Alaskan Muck: Body of Evidence

It’s generally agreed frozen muck is “interesting”.

The Goldstream Formation, one of the most wide-spread formations in central Alaska, is perhaps also the most interesting.

The deposit, long informally known as the Goldstream muck, is here named for Goldstream Creek 10 km north of Fairbanks, where it has been exposed by mining operations since the early 1900’s.

The Goldstream Formation is a valley-bottom accumulation of loess in almost all creek and small river valleys in central Alaska. It is exposed in river cuts and most commonly in placer mining cuts.

The silt is poorly to fairly well stratified. The stratification is emphasized by ice seams and lenses (Taber ice). … The formation is gray to black to greenish black when frozen and is 10-35 m thick.

Quaternary Stratigraphic Nomenclature in Unglaciated Central Alaska
Troy L Pewe 1975 – Geological Survey Professional Paper 862

https://pubs.usgs.gov/pp/0862/report.pdf

But there’s no universally agreed list of “interesting” attributes.

Nonetheless:

Frozen muck has yielded a remarkable body of evidence.

1) The minute carbonized organic fragments.

The Goldstream Formation, described in detail by Pewe (1952), consists of perennially frozen retransported bedded loess that contains abundant minute carbonized organic fragments and some peat lenses, sticks, and twigs.

Quaternary Stratigraphic Nomenclature in Unglaciated Central Alaska
Troy L Pewe 1975 – Geological Survey Professional Paper 862

https://pubs.usgs.gov/pp/0862/report.pdf

2) The rapid burial and fast freezing of specimens.

The flora of the Goldstream Formation is well preserved because the sediments and accumulated organic remains froze soon after deposition.

Quaternary Stratigraphic Nomenclature in Unglaciated Central Alaska
Troy L Pewe 1975 – Geological Survey Professional Paper 862

https://pubs.usgs.gov/pp/0862/report.pdf

This scenario was examined and dismissed by Sir Fred Hoyle who cogently remarked:

“We are indebted to Dr. Clark Friend for informing us that reindeer which fall nowadays down crevasses in the Greenland ice are subsequently found to be in an unpleasantly putrefied condition. The situation is that, no matter how cold the air temperature surrounding the carcass of the reindeer, the body heat of the dead animal is sufficient to promote bacterial decomposition of the interior.

Yet in spite of the greater body weight of the Siberian mammoths, and of the consequent greater heat capacity of the mammoth, putrefaction did not take place within them.

This is certain proof that the mammoths were robbed of their body heat at an extremely rapid rate, much quicker than conduction in [present day temperatures of] cold air will give.” 24

24 Elizabeth J. Butler, Fred Hoyle, “On the Effect of a Sudden Change in the Albedo of the Earth,” Astrophysics and Space Science, Vol. 60, (1979), p. 505: see also, Sir Fred Hoyle, Ice: The Ultimate Human Catastrophe, (New York, 1981), p. 160.

The Extinction of The Mammoth – Charles Ginenthal – 2013
http://immanuelvelikovsky.com/Mammoth.pdf

Note
Dead animals are usually eaten and/or left to rot away.

It stands to reason that animals whose flesh is still preserved must have been killed and buried quickly to be preserved at all.

Bodies that die and lie on the surface soon disintegrate and the bones are scattered.

The Lost Americans – Frank C Hibben – 1946
https://archive.org/details/in.ernet.dli.2015.86091/page/n188

3) The abundance of shattered plants.

Abundant layers, lenses, and pods of plant remains, mainly peat, sticks, twigs, ground squirrel seed caches, and isolated tree limbs, are present.

Wood is not nearly as abundant, however, as in the underlying Eva Formation or the overlying Ready Bullion Formation. Pollen collected by the writer indicates that trees were scarce and the tree line was lower.

Wood in the underlying Eva Formation is older than 59,600 years; the Goldstream Formation is thus considered to be Wisconsinan in age.

