Alaskan Muck: Prime Suspects

In the blame game the prime suspects are usually eliminated [one-by-one] from the investigation until a neatly packaged single actor scenario is revealed such as “Miss Scarlett” in the “Conservatory” with the “Dagger”.

Cluedo, known as Clue in North America, is a murder mystery game for three to six players that was devised by Anthony E. Pratt from Birmingham, England. The game was first manufactured by Waddingtons in the UK in 1949. Since then, it has been relaunched and updated several times, and it is currently owned and published by the American game and toy company Hasbro.

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With modern disasters the blame game is usually straight-forward because there is only one prime suspect.

Exhibit #1 Hurricane Dorian in the Bahamas with a storm surge.

Hurricane Dorian is a strong tropical cyclone currently affecting the East Coast of the United States. The fourth named storm, second hurricane, and first major hurricane of the 2019 Atlantic hurricane season, Dorian developed from a tropical wave on August 24 in the Central Atlantic.

Due to the prolonged and intense storm conditions, including heavy rainfall, high winds, and storm surge, damage in the Bahamas was catastrophic, with thousands of homes destroyed and at least 20 deaths recorded.

The Bahamas, known officially as the Commonwealth of the Bahamas, is a country within the Lucayan Archipelago, in the Caribbean.

A storm surge, storm flood, tidal surge or storm tide is a coastal flood or tsunami-like phenomenon of rising water commonly associated with low pressure weather systems (such as tropical cyclones and strong extratropical cyclones).

Exhibit #2 1935 Labor Day Hurricane in Florida with hurricane force winds.

The National Weather Service estimated 408 deaths from the hurricane. Bodies were recovered as far away as Flamingo and Cape Sable on the southwest tip of the Florida mainland.

A curious aspect of the blame game is that complex multiple actor scenarios are usually banished to the realms of conspiracy theories and detective fiction.

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The elegant train of the 1930s, the Orient Express, is stopped by heavy snowfall, with many passengers. A murder is discovered, and Poirot’s trip home to London from the Middle East is interrupted to solve the murder.

Catastrophic Conspiracy Theories

In the realm of conspiracy theories there is plenty of scope for speculation and tin-foil when it comes to Alaskan Muck.

Exhibit #3

In Earth In Upheaval [1955] Immanuel Velikovsky spectacularly fails to find some pivotal points provided by Frank Hibben [the year before he “entered” Army Air Forces (Intelligence)] and Ernest de Koven Leffingwell.

The total of these evidences indicates the alternate and intermittent periods of violent erosion such as would dismember animal remains and splinter trees, interspersed with other periods of comparative quiescence so as to allow the growth of “forests” and peat bogs in the same area.

Archaeological Aspects of the Alaska Muck Deposits – Frank C Hibben – 1941
New Mexico Anthropologist, Volume 5, Number 4


Age of Ground Ice
In the area studied by the writer an age of 500 to 1,000 years is indicated.

The Canning River Region, Northern Alaska
Ernest de Koven Leffingwell – 1919
United States Geological Survey – Professional Paper 109


These failures [whether by accident or design] have transformed the catastrophism of Immanuel Velikovsky into an exceedingly effective Embrace, Extend, and Extinguish exercise.

Embrace, extend, and extinguish“, (EEE) also known as “embrace, extend, and exterminate”, is a phrase that the U.S. Department of Justice found was used internally by Microsoft to describe its strategy for entering product categories involving widely used standards, extending those standards with proprietary capabilities, and then using those differences to strongly disadvantage its competitors.,_extend,_and_extinguish

Exhibit #4

In 1958 Charles Hapgood [Office of Strategic Services] extended the Alaskan Muck narrative with “deep” frozen mammoths.

Herbert Harris, in an article on Birdseye in Science Digest, writes:

What Birdseye had proved was that the faster a food can be frozen at “deep” temperatures of around minus 40 degrees Fahrenheit, the less chance there is of forming the large ice crystals that tear down cellular walls and tissues leaving gaps through which escape the natural juices, nutriment and flavor (202:3).

202. Harris, Herbert, “The Amazing Frozen Foods Industry.”
Science Digest, v. 29, No. 2 (Feb., 1951).
(Condensed from The Reporter, Oct. 24, 1950.)

It follows, from this analysis of the mechanics of freezing, that the preservation of mammoth meat for thousands of years may be accounted for by normal initial freezing, followed by a sharp fall in temperature.

