Alaskan Muck: Anaximander’s Cake

It’s a delicious irony to discover Domestic Science reveals more about the inner workings of our planet than the medieval mindset of the self-proclaimed Earth Sciences.

The Inferno tells the journey of Dante through Hell, guided by the ancient Roman poet Virgil.

In the poem, Hell is depicted as nine concentric circles of torment located within the Earth; it is the “realm … of those who have rejected spiritual values by yielding to bestial appetites or violence, or by perverting their human intellect to fraud or malice against their fellowmen”.

The 21st century Earth Scientists have a problem with their medieval mysticism that defines nine concentric circles of Hell within the Earth.


The Two Dimensional Earth
At first sight 2D imagery suggests the opening of the Arctic Ocean Basin involved the sliding away and stretching out of the North American landmass.


But it’s likely these first 2D impressions aren’t the whole 3D story.

Mapping 3D objects in 2D involves technical acumen and artistic integrity.

When you can’t see the entire object then mapping also involves imagination.

Anaximander imagined the Earth as a cylinder whose height was one third it’s diameter.

The geometrical turn of mind confronts us with equal distinctness in Anaximander‘s description of the earth, as a cylinder whose altitude is one third the diameter of its base … the idea is perfectly expressed by a comparison of the earth to the stocky, rounded stones of which a Greek column is composed.

Anaximander and The Origins of Greek Cosmology – Charles H Kahn – 1960

Anaximander (c. 610 – c. 546 BC), was a pre-Socratic Greek philosopher who lived in Miletus, a city of Ionia (in modern-day Turkey).

It’s believed Anaximander produced “some kind of geographical map”.

Anaximander … taught, if he did not discover, the obliquity of the ecliptic, is said to have introduced into Greece the gnomon (for determining the solstices) and the sundial, and to have invented some kind of geographical map.

1911 Encyclopædia Britannica – Volume 1 – Anaximander

Both Strabo and Agathemerus (later Greek geographers) claim that, according to the geographer Eratosthenes, Anaximander was the first to publish a map of the world. The map probably inspired the Greek historian Hecataeus of Miletus to draw a more accurate version.

It’s claimed nothing remains of Anaximander’s “geographical map”.

Anaximander … Little of his life and work is known today. According to available historical documents, he is the first philosopher known to have written down his studies, although only one fragment of his work remains.

It’s said there is no description of Anaximander’s cylindrical chart.

We have no description of Anaximander’s chart as such, but F. Jacoby has shown that the geographical ideas which Herodotus ascribes to the “lonians” are essentially those of Hecataeus of Miletus, and he has rightly pointed out that the general lines of Hecataeus’ view must already have been those of Anaximander.

Anaximander and The Origins of Greek Cosmology – Charles H Kahn – 1960

This hasn’t hindered imaginative reconstructions of Anaximander’s cylindrical chart.

But, more significantly, Ptolemy’s map of the world is a cylindrical chart that [officially] arrived in Europe 1,952 years after Anaximander’s death.

Claudius Ptolemy (c. AD 100 – c. 170) was a mathematician, astronomer, geographer and astrologer.

The Geography, also known by its Latin names as the Geographia and the Cosmographia, is a gazetteer, an atlas, and a treatise on cartography, compiling the geographical knowledge of the 2nd-century Roman Empire.

Originally written by Claudius Ptolemy in Greek at Alexandria around AD 150, the work was a revision of a now-lost atlas by Marinus of Tyre using additional Roman and Persian gazetteers and new principles. Its translation into Arabic in the 9th century and Latin in 1406 was highly influential on the geographical knowledge and cartographic traditions of the medieval Caliphate and Renaissance Europe.

Ptolemy was aware that Europe knew only about a quarter of the globe.

Ptolemy‘s great work became known in western Europe after Jacobus Angelus de Scarparia had translated it into Latin in 1410.

1911 Encyclopædia Britannica, Volume 17 – Map

The middle ages saw geographical knowledge die out in Christendom, although it retained, through the Arabic translations of Ptolemy, a certain vitality in Islam.

The journey of Marco Polo, the increasing trade to the East and the voyages of the Arabs in the Indian Ocean prepared the way for the reacceptance of Ptolemy’s ideas when the sealed books of the Greek original were translated into Latin by Angelus in 1410.

