Hecker Horizon: Ho Ho Ho History

Tracing the ancestry of Father Christmas involves some black-face Morris Dancers, William the Conqueror, Julius Caesar, the reign of Jam and some New Year’s Day continuity problems.

The European Knowledge Barrier
The arrival of the 14th century marks the beginning of the Renaissance.

The Renaissance is a period in European history, covering the span between the 14th and 17th centuries and marking the transition from the Middle Ages to modernity.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Renaissance

The start of the 14th century is also the beginning of the Hecker Horizon.

See: https://malagabay.wordpress.com/2019/01/07/the-hecker-horizon/

The defining event of the Hecker Horizon was the Black Death.

The Black Death, also known as the Great Plague or the Plague, or less commonly the Black Plague, was one of the most devastating pandemics in human history, resulting in the deaths of an estimated 75 to 200 million people in Eurasia and peaking in Europe from 1347 to 1351.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Black_Death

The populations of many European cities were halved by the Black Death.

Half of Paris’s population of 100,000 people died.

In Italy, the population of Florence was reduced from 110,000–120,000 inhabitants in 1338 down to 50,000 in 1351.

At least 60% of the population of Hamburg and Bremen perished, and a similar percentage of Londoners may have died from the disease as well.

In London approximately 62,000 people died between 1346 and 1353.

Before 1350, there were about 170,000 settlements in Germany, and this was reduced by nearly 40,000 by 1450.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Black_Death#Death_toll

The Black Death represents a dramatic loss of traditional and institutional knowledge.

A death rate as high as 60% in Europe has been suggested… … Monks and priests were especially hard-hit since they cared for victims of the Black Death.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Black_Death#Consequences

Researches concede the Black Death represents a point in the clergy’s historical narrative where it becomes unreliable.

It is recognised that an epidemiological account of the plague is as important as an identification of symptoms, but researchers are hampered by the lack of reliable statistics from this period.

Estimates of plague victims are usually extrapolated from figures from the clergy.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Black_Death

Overall:

The Black Death very visibly represents a knowledge barrier because the historical narrative becomes unreliable and impossible to independently verify.

See: https://malagabay.wordpress.com/2019/01/21/the-hecker-horizon-coincidental-catastrophe/

Johannes Gutenberg, a goldsmith by profession, developed, circa 1439, a printing system by adapting existing technologies to printing purposes, as well as making inventions of his own.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Printing_press

The loss of traditional and institutional knowledge caused by the Black Death created the perfect opportunity for later generations of creative writers to fabricate history.

For example:

Byzantine history went from 0 to 50 volumes between 1556 and 1897.

The Byzantine Empire, also referred to as the Eastern Roman Empire or Byzantium, was the continuation of the Roman Empire in its eastern provinces during Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages, when its capital city was Constantinople (modern-day Istanbul, and formerly Byzantium). It survived the fragmentation and fall of the Western Roman Empire in the 5th century AD and continued to exist for an additional thousand years until it fell to the Ottoman Turks in 1453.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Byzantine_Empire

The foundations of the Byzantine Empire were laid in 1557.

The first use of the term “Byzantine” to label the later years of the Roman Empire was in 1557, when the German historian Hieronymus Wolf published his work Corpus Historiæ Byzantinæ, a collection of historical sources.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Byzantine_Empire

Hieronymus Wolf (1516-1580) was a sixteenth-century German historian and humanist, most famous for introducing a system of Roman historiography that eventually became the standard in works of medieval Greek history.

He focused primarily on Greek history, and published his work in 1557 under the title Corpus Historiae Byzantinae, which was more a collection of Byzantine sources than a comprehensive history.

Nevertheless, the impact of his work on the long term was massive, as it would set the foundations for upcoming medieval Greek histories.

This reference to “Byzantinae” has since spread through western European scholars and gradually replaced the name Roman as used in the Eastern Roman Empire by the term Byzantine, to denote medieval Greek-speaking literature from the Eastern Roman Empire.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hieronymus_Wolf

The Jesuits then developed an “immense” Byzantine history [1648-1711].

In the 17th century, Louis XIV of France prompted for the assemblage of all Byzantine works and called several renowned scholars from around the world to participate in this effort. Hieronymus’ Corpus would be used to build upon.

The result was the immense Corpus Historiae Byzantinae in 34 volumes, with paralleled Greek text and Latin translation.

