Alaskan Muck: Indelicate Details

It’s difficult to draw valid conclusions when indelicate details are omitted.

This is true in the modern era.

Autoerotic asphyxiation remains a probable cause of Jeffrey Epstein’s demise.

The Epstein Autopsy – George Parry – 15 August 2019
The American Spectator

https://spectator.org/the-epstein-autopsy/

Erotic asphyxiation is the intentional restriction of oxygen to the brain for the purposes of sexual arousal.

The term autoerotic asphyxiation is used when the act is done by a person to themselves.

Colloquially, a person engaging in the activity is sometimes called a gasper.

Erotic asphyxiation can lead to accidental death due to asphyxia.

Author George Shuman describes the effect as such,

“When the brain is deprived of oxygen, it induces a lucid, semi-hallucinogenic state called hypoxia. Combined with orgasm, the rush is said to be no less powerful than cocaine, and highly addictive.”

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Erotic_asphyxiation

This is especially true with historical sources.

https://archive.org/details/scottslastexpedi02scotuoft/page/n204

George Murray Levick (1876–1956) was a British Antarctic explorer, naval surgeon and founder of the Public Schools Exploring Society (now the British Exploring Society).

Levick spent the austral summer of 1911–1912 at Cape Adare in the midst of an Adélie penguin rookery.

His notes about the penguins’ sexual habits, which included sexual coercion, sex among males and sex with dead females, were deemed too indecent for publication at the time; So he wrote them in Greek so that only an educated gentleman would be able to read them.

They were rediscovered and published in the journal Polar Record in 2012.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/George_Murray_Levick

Upon his return from Antarctica Levick wrote a then-scandalous pamphlet — in Greek — titled “Sexual Habits of the Adelie Penguin,” in which he accurately described autoeroticism, necrophilia, homosexualitv, and nonprocreative sex among the penguins.

The News at the Ends of the Earth – Hester Blum – 2019
Amazon US: https://www.amazon.com/dp/1478003871
Amazon UK: https://www.amazon.co.uk/dp/1478003871

https://archive.org/details/ScottslastexpedIIScot/page/n150

Worse was to come, however.

During that time, he witnessed males having sex with other males and also with dead females, including several that had died the previous year.

He also saw them sexually coerce females and chicks and occasionally kill them.

‘Sexual depravity’ of penguins that Antarctic scientist dared not reveal
The Guardian – Robin McKie – 9 Jun 2012

https://www.theguardian.com/world/2012/jun/09/sex-depravity-penguins-scott-antarctic

Antarctic Penguins – George Murray Levick – 1914
Project Gutenberg EBook

https://ia802902.us.archive.org/31/items/antarcticpenguin36922gut/36922-h/36922-h.htm

Artefacts programme manager Lizzie Meek discovered the notebook while at Cape Evans last summer when, walking around the grounds observing snow melt, she noticed something in one of the stream beds.

Restored Notebook Goes Home
Radio New Zealand – Shannon Gillies – 21 October 2014

https://www.rnz.co.nz/news/national/257379/restored-notebook-goes-home

The Beresovka Mammoth

In 1908 Richard Lull “supposed” the Beresovka Mammoth fractured a hip and foreleg when it slipped into “a crevasse” before bursting a blood vessel as it frantically fought to escape.

Elephants Contemporary With Man

Aside from the species of elephant now living, at least three extinct types were coeval with mankind, one distinctly American, the mastodon, Mammut americanum, one confined to Europe and Southern Asia, Elephas antiquus, while the third, the hairy mammoth, Elephas primigenius, was common to both, and to northern Asia as well.

Of these the mammoth is without exception the best known of all prehistoric animals, for not only have its bones and teeth been found in immense numbers, but, in several instances, frozen carcasses have been discovered nearly or quite intact, the hair, hide, and even the viscera and muscles wonderfully preserved.

In many instances these were irrevocably lost or were devoured by the dogs and wolves or by the natives themselves.

Two specimens have been preserved, however, and are now in the St. Petersburg Zoological Museum.

Of these one was found in the Lena Delta in Siberia, in 1799, and secured in 1806.

The skeleton with patches of hide adhering to the head and feet may still be seen, but the flesh of the animal was devoured by wolves and bears after being preserved in nature’s cold-storage warehouse for thousands of years.

In 1901 another specimen was found at Beresovka, Siberia, 800 miles west of Bering Strait and 60 miles within the Arctic Circle.

It is supposed that this creature slipped into a crevasse in the ice which may have been covered by vegetation, as in the Malaspina Glacier of Alaska.

That the poor brute died a violent death is certain from the fracture of the hip and one foreleg and the presence of unswallowed grass between the teeth and upon the tongue.