The gap between Anaximander’s cylindrical map of [say] 546 BC and Ptolemy’s cylindrical map arriving in Europe in 1406 AD reinforces the view the mainstream have inserted [more than] 1,200 phantom years into the historical narrative.

Furthermore, if their time wasn’t quite so precious they would also discover that by using “difficult and controversial” techniques to enthusiastically extend their Romano-British concrete chronologies from 434 BC to 315 AD they have created [over] 1,200 phantom years.



The Three Dimensional Earth
Reverse engineering Anaximander’s Earth “whose altitude is one third the diameter” into a 3D object has inspired several earth is like an egg interpretations.

It is said that a great number of the maps of the world, at the period of Bede, followed this idea, although the necessity was perceived that the great earth-egg should not be left without some kind of support.

The Inflating Earth
If the Earth was once “like an egg” with an “altitude” of “one third the diameter” Then there should be some evidence of the Earth’s inflationary evolution.

This map of Eratosthenes, notwithstanding its many errors, such as the assumed connexion of the Caspian with a northern ocean and the supposition that Carthage, Sicily and Rome lay on the same meridian, enjoyed a high reputation in his day.

1911 Encyclopædia Britannica – Volume 17 – Map

Supporting Evidence #1
The Earth is not a perfect sphere and is still “flattened at the poles”.

The shape of Earth is approximately oblate spheroidal.

Due to rotation, the Earth is flattened at the poles and bulging around the equator.

The diameter of the Earth at the equator is 43 kilometres (27 mi) larger than the pole-to-pole diameter.

Supporting Evidence #2
Historical records show “both al-Idrisi and the Norse tend to understate distances”.

To meet this requirement Edrisi, an Arabian geographer of the eleventh century, broached the idea that the earth is like an egg, with one-half plunged in water.

According to him, the known world forms only a single half of the egg, which floats in the great ocean like an egg in a basin. This notion got currency with artists and map-makers, and continued, it is said, as a mode of representing the earth for many centuries.

How the Earth was Regarded in Old Times – Camille Flammarion
Popular Science Monthly – Volume 10 – March 1877

Abu Abdullah Muhammad al-Idrisi al-Qurtubi al-Hasani as-Sabti, or simply al-Idrisi (1100 – 1165), was an Arab Muslim geographer, cartographer and Egyptologist who lived in Palermo, Sicily at the court of King Roger II. Muhammed al-Idrisi was born in Ceuta then belonging to the Moroccan Almoravids.

Al-Idrisi in his famous Tabula Rogeriana mentioned Irlandah-al-Kabirah (Great Ireland).

According to him, “from the extremity of Iceland to that of Great Ireland,” the sailing time was “one day.”

Although historians note that both al-Idrisi and the Norse tend to understate distances, the only location this reference is thought to have possibly pointed to, must likely have been in Greenland.

The maps of al-Idrisi are disorientating because South is placed at the top.

Al-Idrisi maps align the stronger Southern magnetic pole with the top of the page.

However, the circular format really makes the terms top and bottom redundant and suggests the maps where created and used with a magnetic compass.

The Chinese compasses used red to point towards the stronger South pole and black towards the weaker North pole.

The Chinese colour coding suggests:

○ Ptolemy’s frozen zone was permanently tilted away from the Sun.
○ Ptolemy’s burning zone was permanently tilted towards the Sun.

○ China held the centre [or home] ground – traditionally yellow.

○ The blue Pacific Ocean is to the East of China.
○ The white snow of the Himalayas is to the West of China.

This, in turn, raises the possibility that [for unknown reasons] the Earth’s southern pole was permanently tilted towards the Sun in the turbulent period between the Heinsohn Horizon and the Hecker Horizon.

Either way:

When the West adopted the Chinese compass they got everything back-to-front and decided to use red for North and black for South.

Whether this standardisation was by accident or design we’ll probably never know.


Supporting Evidence #3
It’s reported the circumference of the Earth has increased by 20% since 114 AD.

Marinus of Tyre (c. AD 70–130) was a Greek or Hellenized, possibly Phoenician, geographer, cartographer and mathematician, who founded mathematical geography and provided the underpinnings of Claudius Ptolemy’s influential Geography.

