The character assassination of Frank Hibben masks a Settled Science SNAFU.
There are numerous factors that cause radiocarbon dating problems.
In Wikipedia these factors are spread over [at least] two pages.
There are several other possible sources of error that need to be considered.
There are several other possible sources of error that need to be considered.
But Wikipedia only scratches the surface of the Alaskan muck problems.
1 – Rich Organic Debris Mix
Alaskan muck contains organic debris and carbonized organic fragments.
Radiocarbon results will depend upon the types of object selected for dating.
A mix of object types can spread the dating across thousands of years.
2 – Mammoth Bones
With Alaskan muck it’s difficult to resist focusing upon mammoth bones.
However, selecting bones from a single species doesn’t guarantee an easy life.
A single rhinoceros bone produced radiocarbon dates spread over 7,000 years.
The confounding factors associated with Radiocarbon Dating are clearly illustrated by the 7,000 year date range associated with five samples from a single rhinoceros bone.
3 – Calibration Curve
The next issue confronting mammoth bones is the inexplicable roller coaster radiocarbon calibration curve during the [so called] last glacial period.
Whatever is happening it’s likely linked to Glacial Maximum definitions.
Radiocarbon dating is generally limited to dating samples no more than 50,000 years old, as samples older than that have insufficient 14C to be measurable. Older dates have been obtained by using special sample preparation techniques, large samples, and very long measurement times. These techniques can allow measurement of dates up to 60,000 and in some cases up to 75,000 years before the present.
The Last Glacial Period (LGP) occurred from the end of the Eemian to the end of the Younger Dryas, encompassing the period c. 115,000 – c. 11,700 years ago.
Within the last glacial period the Last Glacial Maximum was approximately 22,000 years ago.
The ice sheets reached their maximum coverage about 26,500 years ago.
In the United Kingdom, a tombola is a form of raffle in which prizes are pre-assigned to winning tickets. Typically numbered raffle tickets are used, with prizes allocated to all those ending in a particular digit (traditionally a five or a zero).
4 – Latitude Effect
The elephant in the room for mammoth bone dating is the latitude effect.
○ Mammoths in the frozen zone were catastrophically transported.
○ Mammoths ranged around the frozen zone perimeter.
Officially, the latitude effect is “close to the limit of detectability in most years”.
Since the earth’s magnetic field varies with latitude, the rate of 14C production changes with latitude, too, but atmospheric mixing is rapid enough that these variations amount to less than 0.5% of the global concentration.
This is close to the limit of detectability in most years, but the effect can be seen clearly in tree rings from years such as 1963, when 14C from nuclear testing rose sharply through the year. The latitudinal variation in 14C was much larger than normal that year, and tree rings from different latitudes show corresponding variations in their 14C content.
The official position is highly dubious given the troposphere depth differences.
Earth’s atmosphere consists of a number of layers that differ in properties such as composition, temperature and pressure. The lowest layer is the troposphere, which extends from the surface to the bottom of the stratosphere. Three quarters of the atmosphere’s mass resides within the troposphere, and is the layer within which the Earth’s terrestrial weather develops. The depth of this layer varies between 17 km at the equator to 7 km at the poles.
Officially, cosmic rays have no significant effect on dating.
14C can also be produced at ground level, primarily by cosmic rays that penetrate the atmosphere as far as the earth’s surface, but also by spontaneous fission of naturally occurring uranium.
These sources of neutrons only produce 14C at a rate of 1 x 10−4 atoms per gram per second, which is not enough to have a significant effect on dating.
Again, this is highly dubious because the flux of solar cosmic rays reaching the surface will depend upon atmospheric depth and the geomagnetic field.
The flux of incoming cosmic rays at the upper atmosphere is dependent on the solar wind, the Earth’s magnetic field, and the energy of the cosmic rays.
In addition, the Earth’s magnetic field acts to deflect cosmic rays from its surface, giving rise to the observation that the flux is apparently dependent on latitude, longitude, and azimuth angle.
But then, sailing from Java to the Netherlands in 1927, Jacob Clay found evidence, later confirmed in many experiments, that cosmic ray intensity increases from the tropics to mid-latitudes, which indicated that the primary cosmic rays are deflected by the geomagnetic field and must therefore be charged particles, not photons.
Overall, the mainstream have been very efficient when it comes to losing low energy Gamma Rays [aka Solar Cosmic Rays] down the back of the sofa.
The Ignored Data
Sadly, the mainstream wilfully ignores the published latitude effect data.
In the context of Alaskan muck and mammoths the Carbon 14 latitude model includes a very distinct reversal curve as it moves up into the Arctic Circle.
In other words:
The latitude model predicts polar problems for radiocarbon dating.
The observational data [which is ignored by the mainstream] clearly indicates that Carbon 14 concentrations are significantly below normal in the Polar Regions whilst there are two very distinct above normal latitudinal bands centred around 30° N and 30° S.
The reality is that Carbon 14 levels display latitudinal variations and are affected by other factors such as biology, altitude, fresh water influxes, temperature and salinity.
The data from the southern hemisphere [return leg] of the R/V Andenes voyage can be used to create a [simple] symmetrical overview of the latitudinal distribution of Carbon 14.
The Lingering Mammoths
Sure enough, the mainstream has an embarrassing polar problem with pockets of mammoths lingering on in improbable places for thousands of years.
And, believe it or not, the lingering data conforms to the latitude model.
57° 11′ N 170° 16′ W
Saint Paul Island is the largest of the Pribilof Islands, a group of four Alaskan volcanic islands located in the Bering Sea between the United States and Russia.
Sediment core samples taken on Saint Paul show that tundra vegetation similar to that found on the island today has been present for at least 9,000 years
Woolly mammoths survived on Saint Paul Island until c. 3,750 BC, which is the most recent survival of North American mammoth populations.
71° 14′ N 179° 25′ W
Wrangel Island is an island in the Arctic Ocean, between the Chukchi Sea and East Siberian Sea. … Woolly mammoths survived there until 2500–2000 BC, the most recent survival of all known mammoth populations.
Isolated from the mainland for 6000 years, about 500 to 1000 mammoths lived on the island at a time.
On 29 May 2013, an expedition of North-Eastern Federal University found the remains of a 10,000-year-old carcass of a female mammoth on Maliy Lyakhovsky Island.
In August 2010, the well-preserved carcass, known as Yuka, of a woolly mammoth (Mammuthus primigenius Blumenbach, 1799) was found along the Oyogos Yar coast approximately 30 kilometers (19 mi) west of the mouth of the Kondratievo River, Siberia (72° 40′ 49.44″ N, 142° 50′ 38.35″) in the region of the Laptev Sea.
The north-facing bluff was composed of loess that forms part of a rich Late Pleistocene fossil-bearing yedoma exposed by coastal erosion.
The yedoma consists of ice-rich silts and silty sand penetrated by large ice wedges, resulting from sedimentation and syngenetic freezing. AMS-dating of a fragment of Yuka’s rib from these deposits yielded a radiocarbon date of 34,300+260/−240 14C (GrA-53289).
“The fragments of muscle tissues, which we’ve found out of the body, have a natural red color of fresh meat. The reason for such preservation is that the lower part of the body was underlying in pure ice, and the upper part was found in the middle of tundra.” Semyon Grigoriev, Head of the expedition.
NEFU scientists have discovered a female mammoth
Andrey Lupanov, NEFU Newsroom – 29 May 2013 – North-Eastern Federal University
Whichever way you look at it:
It’s difficult to take this mammoth monkey business seriously!