Quaternary Stratigraphic Nomenclature in Unglaciated Central Alaska
Troy L Pewe 1975 – Geological Survey Professional Paper 862

https://pubs.usgs.gov/pp/0862/report.pdf

The Eva Forest Bed in the Yukon-Tanana Upland of east-central Alaska represents a frozen, buried, boreal forest. This bed consists of well-preserved peat lenses, sticks, roots, logs, as well as rooted and unrooted stumps of trees.

Attempts have been made over the last 50 yr to determine the age of this bed numerically. We report here details of thermoluminescence (TL) dating of 14 samples of loess from above and below this unconformity in the Fairbanks area. Together with knowledge about the climatic indicators from the Eva Forest Bed, these TL age estimates: (1) indicate that the most probable age of the Eva Forest Bed is ∼125 ka

Last Interglacial age of the Eva Forest Bed, Central Alaska, from thermoluminescence dating of bracketing loess – Glenn W Bergera and Troy L Péwé
Quaternary Science Reviews – Volume 20 – Issues 1–3 – January 2001

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0277379100001037

Note
Shattered trees are also found on Axel Heiberg Island and Ellesmere Island.

The dating of these trees is a Wonder of the Academic World.

See: https://malagabay.wordpress.com/2014/05/10/the-axel-heiberg-absurdities/

See: https://malagabay.wordpress.com/2014/05/07/the-ellesmere-embarrassments/

See: https://malagabay.wordpress.com/2014/09/02/catastrophic-dendrochronology/

4) The abundance of vertebrates.

The Goldstream Formation is the greatest repository of remains of Pleistocene vertebrates in Alaska, if not in North America.

The most abundant remains are those of bison; remains of mammoth and horse are next in abundance.

More than 60 radiocarbon dates from the Goldstream Formation record material older than 10,000 years, and many dates are older than 30,000 years.

Quaternary Stratigraphic Nomenclature in Unglaciated Central Alaska
Troy L Pewe 1975 – Geological Survey Professional Paper 862

https://pubs.usgs.gov/pp/0862/report.pdf

The greatest collection of vertebrate specimens is from the Fairbanks area, where tens of thousands of specimens have been collected during the past 30 years.

For example, in 1938, a typical year, 8,008 cataloged specimens weighing about 8 tons were collected by O. W. Geist and shipped to the American Museum of Natural History in New York City (University of Alaska, “Collegian,” 1938, fall).

Quaternary Geology of Alaska – T L Pewe – 1975
U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 835

https://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/pp835

5) The disarticulated and broken skeletons.

The remarkable preservation of vertebrate and plant remains within the mucks, however, is in stark contrast to the physical disruption and damage affecting much of this material.

Much of the skeletal remains from Alaska and Yukon were disarticulated and broken prior to freezing, and the rare preserved carcasses were often mangled and torn apart.

Impact-related microspherules in Late Pleistocene Alaskan and Yukon “muck” deposits signify recurrent episodes of catastrophic emplacement
J T Hagstrum, R B Firestone, A West, J C Weaver & T E Bunch
Nature – Scientific Reports 7, Article number: 16620 – 2017

https://www.nature.com/articles/s41598-017-16958-2

6) The mangled carcasses.

Much of the skeletal remains from Alaska and Yukon were disarticulated and broken prior to freezing, and the rare preserved carcasses were often mangled and torn apart.

Such dismemberment has been attributed to predators and scavengers, but these explanations raise questions including why the carcasses’ remaining fat and flesh had not been consumed.

Impact-related microspherules in Late Pleistocene Alaskan and Yukon “muck” deposits signify recurrent episodes of catastrophic emplacement
J T Hagstrum, R B Firestone, A West, J C Weaver & T E Bunch
Nature – Scientific Reports 7, Article number: 16620 – 2017

https://www.nature.com/articles/s41598-017-16958-2

https://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/pp835

https://web.archive.org/web/20130313004243/https://www.gi.alaska.edu/AlaskaScienceForum/article/bison-bob-big-discovery-north-slope

7) The exquisite condition of some carcasses.

