Alaskan Muck: The Missing Ice Age

When it comes to Ice Ages the Earth Scientists grabbed the wrong end of the stick [with both hands] and then proceeded to beat themselves [and their acolytes] senseless.

The Devil Makes Work For Idle Hands
Many moons ago, long before academia began it’s fatefully nosedive into the empty swimming pool of the 20th century, the Earth Sciences ignored repeated warnings.

It is a singular and a notable fact, that while most other branches of science have emancipated themselves from the trammels of metaphysical reasoning, the science of geology still remains imprisoned in “a priori” theories.


A Priori (Lat. a, from, prior, prius, that which is before, precedes),
(1) a phrase used popularly of a judgment based on general considerations in the absence of particular evidence; …

The Encyclopaedia Britannica – Volume 2 – 1911

Even Charles Lyell documented a clear Ice Age warning in 1849.

Sir Charles Lyell, in describing the mastodons found in Warren County, New Jersey, says,

“From the clay in the interior, within the ribs, just where the contents of the stomach might naturally have been looked for, several bushels of vegetable matter had been extracted, and Professor Webster, of Harvard College, had the kindness to present me with some of it, which has since been microscopically examined for me in London by Mr. A. Henfrey, of the Geological Survey.

He informs me that it consists of the small twigs of a coniferous tree of the cypress family, and they resemble in structure the young shoots of the white cedar (Thuja Orientalis), still a native of North America, on which, therefore, we may conclude that the mastodon fed.”

A Second Visit to the United States, by Lyell, ii. 363, 364. [1849]

Professor Shaler, speaking of the mastodon, says that it

“fed upon a vegetation not materially different from that now existing in that region” (i.e. the Mississippi valley);

“the fragments of wood which one finds beneath their bones seem to be of the common species of existing trees ; even the reeds and other swamp plants which are imbedded with their remains are apparently the same as those which now spring in the soil.”

Recent Origin of Man, 332.

This completes the evidence of the plants, and it seems to point, as the other evidence does, to the climate of the United States during the Mammoth age, having been temperate and congenial to the growth of a luxuriant vegetation, not unlike in kind to that which still thrives there.

A climate also, as in Europe, more generally uniform all over the continent, with smaller differences between winter and summer, and a greater humidity in the air. That is to say, a less continental and a more insular climate than now exists in the States. The causes of this are perhaps not very hard to seek.

The area round Hudson’s Bay was, in my view, not only under glacial conditions during the Mammoth period, but was also, it would seem, largely submerged, since marine shells are found so frequently in situ in deposits of that age. The presence of a much larger area under water than now exists in the very heart of the continent would have the precise effect of moderating the extremes of climate.

On the other hand, I shall endeavour to show in another volume that the Rocky Mountains have been largely uplifted since the Mammoth age.

This would allow the more genial damp winds from the Pacific to prevail very much more than they do at present, and counteract the effect of a considerable refrigerator in the north-eastern part of the continent. According to the authors of the “Reliquiae Aquitanicae,” there is at present a difference of 10 degrees in favour of the Pacific over the Atlantic coasts of North America.

To sum up the results of my induction.

The country round Hudson’s Bay in the Mammoth age was under glacial conditions and largely submerged, and on these accounts sterile in sub-aerial life.

Apart from this wild and barren area, North America, from the Arctic circle southwards, enjoyed a temperate, equable, and humid climate.

In approaching the glacial area, the mean temperature was doubtless lower than now, without such great extremes, while as the influence of this refrigerator diminished and that of the warm Pacific winds prevailed, it would be higher than now.

The conditions in travelling from Hudson’s Bay to Louisiana being not unlike what would have been met with in Europe in moving from the Baltic to the south of France.

The Mammoth and The Flood – Henry Hoyle Howorth – 1887

This implies Ptolemy’s frozen zone included a shallow Arctic Sea.
This looks like the light brown areas of “thin overburden cover”.


It’s likely the Caspian Northern Outlet closed when Europe collided with Asia as the Atlantic Basin opened – the collision created the Ural Mountains Suture.

The Urals are … unusually highunusually well preserved

Unabashed, the Earth Sciences proceeded to define imaginary Ice Ages in an imaginary void they had hollowed out in their imaginary Earth Chronology.

By the 1920s the British were offering Four in 50,000 years [or thereabouts].

The Americans countered with Three in 1.2 Million years [or thereabouts].

The Wisconsin glaciation extended from approximately 75,000 to 11,000 years ago, between the Sangamonian Stage (known globally as the Eemian stage) and the current interglacial, the Holocene.

The maximum ice extent occurred approximately 25,000–21,000 years ago during the last glacial maximum, also known as the Late Wisconsin in North America.

Two related movements have been termed Wisconsin: Early Wisconsin and Late Wisconsin.

The Early Wisconsin was the bigger of the two and extend farther west and south.
It retreated an unknown distance before halting.
During this period of quiet, the glacial deposits were eroded and weathered.