This edition popularized the term “Byzantine Empire” (never used by that empire itself during the centuries of its existence) and established it in historical studies.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hieronymus_Wolf

the original twenty-four volume Corpus Byzantinae Historiae (sometimes called the Byzantine du Louvre), published in Paris between 1648 and 1711 under the initial direction of the Jesuit scholar Philippe Labbe.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Corpus_Scriptorum_Historiae_Byzantinae

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Philippe_Labbe

The history of the Byzantine Empire then mushroomed out into a “monumental” fifty volumes between 1828 and 1897.

The Corpus Scriptorum Historiae Byzantinae, frequently referred to as the CSHB or Bonn Corpus, is a monumental fifty-volume series of primary sources for the study of Byzantine history (c. 330–1453), published in the German city of Bonn between 1828 and 1897.

Each volume contains a critical edition of a Byzantine Greek historical text, accompanied by a parallel Latin translation.

The project, conceived by the historian Barthold Georg Niebuhr, sought to revise and expand the original twenty-four volume Corpus Byzantinae Historiae (sometimes called the Byzantine du Louvre), published in Paris between 1648 and 1711 under the initial direction of the Jesuit scholar Philippe Labbe.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Corpus_Scriptorum_Historiae_Byzantinae

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Barthold_Georg_Niebuhr

The English Knowledge Barrier
In England the knowledge barrier created by the Black Death has resulted in some very curious chronological discontinuities in the official narrative.

For example:

The official narrative claims the census of 1377 was the first to be performed in 291 years.

Most work has been done on the spread of the plague in England, and even estimates of overall population at the start vary by over 100% as no census was undertaken between the time of publication of the Domesday Book and the year 1377.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Black_Death

It’s said the previous census under William the Conqueror was completed in 1086.

Domesday Book is a manuscript record of the “Great Survey” of much of England and parts of Wales completed in 1086 by order of King William the Conqueror.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Domesday_Book

http://www.wildwinds.com/coins/SE/SE1254.html
Wildwinds.com – Browsing British Coinage of William I
http://www.wildwinds.com/coins/brit/william_I/t.html

This census discontinuity could be regarded as an isolated curiosity if it wasn’t for William the Conqueror being involved with some other very strange discontinuities.

The New Year Discontinuities
It’s assumed Roman rule meant the English New Year was the 1st of January.

The ancient Romans celebrated the beginning of the year on the 21st of December, but Caesar by the adoption of the Julian calendar postponed it to the 1st of January.

The Encyclopaedia Britannica – Eleventh Edition – Volume 19 – 1911
https://archive.org/details/encyclopaediabri19chisrich/page/594

After the Roman withdrawal the English were careless with their New Year.

It’s implied the post-Roman New Year was moved to the 25th of March before the Anglo-Saxons changed the New Year to the 25th of December.

The 25th of March was the usual date among most Christian peoples in early medieval days.

In Anglo-Saxon England, however, the 25th of December was New Year’s Day.

The Encyclopaedia Britannica – Eleventh Edition – Volume 19 – 1911
https://archive.org/details/encyclopaediabri19chisrich/page/594

In England, the Angle, Saxon, and Viking invasions of the fifth through tenth centuries plunged the region back into pre-history for a time. While the reintroduction of Christianity brought the Julian calendar with it, its use was primarily in the service of the church to begin with.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/New_year

When these changes to the English calendar were made is unknown!

Nevertheless:

It’s also claimed William the Conqueror rode to the rescue of the careless English in 1066 and restored their New Year to the 1st of January i.e. the date used by Julius Caesar.

At the Norman Conquest owing, it is believed, to the coincidence of his coronation being arranged for that date, William the Conqueror ordered that the year should start on the 1st of January.

The Encyclopaedia Britannica – Eleventh Edition – Volume 19 – 1911
https://archive.org/details/encyclopaediabri19chisrich/page/594

After William the Conqueror became king in 1066, he ordered that January 1 be re-established as the civil New Year.[citation needed]

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/New_year

Whether there is any truth in the preceding English New Year narrative is very questionable because at this juncture in the story there is a chronological discontinuity.

Apparently, at some unknown “later” date [after William the Conqueror] the English changed their New Year back to it’s original date of the 25th of March.

But later England began her year with the rest of Christendom on the 25th of March.