Whenever the meat was preserved in an edible condition the deep freeze must have been uninterrupted; there must have been no thaws sufficient to bring the temperature near the freezing point.

Earth’s Shifting Crust – Charles H Hapgood – 1958

Charles Hutchins Hapgood (1904-1982) was an American college professor and author who became one of the best known advocates of the pseudoarchaeological claim of a rapid and recent pole shift with catastrophic results.

During World War II, Hapgood was employed by the Office of the Coordinator of Information (COI, which became the Office of Strategic Services in 1942) and the Red Cross, and also served as a liaison officer between the White House and the Office of the Secretary of the War.

The Office of Strategic Services (OSS) was a wartime intelligence agency of the United States during World War II, and a predecessor to the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA).

In 1960 Ivan Sanderson [British Naval Intelligence] embellished the extended narrative of the “deeply frozen” mammoths.

“The flesh of many of the animals found in the muck must have been very rapidly and deeply frozen, for its cells [had] not burst. Frozen-food experts have pointed out that to do this, starting with a healthy, live specimen, you would have to drop the temperature of the air surrounding it to a point well below minus 150 degrees Fahrenheit.”

Ivan T. Sanderson, ‘Riddle of the Frozen Giants’,
Saturday Evening Post, 16 January 1960, p. 82.

Of Flash Frozen Mammoths and Cosmic Catastrophes
Pierre Lescaudron – – 28 Jul 2017

In Ivan T. Sanderson’s 1960 Saturday Evening Post article, “Riddle of the Frozen Giants,” he wrote of his catastrophic astronomical theory to explain the frozen mammoths and frozen wooly rhinos. Sanderson was laughed at for his thoughts. But was he right, after all?

Mammoth Space-Blast: Sanderson Vindicated
Loren Coleman – – 13 Dec 2007

Ivan Terence Sanderson (1911-1973) was a biologist and writer born in Edinburgh, Scotland, who became a naturalized citizen of the United States.

During World War II, Sanderson worked for British Naval Intelligence, in charge of counter-espionage against the Germans in the Caribbean, then for British Security Coordination, finally finishing out the war as a press agent in New York City. Afterwards, Sanderson made New York his home and became a naturalized U.S. citizen. In the 1960s Sanderson lived in Knowlton Township in northwestern New Jersey before moving to Manhattan.

Fun and Frivolous Frolics

Suddenly George let out a shout: “Look out!” and I looked.

Then I let out a shout also and instantly bobbed down under the water, because, coming straight at me only a few feet above the water was a black thing the size of an eagle.

I had only a glimpse of its face, yet that was quite sufficient, for its lower jaw hung open and bore a semicircle of pointed white teeth set about their own width apart from each other.

When I emerged, it was gone. George was facing the other way blazing off his second barrel. I arrived dripping on my rock and we looked at each other.

“Will it come back?” we chorused.

And just before it became too dark to see, it came again, hurtling back down the river, its teeth chattering, the air “shss-shssing” as it was cleft by the great, black, dracula-like wings.

We were both off our guard, my gun was unloaded, and the brute made straight for George.

He ducked. The animal soared over him and was at once swallowed up in the night.

We scrambled back into the river and waded home to camp, where we found a number of local hunters waiting with their catches laid out for sale. They had walked miles from their hunting grounds to do business.

“What kind of a bat is it,” I asked, “that has wings like this (opening my arms) and is all black?”

“Olitiau!” somebody almost screamed, and there was a hurried conference in the Assumbo tongue.

Animal Treasure – Ivan T Sanderson – 1937

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An Olitiau is a gigantic cryptid bat (or flying reptile) hypothesized to exist in Central Africa.

Olitiau are said to have 6–12 ft (2–4 m) wingspans.
Their body is allegedly black, though their wings have been described as either dark brown or red. Their lower jaws are said to contain 2-inch (50 mm) long, serrated teeth with equal spacing between each tooth.

While hunting hammer-headed fruit bats in southern Cameroon, Ivan T. Sanderson claimed that an Olitiau swooped down on him and his hunting companion, Gerald Russell, along a mountain stream in 1932. He called it “the granddaddy of all bats”.

The extended narrative detours obscure the observation that water and wind are all that’s necessary to preserve flora and fauna as frozen food in the Arctic.

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Almanac: The Father of Frozen Food – CBS News – 7 Oct 2012

In Northern Canada the observant Clarence Birdseye noticed:
a) The fish he caught froze almost instantly in the frigid air.
b) When cooked and eaten, even weeks later, they tasted almost fresh.