A great mass of clotted blood in the chest tells how suddenly the Reaper overtook it, the creature having burst a blood vessel in its frantic efforts to extricate itself.

Much of the hair had been destroyed when the animal was dug out of the cliff, but the collector, M. O. F. Herz, has preserved a very accurate record of texture and color of the hair on different parts of the body.

This consists of a woolly undercoat, yellowish-brown in color, and an outer bristly coat varying from fawn to dark brown and black.

The hair on the chin and breast must have been at least half a yard in length, and it was also long on the shoulders; that of the back, however, was not preserved.

This interesting relic is mounted in the St. Petersburg Museum, the skin in the attitude in which it was found, while the skeleton is in walking posture beside it.

The Evolution of The Elephant – Richard S Lull
Annual Report of the Board of Regents of the Smithsonian Institution – 1908

https://archive.org/stream/annualreportofbo1908smitfo/annualreportofbo1908smitfo#page/652/mode/1up

In 1935 Innokenty Tolmachoff stated the “erected male genital” of the Beresovka Mammoth “proved” the animal suffocated in mud because this indelicate detail was “inexplicable in any other way”.

https://www.sciencehistory.org/distillations/mammoth-undertaking

Probably the most important discovery of a mammoth was made, in 1900, in Northeastern Siberia, about 200 miles northeast of the small town Sredne-Kolymsk, on the river Beresovca, the right tributary of the Kolyma River.

As usual the discoverer was a native, Lamut S. Tarabukin.

In August, 1900 while hunting for a reindeer he came across a tusk of a mammoth weighing about 166 English pounds.

Looking for another tusk he discovered a well preserved head of a mammoth bearing only one tusk of much smaller dimensions than the first one, about 63 lbs. as it was found later.

As Lamuts believe that the excavation of a mammoth produces sickness, Tarabukin was rather afraid of his discovery, did not touch the carcass, but returned immediately to his camp and told two other Lamuts about the mammoth.

The next day they visited the locality, chopped off the tusk, but did not touch the carcass.

Examining the locality, the Lamuts came to conclusion that the head of the animal had appeared out of the ground during the previous season, i.e. in 1899.

The tusks were later sold to a Russian cossack, Yavlovski, who learned about the mammoth on that occasion from the Lamuts, and persuaded them to show him the locality.

After the discovery had been checked, Yavlovski received from the Lamuts their claim to the mammoth, reported the matter to local authorities and, through their assistance, to the Academy.

The carcass he covered for a while with sand and stones.

The news of this mammoth arrived to St. Petersburg in April, 1901.

It was immediately resolved to send an expedition composed of three people: the leader, a zoologist, O. Herz, a taxidermist, E. Pfizenmayer, and a geologist, D. Selivanov.

16300 rubles were assigned to the Academy from the State treasury for this expedition.

Later this sum was increased by a few thousand rubles, a part of which was given by the Grand Duke Constantine, the President of the Academy at that time, who returned to the Academy his salary of the President to cover some extra expenses of the expedition.

The expedition left St. Petersburg on May 3/16, 1901, in June arrived in Yakutsk and immediately left for Sredne-Kolymsk.

During the summer the country is practically impassable, and usually nobody tries to cover the distance, about 1500 miles, between Yakutsk and Sredne-Kolymsk except in winter, when horse and reindeer sledges are used.

During the summer the journey can be made only on horseback, using pack horses for carrying baggage.

The expedition took more than three months to cover these 1500 miles.

The drawbacks and difficulties of such a trip could be appreciated only by one who himself had the misfortune to travel through the same region and under the same conditions.

The geologist of the expedition, a young strong man, but lacking sufficient training, was completely broken down and stopped all work about at the end of the journey, when less than a hundred miles separated him from the mammoth.

A lively description of this journey has been given by Pfizenmayer in his book, often quoted by the writer.

The work of excavation was carried on with great energy and skill and accomplished in a month, between September 11/24 and October 11/24.

Soft parts were treated in the usual way, but great part brought to St. Petersburg frozen and only later prepared for a permanent preservation.

Thanks to the Russian winter it was also possible to bring to St. Petersburg two large pieces of ground ice from the locality and have time, before the warm season, for their examination by the writer.

The mammoth was found in the best imaginable condition and comparatively little spoiled by wild animals.

It has been exhibited in the Zoological Museum of the Academy as a stuffed animal with the skeleton exhibited nearby separately.

The pose given to the specimen corresponds to that in which the animal was found, as if trying with its last strength to go out of some trap into which it had happened to fall.

Perhaps the animal had broken through into a crevice, as thought Herz, or plunged into soft ground, as suggested by the writer, while on its pasture-ground, and died of injuries received (the pelvis, a forefoot and a few ribs were found broken, as well as the indication of a strong hemorrhage) and also of suffocation in mud.