This first Wisconsin period erased all the Illinoian glacial topography that extended over.

The Late Wisconsin ice sheet extended more towards the west than the earlier movements. This may have been due to changes in the accumulation center of the ice sheet, topographic changes introduced by the Early phase or by pressure changes in the ice mass in the north.

The Illinoian Stage is the name used by Quaternary geologists in North America to designate the period c.191,000 to c.130,000 years ago, during the middle Pleistocene, when sediments comprising the Illinoian Glacial Lobe were deposited.

Since 1986, the Illinoian Stage has been interpreted as consisting of two glaciations, the early Illinoian (Marine Isotope Stage 8) and late Illinoian glaciations (Marine Isotope Stage 6) and the intervening interglacial period (Marine Isotope stage 7).

Eventually, Ice Ages secured a 2½ million year [or thereabouts] block booking.

The Pleistocene (often colloquially referred to as the Ice Age) is the geological epoch which lasted from about 2,588,000 to 11,700 years ago, spanning the world’s most recent period of repeated glaciations.

The number of Ice Ages grew to fill the void.

Unsurprisingly, reconciling imaginary Ice Ages with reality has been tricky.

The Illinoian Stage in North America is not exactly equivalent to the Wolstonian Stage of the British Isles. The Wolstonian stage is equivalent to Marine Isotope stages 6, 7, 8, 9, and 10. and, thus, started about 352,000 years ago and ended 130,000 years ago.

As a result, the Illinoian Stage is only temporally equivalent to either middle and late Wolstonian stage or late Wolstonian stage in the British Isles.

In North America, the term “Wolstonian stage” is not used by geomorphologists and Quaternary geologists to designate glacial deposits and paleosols lying between the Sangamon and Yarmouth soils (paleosols).

The reconciliation process in Alaska has been particularly troublesome.

The oldest glaciations are less amenable to correlation.
The deposits are scanty and generally poorly preserved.
They are found far out from the mountains or at high altitudes, well above the limits of deposits of the presumed Wisconsin glaciations.

These tentative correlations aid in establishing the broad framework of the Quaternary history of both glaciated and unglaciated regions in Alaska.

Multiple Glaciation in Alaska – T L Péwé and others
US Geological Survey Circular 289 – 1953

Because of the difficulty of correlating one isolated area in Alaska with another and the early impossibility of relating Alaskan glacial sequences to the better known glacial sequences of the north-central United States and western Europe, provincial names were given to many local Alaskan glacial chronologies established during the late 1940’s and the 1950’s.

Quaternary Geology of Alaska – T L Péwé – 1975
U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 835

Alaska is troublesome because it wasn’t overwhelmed by imaginary ice in the imaginary Ice Ages in the imaginary 2½ million year gap in the imaginary Earth Chronology.

Glaciers have covered about 50 percent of the present area of Alaska at one time or another, but large areas in central and northern Alaska have never been glaciated.

Quaternary Geology of Alaska – T L Péwé – 1975
U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 835

Imagine that!

Ice Age glaciers were in the mountains of Alaska – just like today!


The Devil Is In The Detail
In Alaska the Ice Age climate wasn’t measurably different from today.

Frank Hibben picked up on this piffling point in 1941.

Not the least interesting aspect of the muck deposits is the vegetal material contained therein. It is remarkable to note that all plant species excepting two from the mucks are found in the region today among existing forms.

There is no floral nor, indeed, faunal evidence to indicate that the Alaskan climate of the Yukon region differed measurably in the Pleistocene from that of today.

Archaeological Aspects of the Alaska Muck Deposits
Frank Hibben
New Mexico Anthropologist – Volume 5 – Issue 4 – Article 2 – 1941

He popularised this mere trifle in 1946.

In the Alaskan mucks, on several occasions, stomachs of frozen mammoth have come to light. These stomachs have been preserved by the same flux of freezing and eternal refrigeration that has saved skin, tendons, and even flesh, here and there, in these fascinating deposits. These stomach masses, eternally frozen, since the original unfortunate animal ate his last meal and passed away in those regions, yet contain leaves and grass that the animal consumed.

These remains, even though partly digested so many thousands of years ago, show the kinds of bushes and trees that the mammoth ate in his prime.

Surprisingly enough, the remains show the leaves of alder, birch, and willow, exactly the same trees that grow in Alaska today.

The climate, then, certainly differed little, if any, from the climate of the present time.

The Lost Americans – Frank C Hibben – 1946

Even the safe hands of Troy Péwé couldn’t find the frosty fingers of an Ice Age.

A comparison of snowline maps of the present and Wisconsinan time for Alaska reveals quite strikingly the similarity of pattern of the isolines and of wind and moisture sources during these two times.

Quaternary Geology of Alaska – T L Péwé – 1975
U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 835

The most he could muster was summers “probably” being cooler and cloudier.