MacPhee et al. attempted to explain the dismemberment of Pleistocene carcasses and the resultant dispersal and breakage of bones recovered from Yedoma deposits on Russia’s Taimyr Peninsula as being caused by movements of ice in valley bottoms during spring breakup.

They suggested that exposed limbs or other body parts of partially buried carcasses could have been sheared off by moving ice, and that ice-caused push fractures could have produced forces great enough to break bones as large as mammoth femora and humeri.

They acknowledged, however, that the “exquisite condition” of carcasses and many bones argues against these remains having spent a significant amount of time at the surface or having undergone any manner of “repeated redeposition”.

Impact-related microspherules in Late Pleistocene Alaskan and Yukon “muck” deposits signify recurrent episodes of catastrophic emplacement
J T Hagstrum, R B Firestone, A West, J C Weaver & T E Bunch
Nature – Scientific Reports 7, Article number: 16620 – 2017

https://www.nature.com/articles/s41598-017-16958-2

A melting permafrost formation exposed along the Itkillik River is the largest known yedoma in Alaska.

The formation, deposited between 50,000 and 10,000 years ago, contains remains of bison, muskoxen, mammoths, and other animals embedded in an ice cliff that is 100 feet (30 m) high and 1,200 feet (370 m) long.

The ice is rich in methane.

Odors emitted by the gasses released when the ice thaws have led to the site’s nickname, the Stinking Hills or Stinky Bluffs.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Itkillik_River

https://www.eurekalert.org/multimedia/pub/102024.php

Yedoma is an organic-rich (about 2% carbon by mass) Pleistocene-age permafrost with ice content of 50–90% by volume.

The Yedoma region currently occupies an area of more than one million square kilometers from northeast Siberia to Alaska and Canada, and in many regions is tens of meters thick.

During the Last Glacial Maximum, when the global sea level was 120 m lower than that of today, similar deposits covered substantial areas of the exposed northeast Eurasian continental shelves.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Yedoma

Note
Yedoma with 50–90% ice and dismembered carcasses appears to be consistent with tsunami debris entering Ptolemy’s frozen zone.

According to Ptolemy, the best recognized authority, whose geography had stood the test of thirteen hundred years, the then known world was a strip of some seventy degrees wide, mostly north of the equator, with Cadiz on the west, and farthest India or Cathay on the east, lying between the frozen and burning zones, both impassable by man.

Historical and Geographical Notes 1453-1530 – Henry Stevens – 1869
https://archive.org/details/historicalgeogra00stev/page/n32

See: https://malagabay.wordpress.com/2016/10/17/the-arabian-horizon-the-ptolemy-inheritance/

Heat is lost much more quickly in water than in air.
Thus, water temperatures that would be quite reasonable as outdoor air temperatures can lead to hypothermia in survivors, although this is not usually the direct clinical cause of death for those who are not rescued.

A water temperature of 10 °C (50 °F) can lead to death in as little as one hour, and water temperatures near freezing can cause death in as little as 15 minutes. A notable example of this occurred during the sinking of the Titanic, when most people who entered the −2 °C (28 °F) water died in 15–30 minutes.

The actual cause of death in cold water is usually the bodily reactions to heat loss and to freezing water, rather than hypothermia (loss of core temperature) itself.

For example, plunged into freezing seas, around 20% of victims die within two minutes from cold shock (uncontrolled rapid breathing, and gasping, causing water inhalation, massive increase in blood pressure and cardiac strain leading to cardiac arrest, and panic); another 50% die within 15–30 minutes from cold incapacitation (inability to use or control limbs and hands for swimming or gripping, as the body “protectively” shuts down the peripheral muscles of the limbs to protect its core). Exhaustion and unconsciousness cause drowning, claiming the rest within a similar time.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hypothermia

It is impossible to get hypothermic in cold water unless you are wearing flotation, because without flotation – you won’t live long enough to become hypothermic.