The death by suffocation is proved by the erected male genital, a condition inexplicable in any other way.

However, the carcass was found, not on the very spot where the animal had perished, but within the landslide which, along with the carcass, slid down from the upper border of the high terrace of river Beresovca, these slides caused by the thawing of rock ice underlying the tundra.

The flesh was so fresh and appealing that dogs devoured every piece thrown to them.

Such investigations as those on the histology of stomach tissues were accomplished later with great ease.

The Carcasses of The Mammoth and Rhinoceros Found in The Frozen Ground of Siberia – I. P. Tolmachoff – Transactions of the American Philosophical Society
Volume XXIV – Part II – June 1935

https://archive.org/details/bub_gb_iVsLAAAAIAAJ/page/n37

Wikipedia echoes the suggestion that the Beresovka Mammoth “may have died of asphyxiation” because of this indelicate detail i.e. “its erect penis”.

The 1901 excavation of the “Berezovka mammoth” is the best documented of the early finds. It was discovered at the Siberian Berezovka River (after a dog had noticed its smell), and the Russian authorities financed its excavation. The entire expedition took 10 months, and the specimen had to be cut to pieces before it could be transported to St. Petersburg. Most of the skin on the head as well as the trunk had been scavenged by predators, and most of the internal organs had rotted away. It was identified as a 35- to 40-year-old male, which had died 35,000 years ago. The animal still had grass between its teeth and on the tongue, showing that it had died suddenly. One of its shoulder blades was broken, which may have happened when it fell into a crevasse. It may have died of asphyxiation, as indicated by its erect penis. One third of a replica of the mammoth in the Museum of Zoology of St. Petersburg is covered in skin and hair of the “Berezovka mammoth”.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Woolly_mammoth#Frozen_specimens

However, the Wikipedia entries for “asphyxiation” and “generalized hypoxia” don’t directly associate these conditions with any indelicate detail such as an “erect penis”.

Asphyxia or asphyxiation is a condition of deficient supply of oxygen to the body that arises from abnormal breathing.

An example of asphyxia is choking.

Asphyxia causes generalized hypoxia, which affects primarily the tissues and organs.

There are many circumstances that can induce asphyxia, all of which are characterized by an inability of an individual to acquire sufficient oxygen through breathing for an extended period of time.

Asphyxia can cause coma or death.

In 2015 about 9.8 million cases of unintentional suffocation occurred which resulted in 35,600 deaths.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Asphyxiation

Hypoxia is a condition in which the body or a region of the body is deprived of adequate oxygen supply at the tissue level.

Hypoxia may be classified as either generalized, affecting the whole body, or local, affecting a region of the body.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Generalized_hypoxia

Postmortem Priapism

To get a handle on the connection between “asphyxiation” and an “erect penis” it’s necessary to revisit autoerotic asphyxiation.

Historically, the practice of autoerotic asphyxiation has been documented since the early 17th century. It was first used as a treatment for erectile dysfunction.

The idea for this most likely came from subjects who were executed by hanging.

Observers at public hangings noted that male victims developed an erection, sometimes remaining after death (a death erection), and occasionally ejaculated when being hanged.

Various methods are used to achieve the level of oxygen depletion needed, such as a hanging, suffocation with a plastic bag over the head, self-strangulation such as with a ligature, gas or volatile solvents, chest compression, or some combination of these.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Erotic_asphyxiation

Autoerotic Deaths
A unique subgroup of asphyxial deaths are autoerotic deaths which occur during purposeful attempts to reduce blood flow to the brain by neck compression during masturbation.

Any object which compresses the neck can be used.

Most of the time a towel or some soft object is placed between the ligature and the neck to prevent visible scrapes or bruises.

Handbook for Death Scene Investigators
Jay Dix and Mary Fran Ernst – 1999

https://archive.org/details/Handbook_For_Death_Scene_Investigators/page/n28

The indelicate details associated with autoerotic asphyxiation ultimately points towards postmortem priapisms which [amongst other things] are associated with injuries to the cerebellum, spinal cord and major blood vessels plus “violent death by poisoning”.

A death erection, angel lust, or terminal erection is a post-mortem erection, technically a priapism, observed in the corpses of men who have been executed, particularly by hanging. … Injuries to the cerebellum or spinal cord are often associated with priapism in living patients. … Other causes of death may also result in these effects, including fatal gunshots to the head, damage to major blood vessels, and violent death by poisoning.

A postmortem priapism is an indicator that death was likely swift and violent.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Death_erection

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Priapus

Priapism is a condition in which a penis remains erect for hours in the absence of stimulation or after stimulation has ended.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Priapism

In other words:

The “erect penis” of the Beresovka Mammoth doesn’t definitively demonstrate death was caused by asphyxiation.

Livor Mortis

Another potential line of indelicate inquiry is the colour of the blood.

