and Paleomagnetism
Springer – 2007
Editors: David Gubbins and Emilio Herrero-Bervera
Amazon US: https://www.amazon.com/dp/1402039921
Amazon UK: https://www.amazon.co.uk/dp/1402039921
1726 Electro-Magnetic Event
Those were the days when scholars would write about the electro-magnetic events of 1726 which produced hissing and crackling noises.
Historical Sunspot Observations: A Review – J M Vaquero
Advances in Space Research 40 – 2007 – 929–94
Lumen Boreale or Streaming Lights
On the 8th of October, 1726, uncommon streams of light were exhibited in every part of the heavens, about eight o’clock in the evening.
They were seen throughout England, as well as in the southern parts of Europe.
They were mostly pointed and of different lengths, assuming the appearance of flaming spires or pyramids ; some again were truncated and reached but half way ; while others had their points reaching up to the zenith, or near it, where they formed a sort of canopy, or thin cloud, sometimes red, sometimes brownish, sometimes blazing as if on fire, and sometimes emitting streams all around it.
This canopy was manifestly formed by the matter carried up by the streaming on all parts of the horizon.
It sometimes seemed to ascend with a force, as if impelled by the impetus of some explosive agent below ; and this forcible ascent of the streaming matter gave a motion to the canopy, and sometimes a gyration, like that of a whirlwind.
This was manifestly caused by the streams striking the outer part of the canopy ; but if they struck the canopy in the centre, all was then confusion.
The vapours between the spires, or pyramids, were of a blood-red colour, which gave those parts of the atmosphere the appearance of blazing lances, and bloody-coloured pillars.
There was also a strange commotion among the streams, as if some large cloud, or other body, was moving behind and disturbing them.
In the northern and southern parts, the streams were perpendicular to the horizon ; but in the intermediate points, they seemed to decline more or less in one way or the other ; or rather to incline towards the meridian.
Several persons declared, that, in the time of the streaming, they heard a hissing, and in some places a crackling noise, like what is reported to be often heard in earthquakes.
Cabinet of Curiosities – Volume 1 – Hartford – 1822
1737 Electro-Magnetic Event
Those were the days when scholars would write about the electro-magnetic events of 1737 that produced as much light as a full moon.
At Naples, on the 16th of December, 1737, early in the evening, a light was observed in the north, as if the air was on fire, and flashing.
Its intenseness gradually increasing, about seven o’clock it spread to the westward.
Its greatest height was about 65 degrees.
Its extremities were unequally jagged and scattered, and followed the course of the westerly wind ; so that for a few hours it spread considerably wider, yet without ever reaching the zenith.
About eight o’clock, a very regular arch, of a parabolic figure, was seen to rise gently, to two degrees of rectangular elevation, and to twenty degrees of horizontal amplitude.
At ten, the intenseness of the colour disappeared ; and by midnight, not any traces of this phenomenon were left.
it was seen throughout Italy, as the subsequent accounts will show.
At Padua, on the appearance of this extraordinary meteor, the air was calm, and the barometer remarkably high.
At five in the afternoon, a blackish zone, with its upper limb, of a sky-colour, appeared near the horizon : and above this zone was another, very luminous, resembling the dawn pretty far advanced.
The highest zone was of a red fiery colour.
A little after six o’clock, the upper parts of these zones emitted an abundance of red streamings, or rays ; their vivid colour being occasionally intermixed with whitish and dark spots.
In a few seconds after, there issued from the west, a red and very bright column, which ascended to the third part of the heavens, and which, a little after, became curved like a rainbow.
At half past eight, almost instantaneously, the bright zone, from eight degrees west to fifty degrees east, became more vivid, and rose higher; and above this, appeared a new large one, of a red fiery colour, with several successive streamings tending upward, and exceeding sixty degrees of altitude; the western part having assumed the form of a thin cloud.
At midnight, these splendid lights disappeared entirely.
At Bononia [Bologna], this surprising meteor spread to such an extent, as to occupy about one hundred and forty degrees of the heavens.
Its light was so vivid, that houses could be distinguished, at eight in the evening, at a very considerable distance ; and these were so reddened, that many persons thought there was a fire in the neighbourhood.