Ptolemy mentions several revisions of Marinus’s geographical work, which is often dated to AD 114 although this is uncertain.

Marinus estimated a length of 180,000 stadia for the equator, roughly corresponding to a circumference of the Earth of 33,300 km, about 17% less than the actual value.

Circumference 40,075.017 km equatorial

The inflation of the Earth [and associated landmass movements] reduced the degrees between the original 1st Meridian to Xi’an [aka Si-ngan-fu aka Sera] in China from 225° to 126°.

He was thus led to assume that the distance from the first meridian drawn through the Fortunate islands to Sera (mod. Si-ngan-fu), the capital of China, was equal to 225°, which Ptolemy reduced to 177°, but which in reality only amount to 126°.

1911 Encyclopædia Britannica – Volume 17 – Map

Xi’an is the capital of Shaanxi Province, China. A sub-provincial city on the Guanzhong Plain in northwestern China, it is one of the oldest cities in China, and the oldest of the Four Great Ancient Capitals, having held the position under several of the most important dynasties in Chinese history, including Western Zhou, Qin, Western Han, Sui, and Tang. Xi’an is the starting point of the Silk Road and home to the Terracotta Army of Emperor Qin Shi Huang.

Jesuit missionaries recorded its name as “Si-ngan” or “Si-ngan-fou” from its status as the seat of a prefecture.

Supporting Evidence #4
The cartographic evidence clearly shows the Arctic Circle moving North and Iceland going South as the Earth inflated between 1606 and 1906.

And [overall] the cartographic evidence suggests Iceland went south by [about] one and a half degrees between 1606 and 1906.


Supporting Evidence #5
The cartographic evidence clearly shows an Arc Route between Norway and Iceland grew from 21º to 25º of longitude as the Earth inflated between 1606 and 2007.


Supporting Evidence #6
Comparing the “Dulceti” chart with a modern map provides a very good overview of how Western European landmass has been stretched, shaped and swivelled by the inflating Earth since 1339.

1911 Encyclopædia Britannica – Volume 17 – Map

Angelino Dulcert (fl. 1339), probably also the same person known as Angelino de Dalorto (fl. 1320s), and whose real name was probably Angelino de Dulceto or Dulceti[2] or possibly Angelí Dolcet, was an Italian-Majorcan cartographer.

He is responsible for two notable 14th-century portolan charts, the “Dalorto” chart of 1325 and the “Dulcert” chart of 1339.

Portolan or portulan charts are ancient nautical charts, first made in the 13th century in the Mediterranean basin and later expanded to include other regions, which have been noted for their high cartographic accuracy.

Supporting Evidence #7
The cartographic evidence suggests the Southern Oceans expanded dramatically during the 2nd half of the 2nd millennium.


Supporting Evidence #8
The bathymetry of the Arctic Ocean provides very clear evidence that the Earth’s Crust cracked open as the Earth inflated beneath the surface landmasses.


Plotting the height [converted to metres] of the Greenland West Coast raised beaches [that are deemed to be of “marine origin”] clearly illustrates the points made by the Encyclopædia Britannica early in the 20th century.

Furthermore, the plot clearly indicates that Greenland has tilted fairly uniformly [over a distance of about 1,000 kilometres] between 63º 14’ N and 72° 20’ N.

The linear trend line strongly suggests that bedrock is very inflexible [it is far more likely to fracture than bend – just like surface rocks] and that the bedrock of Greenland is fractured at some point [or points] between 60º N and 63º 14’ N.


Supporting Evidence #9
The Afar Triple Junction suggests the Earth’s inflationary history involves periods of cooling and contraction and subsequent phases of heating and inflation.


Independent observers having problems swallowing this burial and resurrection narrative promoted by the Ecclesiastical Scientists might like to consider forgotten friction.


Vladimir Larin [1993] introduced a “whole spectrum of notions as to possible energy sources for magma generation” based upon exothermic processes within the Earth.


And in 2005 Gilat and Vol focussed upon the “intense energy release” of “H- and He-compounds” as they trickle up from the core and bore through a “solid mantle”.


As always, readers should review the evidence and draw their own conclusions.

My personal takeaway is to enjoy our planet while it’s degassing.

It won’t be degassing forever.