Because hemoglobin is a darker red when it is not bound to oxygen (deoxyhemoglobin), as opposed to the rich red color that it has when bound to oxygen (oxyhemoglobin), when seen through the skin it has an increased tendency to reflect blue light back to the eye.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Generalized_hypoxia

Blue in the Face
Exhausted from anger, strain, or other great effort.
For example, You can argue until you’re blue in the face, but I refuse to go.

This expression alludes to the bluish skin color resulting from lack of oxygen, which presumably might result from talking until one was breathless.

The Free Dictionary by Farlex
https://idioms.thefreedictionary.com/blue+in+the+face

If the Beresovka Mammoth died of asphyxiation then it’s tempting to expect some mention of a noticeably darker blood colour.

This doesn’t appear to be the case.

The flesh was so fresh and appealing that dogs devoured every piece thrown to them.

Blood, collected in great masses, owing to hemorrhage, was found to be in such a good state of preservation that it could be examined about as easily as the blood of recent animals.

According to Pfizenmayer it was even possible to establish the relationship of blood of the mammoth and the Indian elephant.

Concerning the preservation of blood it is necessary to mention that Neuville and Gautrelet, who examined the blood of the mammoth from the Bolshoi Lyakhov Island in the Museum of Paris, in a nearly similar state of preservation, do not confirm the conclusions of Russian students as to the extremely unaltered character of the blood.

The Carcasses of The Mammoth and Rhinoceros Found in The Frozen Ground of Siberia – I. P. Tolmachoff – Transactions of the American Philosophical Society
Volume XXIV – Part II – June 1935

https://archive.org/details/bub_gb_iVsLAAAAIAAJ/page/n39

However, this is not exactly a surprise because within a couple of hours of death it’s normal to observe discolouration of the body as dark coloured blood begins to settle.

Livor mortis (Latin: livor – “bluish color”, mortis – “of death”), postmortem lividity (Latin: postmortem – “after death”, lividity – “black and blue”), hypostasis (Greek: hypo, meaning “under, beneath”; stasis, meaning “a standing”) or suggillation, is the fourth stage of death and one of the signs of death.

It is a settling of the blood in the lower, or dependent, portion of the body postmortem, causing a purplish red discoloration of the skin.

When the heart stops functioning and is no longer agitating the blood, heavy red blood cells sink through the serum by action of gravity.

The blood travels faster in warmer conditions and slower in colder conditions.

Livor mortis starts in 20–30 minutes, but is usually not observable by the human eye until two hours after death.

The size of the patches increases in the next three to six hours, with maximum lividity occurring between eight and twelve hours after death.

The blood pools into the interstitial tissues of the body.

The intensity of the color depends upon the amount of reduced haemoglobin in the blood.

The discoloration does not occur in the areas of the body that are in contact with the ground or another object, in which capillaries are compressed.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Livor_mortis

The “settling of the blood” in the lower parts of the of the body after death means it’s very easy to jump to the wrong conclusions.

Jumping To Conclusions #1

If the Beresovka Mammoth was originally entombed head-down then it’s possible the “mass of clotted blood in the chest” developed after death as the blood settled.

A great mass of clotted blood in the chest tells how suddenly the Reaper overtook it, the creature having burst a blood vessel in its frantic efforts to extricate itself.

The Evolution of The Elephant – Richard S Lull
Annual Report of the Board of Regents of the Smithsonian Institution – 1908

https://archive.org/stream/annualreportofbo1908smitfo/annualreportofbo1908smitfo#page/652/mode/1up

Jumping To Conclusions #2

It’s demonstrably wrong [see above] to suggest all “woolly mammoths froze so quickly that their blood didn’t have time to coagulate” based upon a single specimen.

In 2013, a female mammoth in pristine condition was found on the Lyakhovsky Islands in Siberia.

Interestingly, when scientists poked at the mammoth’s frozen remains with an ice pick, blood started to flow.

Given that blood starts to coagulate only a few minutes after death, this suggests that the woolly mammoths froze so quickly that their blood didn’t have time to coagulate.

Of Flash Frozen Mammoths and Cosmic Catastrophes
Pierre Lescaudron – 28 July 2017

https://www.sott.net/article/357709-Of-Flash-Frozen-Mammoths-and-Cosmic-Catastrophes

This is particularly true when the [curious] referenced source explicitly states that “in some rare cases of violent murder the blood takes hours to clot”.

The information pertaining to blood clotting after a murder being in the range of 5-15 minutes came from an article I read at the Crime Library, concerning the Lizzie Borden case.

The focus there was on the fact that in the LB case the lack of blood clotting was considered important in the timeline, but apparently in some rare cases of violent murder the blood takes hours to clot (probably due to the body’s response to violence causes a biochemical interference to the blood clotting).