At that time, the aurora formed itself into a concave arch towards the horizon ; and in half an hour, at its eastern limit, a pyramid was displayed, of a more intense colour towards the north, from the centre of which, there shot up vertically a streak of light, between a white and a yellow colour.
A very dark narrow cloud crossed the whole phenomenon, and went to terminate in the pyramid.
At the upper part, a very considerable tract of the heavens was enlightened by a very vivid red light, which was interrupted by several streaks or columns of a bright yellowish light.
These streamings shot up vertically, and parallel to each other, the narrow cloud seeming to serve them as a basis.
Under the cloud, there issued forth two tails of a whitish light, banging downward on a basis of a weak red, and seeming to kindle and dart the light downward.
A white streak, which passed across these two tails, and extended from one end of the phenomenon to the other, in a position almost parallel to the above mentioned cloud, gave a splendid effect to the whole.
This surprising meteor, disappeared a little after nine o’clock ; but an abundance of falling stars were afterward seen in the south.
Similar observations were made at Rome; but in Great Britain, where this phenomenon was likewise seen, different appearances were displayed.
At Edinburgh, at six in the evening, the sky appeared to be in flames.
An arch of red light reached from the west, over the zenith, to the east, its northern border being tinged with a colour approaching to blue.
This aurora did not first form in the north, as usually happens, and after forming an arch there, rise toward the zenith ; neither did the light shiver, and spread itself, by sudden jerks, over the hemisphere, as is common ; but gradually and gently stole along the face of the heavens, till it had covered the whole hemisphere : this alarmed the vulgar, and was indeed a strange sight.
At Rosehill, in Sussex, it appeared as a strong and very steady light, nearly of the colour of red ochre.
It did not dart or flash, but kept a steady course against the wind, which blew fresh from the south-west.
It began in the north-north-west, in form of a pillar of light, at a quarter past six in the evening : in about ten minutes, a fourth part of it divided from the rest, and never joined again.
In ten minutes more, it described an arch, but did not join at top ; and at seven o’clock it formed a bow, disappearing soon after.
It was lightest and reddest at the horizon, and gave as much light as a full moon.
Southern Hemisphere and Captain Cook
Those were the days when Captain Cook saw the aurora australis in the southern skies.
Captain Cook, in his first voyage round the world, observes, that these coruscations are frequently visible in southern latitudes.
On the 16th of September, 1770, he witnessed an appearance of this kind about 10 at night, consisting of a dull, reddish light, and extending about twenty degrees above the horizon.
Its extent was very different at different times, but it was never less than eight or ten points of the compass.
Rays of light, of a brighter colour, passed through and without it ; and these rays vanished and were renewed nearly in the same time as those in the aurora borealis, but had little or no vibration.
Its body bore S. S. E. from the ship, and continued without any diminution of its brightness, till twelve o’clock, when the observers retired.
The ship was at this time within the tropic of Capricorn.
On the 17th of February, 1773, during his second voyage, Captain Cook speaks of a beautiful phenomenon that was observed in the heavens.
“ It consisted of long columns of a clear, white light, shooting up from the horizon to the eastward, almost to the zenith, and spreading gradually over the whole southern parts of the sky.
These columns even sometimes bent sideways at their upper extremity ; and, although in most respects similar to the northern lights, (the aurora borealis of our hemisphere,) yet differed from them in being always of a whitish colour ; whereas, ours assume various tints, especially those of a fiery and purple hue.
The stars were sometimes hidden by, and sometimes faintly to be seen through, the substance of these southern lights, aurora australis.
The sky was generally clear when they appeared, and the air sharp and cold, the mercury in the thermometer standing at the freezing point; the ship being then in 58 degrees south. “
On six different nights of the following month (March) the same phenomenon was observed.
Cabinet of Curiosities – Volume 1 – Hartford – 1822
Machina Electrica and Fornax Chemica
Those were the days when constellations were named “electricity generator” and “chemical furnace”.
Uranographia covers the entire sky on 20 maps
Uranographia – J E Bode – Berlino – 1801
Machina Electrica (Latin for electricity generator) was a constellation created by Johann Bode in 1800. He created it from faint stars between Fornax and Sculptor, to the south of Cetus. It represented an electrostatic generator. The constellation was never popular and is no longer in use.