The Truth About Cold Water – Mario Vittone – 21 October 2010
http://mariovittone.com/2010/10/the-truth-about-cold-water/

Mail Online – Glacier Fox – Sara Malm – 24 Jan 2014
https://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-2545364/Glacier-fox-Animal-latest-freeze-solid-Scandinavias-lakes-following-fish-moose.html

Note
Tracking the retreat of the yedoma formations appears to have been studiously avoided.

In the longer term these embarrassments will conveniently melt away and any memory of them will be labelled a “misconception”.

66°32′46″N 162°44′58″W

Kotzebue Sound is an arm of the Chukchi Sea in the western region of the U.S. state of Alaska. It is on the north side of the Seward Peninsula and bounded the east by the Baldwin Peninsula. It is 100 miles (160 km) long and 70 miles (110 km) wide.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kotzebue_Sound

Amazon US: https://www.amazon.com/dp/0226311236
Amazon UK: https://www.amazon.co.uk/dp/0226311236

8) The weighty problem of moving mammoth remains.

The sedimentary contrast of dispersed bone clasts (e.g., megafuanal skulls, tusks), isolated rock fragments ~2–10 cm in diameter, and logs, within a silty matrix, however, is incompatible with a fluvial origin.

A complete mammoth skull including tusks can weigh 100–150 kg or more, and a large male woolly mammoth tusk can weigh up to 80 kg.

Large volumes of water moving at high velocity would be needed to move such objects any distance, for which there is no water-related sedimentological evidence, indicating that the partial frozen carcasses have not been transported any distance by fluvial processes.

Dense vegetal cover and low rainfall levels in Alaska have kept slopewash to a minimum, and downslope movements of skeletal remains by creep and solifluction would be limited to the depth of seasonal thawing which is presently <1–2 m in the Fairbanks area.

Impact-related microspherules in Late Pleistocene Alaskan and Yukon “muck” deposits signify recurrent episodes of catastrophic emplacement
J T Hagstrum, R B Firestone, A West, J C Weaver & T E Bunch
Nature – Scientific Reports 7, Article number: 16620 – 2017

https://www.nature.com/articles/s41598-017-16958-2

https://archive.org/details/naturalhistory3016newy/page/232

9) The internal damage found in some specimens.

One of the most remarkable and perplexing aspects of the mucks is their preservation of frozen animal carcasses or mummies.

The vast majority of megafaunal mummies in Beringia were found as partial carcasses, and the most commonly found body parts in Alaska have been isolated limbs of horses, bison, moose, and caribou.

Even the most complete mummies show signs of significant internal damage: the Siberian Berezovka mammoth had a number of broken bones (e.g., pelvis, ribs, foreleg, shoulder blade) and evidence of significant internal bleeding.

Notably, the well-preserved tip of a Steppe Bison’s tail (~22 cm long) was found under the sole of the mammoth’s right forefoot.

The headless Selerikan pony (Siberian) also had broken humeri and ribs, and the Steppe bison “Blue Babe” (Alaskan) had missing and broken bones including a shattered right tibia and broken right mandible.

The nearly undamaged baby mammoth “Lyuba” from Siberia, found in 2007, also had a broken mandible, whereas the baby mammoth “Dima”, found in 1977, showed a small wound on its right wrist and hemorrhaging of its heart muscle.

Impact-related microspherules in Late Pleistocene Alaskan and Yukon “muck” deposits signify recurrent episodes of catastrophic emplacement
J T Hagstrum, R B Firestone, A West, J C Weaver & T E Bunch
Nature – Scientific Reports 7, Article number: 16620 – 2017

https://www.nature.com/articles/s41598-017-16958-2

10) The almost instantaneous death of some specimens.

Full gastrointestinal tracts (e.g., Selerikan pony) and food material between their teeth (e.g., Berezovka mammoth) indicate that death for many of these mummies was “almost instantaneous”.