The Encyclopaedia Britannica – Eleventh Edition – Volume 19 – 1911
https://archive.org/details/encyclopaediabri19chisrich/page/594

Later[when?], however, England and Scotland joined much of Europe to celebrate the New Year on March 25.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/New_year

When this “later” date might have been is anyone’s guess and guessing isn’t easy because everyday England revolved around a numberless Groundhog Year.

See: https://malagabay.wordpress.com/2017/12/18/groundhog-year/

The English Groundhog Year era ended when dated coins were minted in 1548.

The numberless Groundhog Year only started to breakdown in England after the first Julian Year coin was minted in 1548.

See: https://malagabay.wordpress.com/2017/12/18/groundhog-year/

This roughly aligns with the Catholic Church adopting the 1st of January New Year.

It took quite a long time before January 1 again became the universal or standard start of the civil year. The years of adoption of 1 January as the new year are as follows:

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/New_Year

The Gregorian calendar (1582), which restored the 1st of January to its position as New Year’s Day, was accepted by all Catholic countries at once; by Germany, Denmark and Sweden about 1700, but not until 1751 by England.

The Encyclopaedia Britannica – Eleventh Edition – Volume 19 – 1911
https://archive.org/details/encyclopaediabri19chisrich/page/594

Historians appear remarkably blasé about these New Year discontinuities.

Perhaps that’s because they suspect:

1) The English New Year always fell on the 25th of March until 1751

and

2) The monasteries retro-fitted the 1st of January New Year narrative into the fabricated Julius Caesar and William the Conqueror storylines.

See: https://malagabay.wordpress.com/2015/07/01/the-heinsohn-horizon-the-academic-abyss/

These suspicions are reinforced when the Father Christmas story is untangled.

The Father Christmas Discontinuity
The official narrative has Father Christmas appearing in the 16th century.

Father Christmas dates back as far as 16th century in England during the reign of Henry VIII, when he was pictured as a large man in green or scarlet robes lined with fur.

He typified the spirit of good cheer at Christmas, bringing peace, joy, good food and wine and revelry.

As England no longer kept the feast day of Saint Nicholas on 6 December, the Father Christmas celebration was moved to the 25th of December to coincide with Christmas Day.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ho_ho_ho

Details of the English Merry Christmas go back to the 15th century.

The first known English personification of Christmas was associated with merry-making, singing and drinking.

A carol attributed to Richard Smart, Rector of Plymtree from 1435 to 1477, has ‘Sir Christemas’ announcing the news of Christ’s birth and encouraging his listeners to drink:

“Buvez bien par toute la compagnie,
Make good cheer and be right merry,
And sing with us now joyfully: Nowell, nowell.”

Many late medieval Christmas customs incorporated both sacred and secular themes.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Father_Christmas

Note
It appears the English replaced “Nowell” with the French “Noel” sometime after 1700.

https://archive.org/details/ancientenglishch00rickuoft/page/218

A Christmas carol (also called a noël, from the French word meaning “Christmas”) is a carol (song or hymn) whose lyrics are on the theme of Christmas, and which is traditionally sung on Christmas itself or during the surrounding holiday season.

Christmas carols in English first appear in a 1426 work of John Awdlay, a Shropshire chaplain, who lists twenty five “caroles of Cristemas”, probably sung by groups of ‘wassailers’, who went from house to house.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Christmas_carol

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Noel

Then the official Merry Christmas narrative hits the Black Death brick wall.

They concede “merrymaking” occurred as far back as the 12th century.

The custom of merrymaking and feasting at Christmastide first appears in the historical record during the High Middle Ages (c 1100–1300).

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Father_Christmas

But they say “we have no details at all” regarding these celebrations.

This almost certainly represented a continuation of pre-Christian midwinter celebrations in Britain of which—as the historian Ronald Hutton has pointed out—”we have no details at all.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Father_Christmas

This is not the case.

The details of the celebrations in the High Middle Ages [circa 1100–1300] are accessible to any researcher or heretical historian who follows the clues.

Clue #1: The ancient English New Year falling on the 25th of March.

Clue #2: The 15th century Rector of Plymtree joyfully singing “Nowell“.

These clues point towards: Nowruz – The Iranian New Year.

Nowruz (literally “new day”) is the Iranian New Year, also known as the Persian New Year, which is celebrated worldwide by various ethno-linguistic groups.