Clarence Frank Birdseye II (1886-1956) was an American inventor, entrepreneur, and naturalist, and is considered to be the founder of the modern frozen food industry.

These extended narrative detours also obscure the observation that carcasses embedded in sea ice [ice sheets and glaciers] will become “mangled and torn apart”.

Sea ice arises as seawater freezes. Because ice is less dense than water, it floats on the ocean’s surface (as does fresh water ice, which has an even lower density).

99% of Your Molecules are Water




Exhibit #5

Narrative detours deflect from our basic lack of understanding regarding causes of death.

Currently there is just a [growing] list of prime suspects.

For example, plunged into freezing seas, around 20% of victims die within two minutes from cold shock (uncontrolled rapid breathing, and gasping, causing water inhalation, massive increase in blood pressure and cardiac strain leading to cardiac arrest, and panic); another 50% die within 15–30 minutes from cold incapacitation (inability to use or control limbs and hands for swimming or gripping, as the body “protectively” shuts down the peripheral muscles of the limbs to protect its core). Exhaustion and unconsciousness cause drowning, claiming the rest within a similar time.


In 1908 Richard Lull “supposed” the Beresovka Mammoth fractured a hip and foreleg when it slipped into “a crevasse” before bursting a blood vessel as it frantically fought to escape.

In 1935 Innokenty Tolmachoff stated the “erected male genital” of the Beresovka Mammoth “proved” the animal suffocated in mud because this indelicate detail was “inexplicable in any other way”.

This is particularly prevalent when commentators arbitrarily decide whether “death was due to suffocation either by gases or water”.

The “erected male genital” might be linked to “violent death by poisoning”.


Earth Touch News Network – Ian Dickinson – 20 Oct 2017

Cows electrocuted, exploding trees and entire cities shrouded in darkness: Close to 2000 lightning strikes hit New Zealand as brutal storm rolls through North Island

Mail Online – Ben Hill For Daily Mail Australia – 4 Dec 2018

Exhibit #6

Narrative detours also deflect from our basic lack of understanding regarding flora fragmentation and [especially] the snapped tree trunks in the Alaskan Muck.

1) The minute carbonized organic fragments.
2) The rapid burial and fast freezing of specimens.
3) The abundance of shattered plants.


Again, there is just a [growing] list of prime suspects.

The 1958 Lituya Bay earthquake occurred at July 9 at 22:15:58 with a moment magnitude of 7.8 and a maximum Mercalli intensity of XI (Extreme). The strike-slip earthquake took place on the Fairweather Fault and triggered a rockslide of 40 million cubic yards (30 million cubic meters and about 90 million tons) into the narrow inlet of Lituya Bay, Alaska. The impact was heard 50 miles (80 km) away, and the sudden displacement of water resulted in a megatsunami that washed out trees to a maximum elevation of 1,720 feet (520 m) at the entrance of Gilbert Inlet.

Severe weather refers to any dangerous meteorological phenomena with the potential to cause damage, serious social disruption, or loss of human life.


On May 18, 1980, a major volcanic eruption occurred at Mount St. Helens, a volcano located in Skamania County, in the U.S. state of Washington.

Most of St. Helens’ former north side became a rubble deposit 17 miles (27 km) long, averaging 150 feet (46 m) thick; the slide was thickest at one mile (1.6 km) below Spirit Lake and thinnest at its western margin.

The landslide temporarily displaced the waters of Spirit lake to the ridge north of the lake, in a giant wave approximately 600 feet (180 m) high.

This in turn created a 295 feet (90 m) avalanche of debris consisting of the returning waters and thousands of uprooted trees and stumps.

Some of these remained intact with roots, but most had been sheared off at the stump seconds earlier by the blast of super-heated volcanic gas and ash that had immediately followed and overtook the initial landslide.

The debris was transported along with the water as it returned to its basin, raising the surface level of Spirit Lake by about 200 ft (61 m).

More than three decades after the eruption, floating log mats persist on Spirit Lake and nearby St. Helens Lake, changing position with the wind.

The rest of the trees, especially those that were not completely detached from their roots, were turned upright by their own weight and became waterlogged, sinking into the muddy sediments at the bottom where they have become petrified in the anaerobic and mineral-rich waters.

Many explosions recorded in Earth’s atmosphere are likely caused by the air burst that results from a meteor exploding as it hits the thicker part of the atmosphere.