Impact-related microspherules in Late Pleistocene Alaskan and Yukon “muck” deposits signify recurrent episodes of catastrophic emplacement
J T Hagstrum, R B Firestone, A West, J C Weaver & T E Bunch
Nature – Scientific Reports 7, Article number: 16620 – 2017

https://www.nature.com/articles/s41598-017-16958-2

https://www.sciencehistory.org/distillations/mammoth-undertaking

The 1901 excavation of the “Berezovka mammoth” is the best documented of the early finds. It was discovered at the Siberian Berezovka River, and the Russian authorities financed its excavation. Its head was exposed, and the flesh had been scavenged.

The animal still had grass between its teeth and on the tongue, showing that it had died suddenly.

The entire expedition took 10 months, and the specimen had to be cut to pieces before it could be transported to St. Petersburg. It was identified as a 35- to 40-year-old male, which had died 35,000 years ago.

One of its shoulder blades was broken, which may have happened when it fell into a crevasse.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Woolly_mammoth

https://archive.org/details/naturalhistory3016newy/page/234

11) The impact-related microspherules associated with some specimens.

Large quantities of impact-related microspherules have been found in fine-grained sediments retained within seven out of nine, radiocarbon-dated, Late Pleistocene mammoth (Mammuthus primigenius) and bison (Bison priscus) skull fragments.

The well-preserved fossils were recovered from frozen “muck” deposits (organic-rich silt) exposed within the Fairbanks and Klondike mining districts of Alaska, USA, and the Yukon Territory, Canada.

In addition, elevated platinum abundances were found in sediment analysed from three out of four fossil skulls.

Impact-related microspherules in Late Pleistocene Alaskan and Yukon “muck” deposits signify recurrent episodes of catastrophic emplacement
J T Hagstrum, R B Firestone, A West, J C Weaver & T E Bunch
Nature – Scientific Reports 7, Article number: 16620 – 2017

https://www.nature.com/articles/s41598-017-16958-2

12) 36,000 year old Steppe Bison neck tissue is “tough” but “edible”.

Blue Babe is the 36,000-year-old mummy of a male steppe bison which was discovered north of Fairbanks, Alaska, in July 1979.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Steppe_bison

In 1984, Guthrie and his colleagues were preparing Blue Babe for a display.

A piece of the animal’s neck tissue was cut off, and the researchers decided to make a stew out of it, which they then split amongst themselves.

Apparently, the meat had a strong, earthy aroma, but it was delicious.

It was also remarked that though the meat was tough, it was edible.

Today, Blue Babe, or rather, a plaster model of the bison covered by its tanned and treated skin, is displayed in the University of Alaska’s Museum of the North.

Blue Babe: Would You Eat 36,000-year-old Bison Meat?
Ancient Origins – dhwty – 8 April 2018

https://www.ancient-origins.net/artifacts-other-artifacts/blue-babe-would-you-eat-36000-year-old-bison-meat-009862

Bon Anniversaire, Blue Babe – 4 December 2014
University of Alaska – Museum of the North, Fairbanks

https://www.uaf.edu/museum/press/spotlight/blue-babe/

13) Blue Babe was discovered covered in vivianite – a blue iron phosphate.

Blue Babe‘s own bluish cast was caused by a coating of vivianite, a blue iron phosphate covering much of the specimen.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Steppe_bison

This specimen died about 36,000 years ago and was found during the summer of 1979. It has a bluish color over the entire carcass, caused by the phosphorus in the animal tissue reacting with the iron in the soil to produce a mineral coating of vivianite – which became a brilliant blue when it was exposed to air. Hence the name Blue Babe.

Bernt Rostad from Oslo, Norway
Wikimedia: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Steppe_bison_mummy.jpg

Note
The “Black Earth” covering Roman remains in London contains vivianite.