This pattern and the close parallelism of modern and Wisconsinan snow lines strongly suggests that there probably was no increase in precipitation to produce Wisconsinan glaciers, but rather that glaciation probably was caused by a decrease in mean summer temperatures and increase in summer cloudiness which resulted in decreased snow and ice ablation.

Quaternary Geology of Alaska – T L Péwé – 1975
U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 835

As a distraction the Earth Scientists have been taking big strides locating mammoth steppe which are claimed to be ideal habitats for [resurrected from extinction] mammoths.

In 1982, the scientist R. Dale Guthrie coined the term “mammoth steppe” for this paleoregion.

Ubsunur Hollow Biosphere Reserve located on the border of Mongolia and the Republic of Tuva is one of the last remnants of the mammoth steppe.

50° 10′ N 93° 50′ E

49° 18′ 28″ N 87° 35′ 41″ E

Ukok Plateau is a remote and pristine grasslands area located in the heart of southwestern Siberia, the Altai Mountains region of Russia near the borders with China, Kazakhstan and Mongolia.

The present-day eastern Altai-Sayan region areas of Ukok-Sailiugem could be considered the closest analogy to the ancient mammoth steppe environment.

However, these ideal “mammoth steppe” habitats:

1) Don’t provide a diet of alder, birch, and willow.
2) Don’t provide substitute bushes and trees to eat.
3) Don’t include any locations in Alaska.

These remains, even though partly digested so many thousands of years ago, show the kinds of bushes and trees that the mammoth ate in his prime.

Surprisingly enough, the remains show the leaves of alder, birch, and willow, exactly the same trees that grow in Alaska today.

The Lost Americans – Frank C Hibben – 1946

Imagine that!

Depriving imaginary [resurrected] mammoth’s of their staple diet.

It’s not exactly in short supply in Alaska!

Alder and willow shrublands included in this review occur throughout Alaska and include communities where alder and/or willow are dominant or codominant in late succession. They occur on flat to steep slopes at low to high elevations. Soils are wet or mesic and range from mineral to peat.

Fire Regimes of Alaskan Alder and Willow Shrublands
Robin J Innes – 2015 – Fire Effects Information System
US Department of Agriculture, Forest Service
Rocky Mountain Research Station
Missoula Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer)

What Do Elephants Eat? – Travel For Wildlife – YouTube

And it’s not exactly unobtainable outside Alaska!

Taiga, languages), generally referred to in North America as boreal forest or snow forest, is a biome characterized by coniferous forests consisting mostly of pines, spruces, and larches. … Taigas also have some small-leaved deciduous trees like birch, alder, willow, and poplar; mostly in areas escaping the most extreme winter cold.

Imagine that!

Earth Scientists with over active imaginations.

○ Alaska’s snow and ice wasn’t different in the Ice Age.
○ Alaska’s climate wasn’t different in the Ice Age.
○ Alaska’s vegetation wasn’t different in the Ice Age.

The only significant differences between Then and Now are found amongst the fragmented flora and fauna in the frozen Alaskan muck.

Clearly something chillingly catastrophic happened between Then and Now

Sadly, but unsurprisingly, the official dating of Then is also imaginary.

Investigating the mud-slinging aimed at Frank Hibben following the 1978 radiocarbon dating of the Chinitna Bay site where he found mammoth bones in 1943 reveals a spectacular Settled Science SNAFU.


Perhaps there’s another way to discover when Then was…

This entry was posted in Alaskan Muck, Books, Catastrophism, Geology, Glaciology, History, Radiocarbon Dating, Science, Uniformitarianism. Bookmark the permalink.

3 Responses to Alaskan Muck: The Missing Ice Age

  1. Sheila Hendry says:

    === Malagabay Edit ===

    Viable Nematodes from Late Pleistocene Permafrost of the Kolyma River Lowland
    A V Shatilovich, A V Tchesunov, T V Neretina, I P Grabarnik, S V Gubin, T A Vishnivetskaya, T C Onstott, E M Rivkina
    Doklady Biological Sciences – May 2018, Volume 480, Issue 1, pp 100–102

  2. Quote: “the science of geology still remains imprisoned in “a priori” theories.” One will do well to add Astronomy to geology. The two work hand-in-hand.

    Astronomy has for long refused to consider the possibility that Dodwell was right and that it had been ‘led down the garden path’ without ever questioning the dogma. Events such as Dodwell perceived would go a long way to explain a large host of what are considered anomalies, some as indicated in this particular thread.

    Eg. “the Rocky Mountains have been largely uplifted since the Mammoth age.”. The find place of the Ice-man exhibits the same anomaly. Except that the latter, from a chronological point of view, can be correlated to a number of other indicators of ‘non-uniformitarian’ events.

    This one I like; “The Devil Makes Work For Idle Hands”. He makes them persist in their errors.

  3. Pingback: Alaskan Muck: When Then Was | MalagaBay

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