Despite its Iranian and Zoroastrian origins, Nowruz has been celebrated by diverse communities. It has been celebrated for over 3,000 years in Western Asia, Central Asia, the Caucasus, the Black Sea Basin, and the Balkans.

Nowruz is the day of the vernal equinox, and marks the beginning of spring in the Northern Hemisphere. It marks the first day of the first month (Farvardin) of the Iranian calendar. It usually occurs on March 21 or the previous or following day, depending on where it is observed. The moment the Sun crosses the celestial equator and equalizes night and day is calculated exactly every year, and families gather together to observe the rituals.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nowruz

Chapter IX – On The Festivals in The Months of The Persians

On Nauroz it was the custom for people to present each other sugar.

According to Adharbadh, the Maubadh of Baghdadh, the reason is this, that the sugar-cane was first discovered during the reign of Jam on the day of Nauroz, having before been unknown.

For Jam on seeing a juicy cane which dropped some of its juice, tasted it, and found that it had an agreeable sweetness. Then he ordered the juice of the sugar-cane to be pressed out and sugar to be made thereof.

It was ready on the fifth day, and then they made each other presents of sugar.

The Chronology of Ancient Nations – Al-Biruni – 1000 AD
Translated and edited by Dr C Edward Sachau – 1879 CE

https://archive.org/details/chronologyofanci00biru/page/200

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Al-Biruni

The Persian Amu Nowruz became the English Father Christmas.

In Iran, the traditional heralds of the festival of Nowruz are Amu Nowruz and Haji Firuz, who appear in the streets to celebrate the New Year.

Amu Nowruz brings children gifts, much like his counterpart Santa Claus. He is the husband of Nane Sarma, with whom he shares a traditional love story in which they can meet each other only once a year. He is depicted as an elderly silver-haired man with a long beard carrying a walking stick, wearing a felt hat, a long cloak of blue canvas, a sash, giveh, and linen trousers.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nowruz

The Persian Haji Firuz became an English black-face Morris Dancer.

Haji Firuz, a character with his face and hands covered in soot, clad in bright red clothes and a felt hat, is the companion of Amu Nowruz. He dances through the streets while singing and playing a tambourine. In the traditional songs, he introduces himself as a serf trying to cheer people whom he refers to as his lords.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nowruz

Morris dance is a form of English folk dance usually accompanied by music.

It is based on rhythmic stepping and the execution of choreographed figures by a group of dancers, usually wearing bell pads on their shins.

The earliest known and surviving English written mention of Morris dance is dated to 1448, and records the payment of seven shillings to Morris dancers by the Goldsmiths’ Company in London.

The name is first recorded in the mid-15th century as Morisk dance, moreys daunce, morisse daunce, i.e. “Moorish dance”.

The term entered English via Flemish mooriske danse. Comparable terms in other languages are German Moriskentanz (also from the 15th century), French morisques, Croatian moreška, and moresco, moresca or morisca in Italy and Spain.

The modern spelling Morris-dance first appears in the 17th century.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Morris_dance

Various forms of folk dance in England, including Morris dancing, have traditionally used blackface; its continuing use by some troupes is controversial.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Blackface#United_Kingdom

Blackface ‘Nutters’ Dance for Easter in Bizarre British Tradition – Ruptly

A group of black-faced clog dancers known as Britannia Coconut dancers or ‘Nutters’ returned for their famous annual Easter performance in Bacup, Lancashire, footage filmed on Saturday shows.

The Lancastrian group of dancers take their name from the wooden nuts they wear on their wrists, knees and waists which are made from the tops of bobbins, but it is their black-face that has caused controversy.

The Nutters’ face painted in black is said to resemble the dirt miners used to have after finishing work, but some people believe that it has more a racist connotation related to what might be the origin of the dances.

The start of this custom cannot be traced easily, but it is believed to have started with Moors who settled in Cornwall in the 17th century, who were miners there before moving to Lancashire to work in quarries.

Nowruz is also alive and kicking in the Netherlands, Belgium, Luxembourg and northern France.

Sinterklaas or Sint-Nicolaas is a legendary figure based on Saint Nicholas, patron saint of children.

The feast of Sinterklaas celebrates the name day of Saint Nicholas on 6 December.