“Dark Earth”

Crystalline: very few, calcitic coatings: vivianite present:

Amorphous: frequent impregnative ferro-manganiferous nodules: pale yellow-brown possible “organo-phosphate” (includes vivianite crystals):

Soil Report on Rangoon Street, City of London
R. I. Macphail – 1984
Ancient Monuments Laboratory Report 4443

See: https://malagabay.wordpress.com/2016/05/16/black-earth-dark-earth/

Note
Layers of sand and gravel in London contains: vivianite, mammoth, rhinoceros, musk ox, marmot, deer, lion…

The River Thames may be taken as an example of a river-system whose valley shows successive terraces, each with its deposit of gravel and “brickearth” or loam.

a. The First Terrace, up to about 130 feet or more above the present level of the river, occurs notably on Dartford Heath. The gravel contains material derived from Glacial Drift, including Bunter quartzite and Corallian chert with the sponge Rhaxella. This chert is only known in situ near Brill and at Scarborough. Remains of mammoth and flint implements of Chellian and Acheulian types occur.

b. The Second or High Terrace (100 foot Terrace) yields implements of Chellian, Acheulian and possibly Mousterian types, especially at Swanscombe and other places between Dartford and Gravesend in Kent. Associated mollusc: include the extinct Unio Uttoralis, Neritina grateloupiana (with coloar markings) and Valvata antiqua, together with various living species. Animals include Elephas antiquus, E. primigenius (mammoth), rhinoceros, deer, lion, etc.

c. The Third or Middle Terrace (50 foot Terrace) has palaeolithic “floors,” and yields Mousterian implements. This terrace includes the famous brickearth of Ilford and the gravels and brickearth of Crayford. Mollusca include Corbicula fluminalis (now only found living in the Nile), and numerous others – nearly all living. Animals include Elephas antiquus and mammoth, rhinoceros, musk ox, marmot, etc.

d. The Fourth or Low Terrace (10-25 feet above sea-level) embraces the low-lying gravels of Kew, Richmond, etc. Doubtfully assigned to the period of Solutrian and Magdalenian implements.

e. The Buried Channel. Reaches a depth of up to 80 feet below present river-level (Charing Cross).

f. Alluvium (Holocene) consists of clay or silt, shell-marl, peat, sand and gravel, often in alternating layers.

Vivianite (phosphate of iron) is frequent.

An Introduction To Stratigraphy – British Isles
Laurence Dudley Stamp – 1923

See: https://malagabay.wordpress.com/2017/03/15/the-london-levels/

Note
Sand and gravel are not renowned for being rich sources of iron.

But sand grains are often colourfully coated with a thin glaze of iron-rich minerals.

Virtually all sand grains are coated with a thin glaze (varnish) of iron-rich clay minerals; it is this that gives the sand its colour.

Gary Gilligan – Fifty Shades of Sand
See: https://malagabay.wordpress.com/2016/04/26/guest-post-by-gary-gilligan/

It’s an open question whether the iron-rich glaze is sufficient to sustain the formation of vivianite in the granular material of Fairbanks [Alaska] and London [England].

The Cape York iron meteorites are “closely related” to the Willamette meteorite.

See: https://malagabay.wordpress.com/2014/04/12/greenland-the-cape-york-iron-meteorites/

See: https://malagabay.wordpress.com/2014/04/15/deprecating-the-ovifak-iron-meteorites/

14) Frozen muck contains bodies of clear ice.

The CRREL permafrost tunnel was constructed in the early 1960’s by the U.S. Army Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory (CRREL) in order to test mining, tunneling, and construction techniques in permafrost.

The adit (a nearly horizontal passage from the surface into the hillside) was driven by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers using continuous mining methods in the winters of 1963-64, 1964-65, and 1965-66 (Sellmann 1967). … The adit extends approximately 110 m in length and is predominantly located in the frozen silt unit.

Certain sections of the tunnel show bodies of clear ice.

We interpret the clear ice bodies in the CRREL tunnel to be thermokarst-cave ice (Shur et al. 2004, Bray et al. 2006). In North America, this is known colloquially as ‘pool’ ice (Mackay 1997).

The clear ice bodies are lenticular shaped.