Blood Clotting Timeline: Estimation of Time of Death
JeffHamm 09-01-2011

https://forum.casebook.org/forum/ripper-discussions/victims/elizabeth-stride/6276-blood-clotting-timeline-estimation-of-time-of-death?t=5999

Lizzie Andrew Borden (1860-1927) was an American woman who was the main suspect in the August 4, 1892, axe murders of her father and stepmother in Fall River, Massachusetts.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lizzie_Borden

This is also particularly true when it’s possible the blood [“96.6°F for elephants”] settled into the lower parts of the mammoth’s body after death.

“The fragments of muscle tissues, which we’ve found out of the body, have a natural red color of fresh meat.

The reason for such preservation is that the lower part of the body was underlying in pure ice, and the upper part was found in the middle of tundra.

We found a trunk separately from the body, which is the worst-preserved part, said Semyon Grigoriev, the head of the expedition, the chairman of the Mammoth Museum named after P.A. Lazarev of NEFU Institute of Applied Ecology of the North.

The researchers collected the samples of the animal’s blood in tubes with a special preservative agent.

The blood is very dark, it was found in ice cavities bellow the belly and when we broke these cavities with a poll pick, the blood came running out.

Interestingly, the temperature at the time of excavation was -7 to – 10ºC. It may be assumed that the blood of mammoths had some cryoprotective properties”.

NEFU Scientists Have Discovered A Female Mammoth
Andrey Lupanov, NEFU Newsroom – 29 May 2013 – North-Eastern Federal University

https://www.s-vfu.ru/en/news/detail.php?SECTION_ID=&ELEMENT_ID=12458

Gas Asphyxiation and Gas Poisoning

The colour of the blood introduces a range of possibilities that may suggest [amongst other things] gas asphyxiation or gas poisoning.

In cases where the oxygen is displaced by another molecule, such as carbon monoxide, the skin may appear ‘cherry red’ instead of cyanotic.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Generalized_hypoxia

Livor mortis

Color: the intensity of color depends on the amount of hemoglobin in the blood

Bluish-purple: normal lividity

Greenish-red: hydrogen sulfide (produced in decaying organic matter)

Dark brown: phosphorus poisoning

Brownish-red: poisoning with methemoglobin-forming substances (such as nitrite or aniline)

Pale pink (barely pronounced): blood loss, severe anemia, severe hemorrhage

Cherry red: carbon monoxide poisoning

Bright red: cyanide poisoning

Postmortem skin changes
AMBOSS Prepare and succeed on your medical exams

https://www.amboss.com/us/knowledge/Postmortem_skin_changes

Notable examples of asphyxiant gases are methane, nitrogen, argon, helium, butane and propane. Along with trace gases such as carbon dioxide and ozone, these compose 79% of Earth’s atmosphere.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Asphyxiant_gas

Carbon dioxide (chemical formula CO2) is a colorless gas with a density about 60% higher than that of dry air.

CO2 is an asphyxiant gas … In concentrations up to 1% (10,000 ppm), it will make some people feel drowsy and give the lungs a stuffy feeling. Concentrations of 7% to 10% (70,000 to 100,000 ppm) may cause suffocation, even in the presence of sufficient oxygen, manifesting as dizziness, headache, visual and hearing dysfunction, and unconsciousness within a few minutes to an hour.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Carbon_dioxide

A limnic eruption, also termed a lake overturn, is a rare type of natural disaster in which dissolved carbon dioxide (CO2) suddenly erupts from deep lake waters, forming a gas cloud capable of suffocating wildlife, livestock, and humans.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Limnic_eruption

Lake Nyos is a crater lake in the Northwest Region of Cameroon, located about 315 km (196 mi) northwest of Yaoundé, the capital.

However, on August 21, 1986, a limnic eruption occurred at Lake Nyos, triggering the sudden release of about 100,000–300,000 tons (some sources state as much as 1.6 million tonnes) of CO2.

This gas cloud rose at nearly 100 kilometres per hour (62 mph) and spilled over the northern lip of the lake into a valley running roughly east–west from Cha to Subum.

It then rushed down two valleys branching off to the north, displacing all of the air and suffocating 1,746 people within 25 kilometres (16 mi) of the lake, mostly rural villagers, as well as 3,500 livestock.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lake_Nyos

Hydrogen sulfide is the chemical compound with the formula H2S.
It is a colorless chalcogen hydride gas with the characteristic foul odor of rotten eggs.

It is very poisonous, corrosive, and flammable.

Hydrogen sulfide is often produced from the microbial breakdown of organic matter in the absence of oxygen gas, such as in swamps and sewers; this process is commonly known as anaerobic digestion which is done by sulfate-reducing microorganisms.
H2S also occurs in volcanic gases, natural gas, and in some sources of well water.