The feast is celebrated annually with the giving of gifts on St. Nicholas’ Eve (5 December) in the Netherlands and on the morning of 6 December, Saint Nicholas Day, in Belgium, Luxembourg and northern France (French Flanders, Lorraine and Artois).

Sinterklaas is the primary source of the popular Christmas icon of Santa Claus.

Sinterklaas is assisted by Zwarte Piet (“Black Pete”), a helper in colourful Moorish dress and with blackface. … He is typically depicted carrying a bag which contains candy for the children, which they toss around, a tradition supposedly originating in the story of Saint Nicholas saving three young girls from prostitution by tossing golden coins through their window at night to pay their dowries.

Traditionally, he would also carry a birch rod, a chimney sweep’s broom made of willow branches, used to spank children who had been naughty.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sinterklaas

In our modern age of intolerant ignorance these ancient traditions are an endangered species.

Why Blackface is Still Part of Dutch holidays – Vox

Sadly, Western academia has obscured and ignored the Persian and Vedic traditions that are embedded within European culture.

See: https://malagabay.wordpress.com/2016/07/17/catastrophic-english-christianity-as-a-vedic-cult-2/

Similarly, Western academia has obscured and ignored the ancient connections to Persia and India that are embedded within European languages.

See: https://malagabay.wordpress.com/2016/07/29/catastrophic-english-mother-tongue-and-mtdna/

From a careful study of Eastern records and Sabaism, the author is led to take up the position that the round towers were constructed by early Indian colonists of Ireland (the Tuath-de-danaans), in honour of ” the fructifying principle of nature,” of which the sun and moon are representative.

Introduction by W. H. C. – London – 1897
The Round Towers of Ireland – Henry O’Brien – 1898

https://archive.org/details/roundtowersirel00obrgoog

See: https://malagabay.wordpress.com/2016/03/04/henry-obrien-and-the-round-towers/

The archaeological evidence also suggests the “Anglo Saxons” living in Kent during the 6th century AD may well have been of Persian and/or Indian descent.

See: https://malagabay.wordpress.com/2016/06/16/7404/

The goddess Nerthus that was venerated in Old Saxony [in modern Germany] echoes Vedic Pṛthvī Mātā “Mother Earth”.

See: https://malagabay.wordpress.com/2016/06/16/7404/

It’s doubtful Western academia will recover from consensus somnambulism.

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17 Responses to Hecker Horizon: Ho Ho Ho History

  1. Marcus Rhodes says:

    The black Petes are traditionally, correctly, two in number, and, I believe, representative of Phobos and Deimos, while the central figure is Mars, and his wife, Venus. Just a thought.

  2. tiami says:

    were Dionysius Exiguus and Denis Petau same men?
    13.9 and 16.
    http://chronologia.org/en/seven/1N06-EN-326-372.pdf

  3. Marcus Rhodes says:

    That’s my point. Mars was once close enough that, not only was its color plainly visible to earth-bound observers, but so were Valles Marineris, the volcanoes, and even the moons. The entire myth is cosmic in origin, later transposed to terrestrial beings and terrestrial events, just as with Adam and Eve, Tammuz, Abraham, Noah, King Arthur, Perun, Sigfried, and so many others. Santa Claus is just one more of the thousand faces of the hero. Hence his location at the north pole, atop mount Olympus, among the rest of the polar configuration.

  4. A quick post on tiami’s link source. A prolific author, I was interested in his work on Ptolemy at https://ia801300.us.archive.org/1/items/AnatolyFomenkoBooks/DatingPtolemysAlmagestByAnatolyFomenko.pdf

    On page 271, discussing obliquity, the author writes “Modern chronologists also try to make us believe that Chinese astronomers determined by measuring the shade of a gnomon — about 1100BC, long before the astronomic peak in Greece”. That is a very misleading bias, and far from an open mind. A technique for measuring the Earth’s obliquity was developed more than 2000 years before the Chinese. Not only, they could tell the moment of the solstices, certainly to the day, a requirement to determine when to measure to determine the obliquity angle (at zenith with camera obscura).
    The source of the evidence suffered from the ~3200bce tectonic event, and therefore predates that particular date. The date of the tectonic event is evident in several proxies, but particularly in Med sediments; here: https://melitamegalithic.wordpress.com/2018/04/24/searching-evidence-2/