Their visible thickness in the tunnel ranges from a few centimeters to about 2 m and their extent beyond the ceiling is not known.

The largest apparent horizontal extent of this type of ice that can be viewed in the tunnel is approximately 7 m.

The alternative interpretation, that these clear ice bodies are buried surface, or pond, ice (Sellmann 1967, Hamilton et al. 1988), is not supported by the cryostructures present in the tunnel.

Late-Pleistocene Syngenetic Permafrost in The CRREL Permafrost Tunnel, Fox, Alaska
M Z Kanevskiy, H M French, and Y L Shur (eds)
Guidebook to Permafrost and Quaternary Geology of The Fairbanks Area, Alaska
Edited by D.S.P. Stevens – Alaska Department of Natural Resources – 2008

https://uspermafrost.org/meetings/nicop/pdfs/local_guidebook.pdf

Thermokarst is a land surface characterised by very irregular surfaces of marshy hollows and small hummocks formed as ice-rich permafrost thaws, that occurs in Arctic areas, and on a smaller scale in mountainous areas such as the Himalayas and the Swiss Alps.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thermokarst

Note
The northern hemisphere granular material narrative would be significantly undermined if the thermokarst hollows were mainly maars created by volcanic activity or formation friction [caused by geological movement]

The Seward Peninsula has several distinct geologic features.

The Devil Mountain Lakes on the northern portion of the peninsula are the largest maar lakes in the world. They were formed over 21,000 years ago as the result of an underground steam explosion. The Killeak Lakes and White Fish Lake are also volcanic maar lakes of notable size on the northern Seward Peninsula.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Seward_Peninsula

A maar is a broad, low-relief volcanic crater caused by a phreatomagmatic eruption (an explosion which occurs when groundwater comes into contact with hot lava or magma).

Their large size is due to the explosive reaction that occurs when magma comes into contact with permafrost.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Maar

15) The observations of Frank Hibben are discussed in subsequent posts.

Frank Cumming Hibben (1910 – 2002) was a well-known archaeologist whose research focused on the U.S. Southwest.

As a professor at the University of New Mexico (UNM) and writer of popular books and articles, he inspired many people to study archaeology.

He was also controversial, being suspected of scientific fraud during his studies of Paleo-Indian cultures. [citation needed]

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Frank_Hibben

At this point in the narrative it’s abundantly clear it’s a bad idea leaving the interpretation of this body of evidence solely in the hands of the gradualist wise monkeys in academia

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10 Responses to Alaskan Muck: Body of Evidence

  1. There is ample evidence for tsunami sweeping across continents.

    However, have you considered that the temporary loss of atmosphere would have had a chilling effect?

  2. Sheila Hendry says:

    That was an excellent read.

  3. malagabay says:

    ”the temporary loss of atmosphere would have had a chilling effect?”

    It’s not a line of enquiry I’m actively pursuing because I’ve haven’t [as yet] encountered any evidence that points me in that direction. It’s a possibility that lurks in the background.

    “Temporary” solutions are a great way to get lost in the weeds:
    1) What happens during the excursion from normal?
    2) What happens during the return to normal?
    3) What is the net effect of 1) and 2) over time?

    “Transport” solutions are a simple way to effect a change of state:
    1) “Normal” conditions apply at the point of departure.
    2) “Normal” conditions apply at the point of arrival.
    3) What happens during “transportation” may [or may not] be an unknown.

    I’m a systems man who favours KISS – Keep It Simple Stupid.

    The lowest natural temperature ever directly recorded at ground level on Earth is −89.2 °C (−128.6 °F; 184.0 K) at the Soviet Vostok Station in Antarctica on 21 July, 1983 by ground measurements.