Many personal safety gas detectors, such as those used by utility, sewage and petrochemical workers, are set to alarm at as low as 5 to 10 ppm and to go into high alarm at 15 ppm.

Concentrations over 1000 ppm cause immediate collapse with loss of breathing, even after inhalation of a single breath.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hydrogen_sulfide

Methane is a chemical compound with the chemical formula CH4 (one atom of carbon and four atoms of hydrogen)… is the main constituent of natural gas.

Natural occurring methane is found both below ground and under the sea floor, and is formed by both geological and biological processes. The largest reservoir of methane is under the seafloor in the form of methane clathrates.

Methane is nontoxic, yet it is extremely flammable and may form explosive mixtures with air. Methane is also an asphyxiant if the oxygen concentration is reduced to below about 16% by displacement, as most people can tolerate a reduction from 21% to 16% without ill effects. The concentration of methane at which asphyxiation risk becomes significant is much higher than the 5–15% concentration in a flammable or explosive mixture.

Amazing Video of Exploding Under-ice Methane Gas in Siberia – RT

Jumping To Conclusions #3

In the woolly mammoth literature there are numerous examples of woolly minded commentators jumping to conclusions based upon misleading and/or incomplete and/or insufficient evidence.

Commentators frequently claim their flawed assertions are proofs.

Microscopic examination of the skin showed the red blood corpuscles, which was a proof not only of sudden death, but that the death was due to suffocation either by gases or water, evidently the latter in this case.

The Ivory Islands in the Arctic Ocean – Rev D Gath Whitley
Journal of the Transactions of the Victoria Institute – Volume XLII – 1910

https://biblicalstudies.org.uk/pdf/jtvi/1910_035.pdf

The first piece of evidence I would quote is of a singularly direct kind, and we owe it to the experienced skill of Professor Brandt.

Speaking of the famous rhinoceros found on the Wilui by Pallas, he says,

“ On a careful examination of the head of the Rhinoceros Tichorinus from the Wilui, it was further remarkable that the blood-vessels and even the fine capillaries wore seen to be filled with brown coagulated blood, which, in many places still preserved its red colour.”

This is exactly the kind of evidence we look for when we want to know whether an animal has been drowned or suffocated.

Asphyxia is always accompanied by the gorging of the capillaries with blood, and the facts justify at all events a probable inference that this particular rhinoceros was the victim of drowning.

The Mammoth and The Flood – Henry Hoyle Howorth – 1887
https://archive.org/details/in.ernet.dli.2015.220742/page/n216

This is particularly prevalent when commentators arbitrarily decide whether “death was due to suffocation either by gases or water”.

Forensic diagnosis of drowning is considered one of the most difficult in forensic medicine.

External examination and autopsy findings are often non-specific, and the available laboratory tests are often inconclusive or controversial.

A medical diagnosis of death by drowning is generally made after other possible causes of death have been excluded by means of a complete autopsy and toxicology tests.

Indications of drowning are seldom completely unambiguous, and may include bloody froth in the airway, water in the stomach, cerebral oedema and petrous or mastoid haemorrhage.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Drowning#Forensics

The diagnosis of drowning is one of exclusion.

There are no good drowning tests to prove a person drowned and an autopsy is inconclusive.

The body is usually wet or is found in water to make the diagnosis.
There may be injuries from being in the water, such as tears and scrapes of the skin from impacts against boats or bridges.
Occasionally, marine life, more often in salt water, may feed on the skin of the face, especially around the mouth, nose, and ears.
Abrasions may be found on the forehead, knees, and backs of hands from the body scraping against the bottom of the lake or pool.
There may be no external signs of trauma.
Froth in the nose and mouth may be present.
Wrinkling of the skin on the hands and feet is typical.

Handbook for Death Scene Investigators
Jay Dix and Mary Fran Ernst – 1999

https://archive.org/details/Handbook_For_Death_Scene_Investigators/page/n29

Cometary Close Encounters

The woolly mammoth literature contains remarkable references to red blood.

https://archive.org/details/b30513017/page/25

The red blood might be linked to cyanide [cyanogen] and/or carbon monoxide.

Cherry red: carbon monoxide poisoning

Bright red: cyanide poisoning

Postmortem skin changes
AMBOSS Prepare and succeed on your medical exams

https://www.amboss.com/us/knowledge/Postmortem_skin_changes

And cyanide [cyanogen] and/or carbon monoxide might be associated with a Cometary Close Encounter.

A comet’s tail is by far the most extended object in the solar system, spreading out up to as much as 300,000,000 kilometers.

Yet it is not an “object” ; it is luminescent gas, like that of the Northern Lights.

The spectroscope reveals that the luminescent atoms are those of ionized carbon monoxide, CO, and cyanogen, CN.