  5. Marcus Rhodes above mentions Tammuz, and the ‘hero with a thousand faces’. A long-time pet study of mine, the myth starts as a metaphor/allegory/personification of an agrarian cycle cum agrarian calendar centred on the cereals. It was linked to the stars and appear in the personifications of the constellations, an early form of solar calendar. Eg the corn-ears in the hand of Virgo is the appearance of the virgin seed of the new harvest (in Med climate), which follows Bootes the reaper.
    See link: https://melitamegalithic.wordpress.com/2019/04/03/the-world-of-the-two-queens/
    In fact the time difference between today’s agrarian calendar and the constellations of the sidereal zodiac (the tropical zodiac was tampered by Ptolemy) reflect the period of elapsed precession.

  6. malagabay says:

    Now I understand your line of thinking. Thanks.

    I wonder if there any echoes of this in Persian folklore.

    Mehrdad Bahar, a prominent Persian historian, opined in 1983 that the figure of Haji Firuz may be derived from ceremonies and legends connected to the epic of Prince Siavash, which are in turn derived from those associated with the Mesopotamian deity of agriculture and flocks, Tammuz (Sumerian Dumuzi).

    Later, it was claimed that the blackened face of Haji Firuz symbolizes his returning from the world of the dead, his red clothing is the sign of the blood of Siavash and the coming to life of the sacrificed deity, while his joviality is the jubilation of rebirth, typical of those who bring rejuvenation and blessing along with themselves.

    Bahar speculates that the name Siyāwaxš might mean ‘black man’ or ‘dark-faced man’ and suggests that the term black in the name may be a reference either to the blackening of the faces of the participants in the aforementioned Mesopotamian ceremonies, or to the black masks that they wore for the festivities.

    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hajji_Firuz

  7. malagabay says:

    Dumuzid, later known by the alternate form Tammuz, is an ancient Mesopotamian god associated with shepherds, who was also the primary consort of the goddess Inanna (later known as Ishtar).

    The cult of Ishtar and Tammuz continued to thrive until the eleventh century AD and survived in parts of Mesopotamia as late as the eighteenth century.

    Tammuz is mentioned by name in the Book of Ezekiel and possibly alluded to in other passages from the Hebrew Bible.

    In late nineteenth and early twentieth century scholarship of religion, Tammuz was widely seen as a prime example of the archetypal dying-and-rising god, but the discovery of the full Sumerian text of Inanna’s Descent in the mid-twentieth century disproved the previous scholarly assumption that the narrative ended with Dumuzid’s resurrection and instead revealed that it ended with Dumuzid’s death. The existence of the “dying-and-rising god” archetype has been largely rejected by modern scholars.

    The myth of Inanna and Dumuzid later became the basis for the Greek myth of Aphrodite and Adonis.

    In the tenth century AD, the Arab traveler Al-Nadim wrote in his Kitab al-Fehrest that “All the Sabaeans of our time, those of Babylonia as well as those of Harran, lament and weep to this day over Tammuz at a festival which they, more particularly the women, hold in the month of the same name.”

    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tammuz_%28deity%29

  8. malagabay says:

    The Tammuz narrative of a dying-and-rising god clearly aligns with the Christian narrative and it looks likely the transition occurred in the first half of the 2nd millennium.

    The cult of Ishtar and Tammuz continued to thrive until the eleventh century AD and survived in parts of Mesopotamia as late as the eighteenth century.

    The references to the cult of Tammuz preserved in the Bible and in Greco-Roman literature brought the story to the attention of western European writers.

    The story was popular in Early Modern England and appeared in a variety of works, including

    Sir Walter Raleigh’s History of the World (1614),
    George Sandys’s Dictionarium Relation of a Journey(1615), and
    Charles Stephanus’s Dictionarium Historicam (1553).

    These have all been suggested as sources for Tammuz’s most famous appearance in English literature as a demon in Book I of John Milton’s Paradise Lost…

    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tammuz_%28deity%29

  9. The narrative of the ‘dying and rising’ god is specifically treated by Thorkild Jacobsen in his book “The Treasures of Darkness”, 2nd para.. It is from cuneiform tablets from the early forth millennium. Dumuzi appears as the child Damu, born in a Liknon, a wicker winnowing basket, personifying the sprouting corn (grain) in late December, and dies after his marriage to Inanna the grain, after fertilisation. Long story with long evolution, but still evident in most of the old world folklore. (I had a series on this on Google but has since been shut down.) It has four stages: Birth, Marriage, Death, and Lament.