Fornax is a constellation in the southern sky, partly ringed by the celestial river Eridanus. Its name is Latin for furnace. It was named by French astronomer Nicolas Louis de Lacaille in 1756. Fornax is one of the 88 modern constellations.
The French astronomer Nicolas Louis de Lacaille first described the constellation in French as le Fourneau Chymique (the Chemical Furnace) with an alembic and receiver in his early catalogue, before abbreviating it to le Fourneau on his planisphere in 1752, after he had observed and catalogued almost 10,000 southern stars during a two-year stay at the Cape of Good Hope.
Cetus – Sea Monster
Those were the days when constellation names were correctly translated from Latin.
Cetus is a constellation. Its name refers to Cetus, a sea monster in Greek mythology, although it is often called ‘the whale’ today. Cetus is located in the region of the sky that contains other water-related constellations such as Aquarius, Pisces, and Eridanus.
Uranographia – Joannes Hevelius – Danzica – 1690
Invisible Indigo – Vaporised Violet
Those were the days before indigo became invisible and violet was vaporised.
This new and improved magic rainbow of just five colours [i.e. Indigo invisible and Violet vaporised] enables the Wikipedia Wizards to claim that the sky is blue because short wavelength blue light is scattered more than longer wavelengths.
ROYGBIV or Roy G. Biv is an initialism for the sequence of hues commonly described as making up a rainbow: red, orange, yellow, green, blue, indigo and violet.
Those were the days when violet had a magnetic personality.
Fire and Brimstone
Those were the days when fire-and-brimstone preachers frightened the indoctrinated.
Fire and brimstone (or, alternatively, brimstone and fire) is an idiomatic expression referring to God’s wrath in the Hebrew Bible (Old Testament) and the New Testament.
In the Bible, it often appears in reference to the fate of the unfaithful.
The English phrase “fire and brimstone” originates in the King James Bible.
Preachers such as Jonathan Edwards and George Whitefield were referred to as “fire-and-brimstone preachers” during the Great Awakening of the 1730s and 1740s. … Reports of one occasion when Edwards preached it said that many of the audience burst out weeping, and others cried out in anguish or even fainted.
Those were the days long before a climate emergency frightened the indoctrinated.
Their latest modelling studies indicate
northern polar waters could be ice-free in summers within just 5-6 years.
Arctic summers ice-free ‘by 2013’
Jonathan Amos – Science reporter – BBC News – San Francisco
The Guardian has updated its style guide to introduce terms that more accurately describe the environmental crises facing the world.
Instead of “climate change” the preferred terms are “climate emergency, crisis or breakdown” and “global heating” is favoured over “global warming”, although the original terms are not banned.
We want to ensure that we are being scientifically precise, while also communicating clearly with readers on this very important issue,” said the editor-in-chief, Katharine Viner. “The phrase ‘climate change’, for example, sounds rather passive and gentle when what scientists are talking about is a catastrophe for humanity.”
Other terms that have been updated, including the use of “wildlife” rather than “biodiversity”, “fish populations” instead of “fish stocks” and “climate science denier” rather than “climate sceptic”.
In September, the BBC accepted it gets coverage of climate change “wrong too often” and told staff: “You do not need a ‘denier’ to balance the debate.”
Why the Guardian is changing the language it uses about the environment
The Guardian – Damian Carrington – Environment editor – 17 May 2019
Welcome to New Age Puritanism with added Fire-and-Brimstone Climate Science.
The daytime appearances of Venus recorded in the Korean annals suggest the exceptional electro-magnetic events of 1716, 1726 and 1737 were remarkably tame within the context of the preceding fiery centuries.
The last occultation of Spica by Venus occurred in 1783 and this event coincidently marked the end of regular daytime sightings of Venus.
And it’s these fiery centuries that raised the Renaissance.
The Renaissance is a period in European history, covering the span between the 14th and 17th centuries and marking the transition from the Middle Ages to modernity.
The traditional view focuses more on the early modern aspects of the Renaissance and argues that it was a break from the past, but many historians today focus more on its medieval aspects and argue that it was an extension of the middle ages.
Various theories have been proposed to account for its origins and characteristics, focusing on a variety of factors including the social and civic peculiarities of Florence at the time: its political structure, the patronage of its dominant family, the Medici, and the migration of Greek scholars and their texts to Italy following the Fall of Constantinople to the Ottoman Turks.