This is puzzling, because to produce these carbon-compounds and to ionize them requires considerable energy ; we have not yet been able to divine this hidden source of energy.

Design of The Universe – Fritz Kahn – 1954
http://www.jrbooksonline.com/PDF_Books/Design_Of_The_Universe-Fritz_Kahn-1954-377pgs-PHY.pdf

See: https://malagabay.wordpress.com/2017/10/02/the-atomic-comet-the-ionization-enigma/

See: https://malagabay.wordpress.com/2017/09/26/the-atomic-comet-death-in-the-clouds/

A cherry red skin color that changes to dark may be present as the result of increased venous hemoglobin oxygen saturation.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cyanide_poisoning

Cyanogen produces the second-hottest-known natural flame [over 4,525 °C].

See: https://malagabay.wordpress.com/2017/09/29/the-atomic-comet-the-feathered-serpent/

Note: Blood colours such as “cherry red” are subject to interpretation.

The woolly mammoth literature indelicately mentions the “erected male genital”.

The death by suffocation is proved by the erected male genital, a condition inexplicable in any other way.

The Carcasses of The Mammoth and Rhinoceros Found in The Frozen Ground of Siberia – I. P. Tolmachoff – Transactions of the American Philosophical Society
Volume XXIV – Part II – June 1935

https://archive.org/details/bub_gb_iVsLAAAAIAAJ/page/n37

The “erected male genital” might be linked to “violent death by poisoning”.

A death erection, angel lust, or terminal erection is a post-mortem erection, technically a priapism, observed in the corpses of men who have been executed, particularly by hanging. … Other causes of death may also result in these effects, including fatal gunshots to the head, damage to major blood vessels, and violent death by poisoning.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Death_erection

And the poisoning might be associated with a Cometary Close Encounter.

Cyanogen is the chemical compound with the formula (CN)2.

It is a colorless, toxic gas with a pungent odor.

In 1910 a spectroscopic analysis of Halley’s Comet found cyanogen in the comet’s tail, which led to public fear that the Earth would be poisoned as it passed through the tail. Because of the extremely diffuse nature of the tail, there was no effect when the planet passed through it.



Inhalation of 900 ppm over a period of 10 minutes is considered lethal.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cyanogen

If cyanide is inhaled it can cause a coma with seizures, apnea, and cardiac arrest, with death following in a matter of seconds.

At lower doses, loss of consciousness may be preceded by general weakness, giddiness, headaches, vertigo, confusion, and perceived difficulty in breathing.

At the first stages of unconsciousness, breathing is often sufficient or even rapid, although the state of the person progresses towards a deep coma, sometimes accompanied by pulmonary edema, and finally cardiac arrest.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cyanide_poisoning

Carbon monoxide poisoning typically occurs from breathing in carbon monoxide (CO) at excessive levels.

Symptoms are often described as “flu-like” and commonly include headache, dizziness, weakness, vomiting, chest pain, and confusion.

Large exposures can result in loss of consciousness, arrhythmias, seizures, or death.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Carbon_monoxide_poisoning

The classic cherry-red color of the skin is rarely seen in nonfatal cases.

Carbon Monoxide Poisoning: Neurologic Aspects – K K Jain MD – 2016
MedLink Corporation

https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/e7f1/bf60e3ff878c4cf90e6712ff16e541fddc59.pdf

Or it might not.

Either way:

It’s very easy to jump to the wrong catastrophic conclusions

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9 Responses to Alaskan Muck: Indelicate Details

  1. CW says:

    A Malaga Bay bonus installment, so to speak… Arctic indelicacy and Mrs. Patrick Campbell, as well! Mrs. Campbell was not famous for being P.C. She once described a competitor, Norma Shearer, an American actress, as having “…Such pretty little eyes. And so close together, too!”

  2. The lead singer of the Australian band Inxs died in a similar manner to Epstein. The incessant urge to procreate an also be interpreted as the biosphere’s collective adaptation to survive the next extinction event, humans included, (assuming humans are not the zenith of creation but just a hairless monkey).

    Years ago I noticed a chronological association between kimberlite eruptions and biosphere mass extinctions. Kimberlite eruptions are accompanied with massive emission of CO2, so our asphyxiated pachyderms might have died from CO2 inhalation. Given the commonality between phreatomagmatic volcanoes and related eruptives like kimberlite, lamproite and other alkaline variants, globally extensive eruptions would have caused a massive CO2 impulse into the atmosphere. Where did that CO2 go to?