    The oldest form of the myth is from Mesopotamia, forth millennium and it is clearly reflected in statuette from Gozo, also 4th millennium, but there are older representations. See here: https://melitamegalithic.wordpress.com/2019/04/19/the-world-of-the-two-queens-2/ Note the central figure of the lad, with plough and genital member draped on it. Plough penetrating the earth and sowing the seed, personified as per human reproduction. It is Greek, but unmistakably reflects its ancient Mesopotamian roots.

    One excerpt from my FB page on the subject : https://www.facebook.com/melitamegalithic/posts/929111917263614?__xts__%5B0%5D=68.ARCR95vw7F7DRKhaHTBJo5042DlK9B43PC4p3KVF2hQAAgJ_d67EFDQ4IGzIagtPyJSNzwoEqowr-el3yr78Rr5jEG6nFjaIvjj6AlqyhQSZKu955p1tPSEmlQC01xJZPEi9fmIZV1wgiYDtz2CrKUCCrA6ZCV1hRFF8z8Yr-Q5Ikn5MwLVyZ0_mLcswRu9eViPD3NUJ8gcTfJHVvrTtUUaXZL4bZE-kGM3VKl7tTnSbnY7XleUriE1vR1qLKWmCLEyoQLGBBSDhJg43N3MXsiLcQ1kVOXJK8MH92i3SpUHh6PlnjvG60X_eJOIZ4rRxXwn66O-9QKr_hBvkfmkn8BI&__tn__=-R

  10. Additional to the Inanna/Dumuzi myth. There are two myths, complementary in nature.

    1. Inanna’s descent into the Netherworld. It is the sowing of the grain. In text she demands to be let into the netherworld, otherwise she threatens to ‘bring up the dead to eat the living’; possibly meaning famine if no grain sowing is made. Jumping to the end, she is ultimately released (to feed the world) only if someone takes her place. Dumuzi is killed for that purpose.

    2. The Dumuzi myth. With Dumuzi dead (Dumuzi being the life-vigour of nature) the earth goes barren. So Dumuzi is released, but subject to someone taking his place. Inanna, who is both mother and consort, and sister (see the Egyptian pharaonic line of descent that tried to replicate the gods; Dumuzi is Osiris there) must therefore take his place.
    The Queen of the netherworld in one cuneiform text decreed to Dumuzi ” You half a year, your sister half a year; while you are walking around she will lie prostate (underground as the sown seed; that has sprouted – ie dumuzi born again); While your sister is walking around you will lie prostate (after harvest, the sister returns as virgin grain).

    Another point that may be relevant to one comment in one of your replies, there are references in texts to ‘black headed people’. No idea what it infers (dark haired as against fair haired ???) .

  11. A side piece, with some relevance – maybe.
    Last sunday this site was open to the public https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Abbatija_Tad-Dejr Been there several times in the past (my home town). This time it struck me how small a physique the interred were, – all adults-. Dated 4th to 9th cent CE, the dark age cold period. Were adverse conditions of climate and land productivity telling on subsequent generations?
    The black death of 1347 was past the mediaeval warm period, half way to the little ice age. Coming adverse times being felt on both human and rat populations?

  12. Reconciliation says:

    India’s language (hungarian too*) has its origin in Europe, as its population. *http://www.magtudin.org/Aczel_Jozsef_Szittya-gorog_eredetunk.pdf

  13. Yry says:

    Fascinating article, Tim.

    Tracing our western origins to the Persia-India-Vedic sphere has
    always been of intense interest to me.
    What I did notice in the course of my life was the hatred of msm
    and of western religions whenever one would evoke or write about this.

    May I suggest the following hints in this pursuit of truth:

    – ALBANIA is the only place in Europe as far as I know where people
    from the countryside bodily express NO or YES the exact opposite
    of the other countries when it comes to head movements!
    (I worked there).

    – The local ‘Law of the Kanun’ (quoting from memory) has it that if
    for whatever reason a member of a clan has offended another clan,
    this issue can only be resolved through the death of the offender
    OR to have him enclosed at the top of a ROUND TOWER for life with
    his family at liberty to feeding him and/or meet him.
    Were the offender to take a walk outdoors for just a few minutes,
    he’d be inexorably killed thereafter.