This entry was posted in Alaskan Muck, Catastrophism, Deranged Dating, Earth, Geology, Geomagnetism, Hecker Horizon, Heinsohn Horizon, History, Old Japanese Cedar Tree, Radiocarbon Dating, Science, Solar System, Uniformitarianism. Bookmark the permalink.

23 Responses to Alaskan Muck: Anaximander’s Cake

  1. Yry says:

    Mapwise, it’s Xmas time for me! Great compilation, thank you Tim.

    The Arabs, Persians and India must have maps & scripts by the tons to this day yet (if ever?) undivulged.
    But you are surely making up for this abyss.

    The photo concerning the various forms of map-making by Edward Ayearst Reeves is an eye opener!


    Your reasoning about the incidence of the Chinese colour coding is as extraordinary as it is simple!

    Quoting you in:
    “possibility that [for unknown reasons] the Earth’s southern pole was permanently tilted towards the
    Sun in the turbulent period between the Heinsohn Horizon and the Hecker Horizon.”

    ===> Which Sun actually? Although I’ve done a lot of research on this, I still can’t peg our definitive
    change (Saturn to our current Sun) to one period of say 2 centuries (give or take one century).

    ===> Was this permanent tilt an Axis Mundi or an approximation to it in your mind?


    Having worked about 200 miles away from Xi’an, at Tai Yuan, isn’t it curious that there in that region
    you’ll find the finest “natural” white dust from which they make renown porcelain artifacts and that
    you’ll also find massive deposits of coal under under layers of this dust?

    Fascinating work, thank you Tim.

    Off Topic

    @ daveyoung52 regarding your comment in “alaskan-muck-when-then-was”

    ===> I have never been to Peru. However, I had a look at J Demolder’s photos of the geology there
    and it seems to me that the “vaporization” process was harsher and more instant than that of
    Colombia’s atlantic coastline.
    In Peru, it could have been a question of tens of minutes, perhaps repeatedly over weeks,
    involving big size thunderbolts.
    In Colombia, it must have taken from one to 2 or 3 days, again repeatedly over some weeks
    involving zillions of micro & macro electric filaments looking like clouds from afar.
    Think of the Tazer gun!

    As for the amount of people inhabiting Peru then, I’ve no idea.

    Try this website:
    Cheers, Yry.

    • malagabay says:

      ===> Was this permanent tilt an Axis Mundi or an approximation to it in your mind?


      I was just thinking about an explanation for the “burning” and “frozen” zones.

      With reference to the Axis Mundi I have a few first impressions:

      ○ Reverse engineering 3D objects from 2D depictions and descriptions is difficult.

      ○ Many of the Axis Mundi depictions have a strong religious spin.

      If the 1847 World Ash imagery has validity

      Then al-Idrisi and the Norse also shared a half an egg view of Earth.

      If the World Ash and Jacob’s Ladder imagery have validity

      Then my initial thought is of a Polar Cusp in [plasma] glow-mode in a more compact Solar System.


      ===> Which Sun actually?

      That’s a question I’m actively working… more later.

      Take care and enjoy!

  2. Yry says:

    Nice instructive pictures and the NASA one as well.
    Thanks for your elaborate comments, gratefully, Yry.

  3. oldbrew says:

    If the Earth was once “like an egg” with an “altitude” of “one third the diameter” Then there should be some evidence of the Earth’s inflationary evolution.

    If the mass of the Earth is constant and the diameter changes, gravity should change too.

  4. Louis Hissink says:

    If the mass is constant and the volume changes, then density changes but not the mass, since that is defined as a constant. Hence gravity cannot change.

  5. oldbrew says:

    Denser rocks (often containing mineral ores) cause higher than normal local gravitational fields on the Earth’s surface. Less dense sedimentary rocks cause the opposite.

  6. oldbrew says:

    New Scientist: Standard models predict a minimum gravitational acceleration of 9.7803 metres per second squared at the equator and 9.8322 m/s2 at the poles.

    The equator is obviously further from the centre of mass than the poles, so distance from the centre matters. Inflation would increase the distance of the surface from the CoM, so some change in gravity would be expected. Or to put it another way, the same total gravity (due to same total mass) would be spread over a greater surface area.

  7. malagabay says:

    Supporting Evidence #8 updated with Greenland West Coast raised beaches graph.

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