  3. johnm33 says:

    If as the ancients attest the planet stopped spinning the oceans would rush east and poleward. The whole planet would heat up as the rotational energy is expressed as heat, much hotter near the equator. Whilst water itself would not warm hugely the lower the specific heat of a material the more it would heat up, if it had previously been soaked then the water it contained would boil off, [fountains of the deep] since the whole of western Siberia had a shallow sea covering the land beneath would be thoughoughly soaked and thus subject to this effect. Setting aside any chemical reactions which may have been catalysed by the heat this would have an immense cooling effect on that land which as the spin returned would have the effect of instantly cooling the remaing material to temperatures far below freezing. So as the ocean flooded south again it would be flowing over ground cold enough to instantly freeze it, given the salt content it may have been reduced to -25C before the brine was excluded to an extent where it became solid. The further south the ocean flowed the colder the ground would be.
    If mammoths had a shock response similar to ours, on being immersed in cold water then they may well have just hyperventilated themselves to death as they froze. http://www.coldwatersafety.org/ColdShock.html

  4. This is about ‘fast freeze and preservation’ of the mammoth.
    There is an equal curiosity of a similar event that involved a human, namely Otzi the Ice-man. I have been seeking info to find parallels between this post and the Otzi case. What became manifestly evident were the changes over the years, of the opinions between the many investigators. Filter out the many speculative scenarios created mainly by the reporting media, and some by the investigators themselves who may try to fit the evidence into their concept of mundane events of what happened.
    The cause of death and the fast freeze with little or no deterioration to, eg the eyes, remains a mystery. The fast removal of body-heat of a well-lagged body. Liquids do that much better that gases, and can penetrate lagging. Form wiki at https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Brine quote: “. A similar process occurs at high latitudes as seawater freezes resulting in a fluid termed a cryogenic brine.”

    Otzi was at high latitude (when found, but maybe not when he died), and from tech papers, the pollen in his lungs indicated growing plants at that latitude, at time of death. The several indications of date of death from C14, correlates to a geologic upheaval, plus climate upheaval, the Piora oscillation.
    Was Otzi the one who stayed around to tell, even in his death?

  5. Correction above pls sorry. Read ‘Otzi was at high altitude’— and ‘growing plants at that altitude’—

  6. Sheila Hendry says:

    Indelicate, yes …to the point, yes …a page turner, yes. Altogether an excellent read, thank you.

  7. Pingback: Alaskan Muck: Prime Suspects | MalagaBay

  8. A. Dabbler says:

    I have toyed with the possibility of a short high-wind event having occurred, one that was caused by the electro-magnetic effects of an extra-terrestrial event which generated some very high winds spiraling (Coriolis effect) northward due to some of the Earth’s atmosphere being sucked off the Earth from the polar regions during the event, thus drawing northward much rapidly moving air somewhat selectively carrying flora and fauna from more southerly regions, with part of this cargo ultimately being sucked off of the Earth during the event. When the velocity of the air is high enough pigs and mammoths will fly. And suffocate. And if some of the atmosphere is being sucked off the Earth from above the polar region, then due to Bernoulli’s principle (which states that an increase in the speed of a fluid occurs simultaneously with a decrease in pressure) the acceleration of the thinning air moving toward the pole would result in the temperature of this rapidly moving air dropping considerably. Dropping air pressure, high wind speeds and cold air will cause asphyxiation and flash freezing.

    Can the distribution and condition of the mammoth remains in the North, and the composition and flora and fauna contents of the debris and muck and gravel in which the mammoth remains are found, be explained by a short high wind event caused by some of our atmosphere being sucked from the Earth while carrying with it much of the brittle, frozen flora and fauna and inert matter that it carried northward for hundreds and thousands of miles? In such an event the increasing velocity of the air as it moves north, and the mass and inertia and density of the air’s cargo will result in some selection and sorting of the brittle cargo carried north with yet further sorting as the air rises into the exit funnel. During a relatively sudden ending of this extra-terrestrially induced event, when the air velocity suddenly slows, it is the slower, denser, heavier cargo yet to escape the Earth that will be the first to start falling to the ground of the northern latitudes while the lightest cargo continues to escape.

    An even more speculative question asks if a sufficient quantity of the atmosphere might have been sucked off the Earth in this postulated event (or possibly events) that the density and composition of the Earth’s atmosphere changed sufficiently to bring the ages of gigantism to a close, and to necessitate some evolution to adjust life and biomes to an atmosphere changed to one much like we now enjoy.

    The final impulsive speculation of this post is to ask if the La Brea Tar Pits might possibly be explained by an acceleration of the air flow of the Ferrel Cell during this high wind event, with some flora and fauna entering into its high altitude return airflow in the regions where the air flows of the Ferrel and Polar cells meet and rise and divide at altitude so that some flora and fauna got carried back south in the temporarily accelerated high altitude winds of the Ferrel Cell before it was dropped to the surface where the air of the Ferrel Cell met the air of the Hadley Cell and descended to the surface in California.

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