    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lowest_temperature_recorded_on_Earth

  4. Nice. A veritable can of delicious worms, ready for dissecting, should be interesting.
    From a heretic’s point of view, some points to/I ponder.
    1. Dates of frozen animal remains older than 25k years appear to belong to an earlier ice age (25 to 130 kys). This thread I keep as reference for its graphs Link: https://wattsupwiththat.com/2017/08/04/paleoclimate-cycles-are-key-analogs-for-present-day-holocene-warm-period/ see fig 1

    2. An earlier thread here re Mendenhall glacier touched on remains post the YD and provided interesting dates that correlate to particular periods. It was a lead to check on another interesting carcass, that of Otzi the ice-man. To cut short, Otzi suffered the same fate as ‘blue babe’; fast frozen, in a locality where there were flourishing vegetative growths, seems to have had a good mauling but likely not the cause of death (seems fast freezing was), and remained frozen till recent. This paper “Radiocarbon dating of the Iceman Ötzi with accelerator mass spectrometry” by Walter Kutschera gives an interesting date 3230 – 3100bce. A date known for catastrophic events. And – to confound more- it was a period of ‘warming’ according to polar ice cores.

    3. Others before me pointed to 2345bce as a possible abrupt obliquity swing (an idea still anathema to science). There is evidence of other such events before that. Which therefore means it is normal Earth behaviour. The point here is that such events can be the motor that shifts great masses of water – a Sumerian flood – with, not rolling rock, but also floating masses of ice to grind any mammals caught in it; at near zero temp.

    4. A global event would have similar effect at lower latitudes (minus the floating ice masses) but any biological material would have decayed. However Otzi’s expiry date correlates with a thick layer of sapropel in Mediterranean sea bottom sediment, between clay layers. Link: https://melitamegalithic.wordpress.com/2018/04/24/searching-evidence-2/

  5. CW says:

    Nice work, Tim! Factual, fascinating and fun. Of course, the enjoyment is somewhat limited by the central message contained in the evidence: homo sapiens is lucky to be alive. In his “Earth in Upheaval” (pp. 58-59) Velikovsky puts it this way… “It would appear that this agglomeration (of plants and animals) was brought together by a moving force that rushed overland, left in its wake marine sand and deep-water creatures, swept animals and trees from the south to the north, and then, turning from the polar regions back toward the warm regions… Such changes could not have occurred unless the terrestrial globe veered from its path, either because of a disturbance in the speed of rotation or because of a shift in the astronomical or geographical position of the terrestrial axis…” Dr. V identifies this catastrophe with the Venus/Exodus event, which he dates to ca. 1450 BCE.

  6. Yry says:

    The whole series of Glaciers, Muck & Loess galore is captivating
    to say the least!

    As you probably guessed, this has important repercussions for
    north west South America.
    Note: there are active mini-maars along the Darien-Cartagena
    coastline and at least one I know of along the Choco departamento
    Pacific shore. Some have been turned into mud-resorts for tourists.
    Medium hot fluid grey sand is what comes out from them.

    —–

    Coincidentally, a week ago, independent researcher Andrew Hall
    came up with a novel interpretation about the formation of dunes
    and of solid slanted hills involving supersonic winds in Antiquity.

    See: ‘The Storms of Creation’ by Andrew hall June 20, 2019
    https://www.thunderbolts.info/wp/2019/06/20/eye-of-the-storm-part-4-2/

    —–

    ….’Blowing in the wind’ or ‘Air du temps’?

    Thank you Tim.

  7. CW says:

    patoodonnelly wrote: “However, have you considered that the temporary loss of atmosphere would have had a chilling effect?”

    This is an idea worth considering. In Velikovsky’s theory, ice ages were caused by shifts of the poles, which in turn were caused by planetary interactions, accompanied by massive disturbances and dislocations of the atmosphere. Under such cataclysmic conditions a temporary loss of atmosphere, especially in northern latitudes, can’t be ruled out.

    PS There is a typo in my comment of June 26. The sixth line from the bottom should end… “polar regions back toward the warm regions… “

  8. malagabay says:

    Fixed. If the edit is correct then I’ll tidy up this exchange. Tim

  9. Pingback: Alaskan Muck: The Swing State | MalagaBay

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