    My questions are:
    – Do we know of other places in the Persia-Hindu-Vedic cultures
    where people express NO and YES the opposite of us in the West?

    – Do we know of a like use of towers in the Persia-Hindu-Vedic sphere?

  14. malagabay says:

    Yry:

    Thanks another fascinating comment.

    1) It’s intriguing to note:

    1a) The codification of the Kanun [and Christianity] occurred after the Hecker Horizon.

    The Kanun is a set of traditional Albanian laws.

    The Kanun of Lekë Dukagjini (Kanuni i Lekë Dukagjinit) was codified in the 15th century.

    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kanun_%28Albania%29

    1b) The “mysterious” Lekë Dukagjini could be a reference to the Vedic East-to-West migration that’s misrepresented as the West-to-East-and-Back Alexander The Great story.

    Lekë III Dukagjini (1410–1481), mostly known as Lekë Dukagjini, was a mysterious member of the Dukagjini family about whom little is known and who is thought to have been a 15th-century Albanian nobleman.

    His name Lekë is an abbreviated version of Alexander.

    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lek%C3%AB_Dukagjini

    2) I have no immediate answer for your No-Yes question.

    3) The initial Vedic migrations appear to have:

    3a) Spread the swastika symbol across the globe.

    See: https://malagabay.wordpress.com/2016/07/24/p-n-oak-chips-of-vedic-society/

    3b) Spread round towers across the globe – including the Americas.

    See: https://malagabay.wordpress.com/2016/02/27/the-heinsohn-horizon-and-the-round-towers/

    4) A second wave of Persian [Zoroastrian] migrations appears to have spread brickwork.

    With possible roots dating back to the second millennium BCE, Zoroastrianism enters recorded history in the 5th century BCE.

    Along with a Mithraic Median prototype and a Zurvanist Sassanid successor, it served as the state religion of the pre-Islamic Iranian empires for more than a millennium, from around 600 BCE to 650 CE.

    Zoroastrianism was suppressed from the 7th century onwards following the Muslim conquest of Persia of 633–654.

    The religion of Zoroastrianism is closest to Vedic religion.

    Some historians believe that Zoroastrianism, along with similar philosophical revolutions in South Asia were interconnected strings of reformation against a common Indo-Aryan thread.

    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Zoroastrianism

    My guess is that the brickwork in Milan is correctly dated to early in the 2nd millennium.

    This implies:

    Some Roman, Romanesque, and Byzantine brickwork is misdated.

    Mystery:
    Why does the archaeological evidence from Italy reveal “no trace” of the Byzantine Greeks who arrived in the 10th century?
    Answer:
    The artefacts and architecture of the Byzantine Greeks have been attributed to [and providentially borrowed by] the Roman Empire narrative.

    See: https://malagabay.wordpress.com/2018/04/26/roman-chronology-credibility-gap/

    Romanesque architecture is an architectural style of medieval Europe characterized by semi-circular arches. There is no consensus for the beginning date of the Romanesque style, with proposals ranging from the 6th to the 11th century, this later date being the most commonly held.

    The building material differs greatly across Europe, depending upon the local stone and building traditions.

    In Italy, Poland, much of Germany and parts of the Netherlands, brick is generally used.

    Other areas saw extensive use of limestone, granite and flint. The building stone was often used in comparatively small and irregular pieces, bedded in thick mortar. Smooth ashlar masonry was not a distinguishing feature of the style, particularly in the earlier part of the period, but occurred chiefly where easily worked limestone was available.

    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Romanesque_architecture

    By coincidence, tomorrow’s posting [amongst other things] looks at the disappearance 40,000 German settlements during the Hecker Horizon.

    Google Translation

    The Romanesque church was 21 meters long and 8 meters wide. It consisted of a nave with choir and apse and a church tower of 7 × 8 meters in the west. The construction was probably built around the year 1200 and received in the 13th century an extension on the northern side, which could have served as a burial place for the lords of Meensen. There are structural similarities to St. John’s Church in Meensen.

    The demolition is assumed in the 14th century.

    https://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vriemeensen

  15. Repel space threats says:

    Swastika and other shapes were depicted simultaneously worldwide, after certain plasmoids were seen by all humans in the sky: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=sH11EJRFcH0

  16. Pingback: Ravenna Revealed | MalagaBay

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