The most powerful recorded air burst is the 1908 Tunguska event.

The Tunguska event was a large explosion that occurred near the Podkamennaya Tunguska River in Yeniseysk Governorate (now Krasnoyarsk Krai), Russia, on the morning of 30 June 1908 (NS). The explosion over the sparsely populated Eastern Siberian Taiga flattened 2,000 square kilometres (770 square miles) of forest, and caused at least three human casualties.

The Mendenhall Glacier in Alaska is retreating.
It’s retreated 2½ miles in about 500 years.
And the retreat is exposing a shattered forest.


Exhibit #7

Detours deflect from the violent oscillations that occurred between 900 and 1400 CE.

#1 There were periods of violent erosion followed by periods of quiescence.

#2 These violent oscillations occurred between 900 and 1400 CE.

The Aleppo Regime history suggests “periods of violent erosion” initially occurred [roughly] every 35 years before drifting out to every 55 years and then every 77 years.


And, once again, there is a growing list of prime suspects.

Prime Suspect #1 Comet Negra

Jean de Venette, or Jean Fillons (c. 1307 – c. 1370) was a French Carmelite friar, from Venette, Oise, who became the Prior of the Carmelite monastery in the Place Maubert, Paris, and was a Provincial Superior of France from 1341 to 1366.

Another comet, still unidentified, was said to appear in August 1348 which Venette himself sees. This comet is referred to by Mike Baillie as “Comet Negra” in his book New Light on the Black Death.

Venette also refers to passages from the Book of Revelations to try to understand and explain the chaos in and around him.

Translated from Latin – subject to interpretation

Hence, in the month of August 1348, appeared a star above Paris, coming from the west, large and very bright, after the hour of vespers [sunset], the sun still shines, close, and nearing to the setting of the sun; and these things there was not a lot of distance, such as the case of the other, independently of our hemisphere are more elevated, and it seemed close enough to the bottom.

And it came to pass, that, on the approach of night, and all that night, the star reappeared, I and many other brothers saw it, it did not seem to move from one place.

Finally, the last night arrived, we were watching very astonished as the star repeatedly became intensely large as many diverse rays scattered ; towards the east of Paris, and towards sunrise it altogether disappeared, and as a result it was entirely annihilated and ceased to be.

Chronique Latine de Guillaume de Nangis – Hercule Geraud – 1843


Prime Suspect #2 Comet Tempel–Tuttle

55P/Tempel–Tuttle (commonly known as Comet Tempel–Tuttle) is a periodic comet with an orbital period of 33 years.

It is the parent body of the Leonid meteor shower.

In 1933, S. Kanda deduced that the comet of 1366 was Tempel–Tuttle, which was confirmed by Joachim Schubart in 1965. On 26 October 1366, the comet passed 0.0229 AU (3,430,000 km; 2,130,000 mi) from Earth.

The orbit of 55P/Tempel–Tuttle intersects that of Earth nearly exactly, hence streams of material ejected from the comet during perihelion passes do not have to spread out over time to encounter Earth.

The Leonids are a prolific meteor shower associated with the comet Tempel–Tuttle, which are also known for their spectacular meteor storms that occur about every 33 years.

Prime Suspect #3 Comet Halley

Halley’s Comet or Comet Halley, officially designated 1P/Halley, is a short-period comet visible from Earth every 75–76 years.

Passed within 10 degrees of the north celestial pole, more northerly than at any time during the past 2000 years. This is the last appearance of the comet for which Oriental records are better than Western ones.



if the cyanogen managed to penetrate the lower atmosphere then there’s the possibility the gas will ignite with the “second-hottest-known natural flame”.


Cyanogen produces the second-hottest-known natural flame (after carbon subnitride) with a temperature of over 4,525 °C (8,177 °F) when it burns in oxygen.

Cucuteni-Trypillian settlements were completely burned every 75–80 years, leaving behind successive layers consisting mostly of large amounts of rubble from the collapsed wattle-and-daub walls.


Secondly, Giotto revealed Comet Halley is more tarball than snowball.


Comets [and burning hydrocarbons] are noted for their characteristic carbon Swan Bands. … Comets are renowned for producing lots of Hydrogen. … Cometary grains are renowned for their ubiquitous “dark polyaromatic hydrocarbons”.


Prime Suspect #4 Cape York Meteorites

The parent body must have been the largest ever to enter our atmosphere and survive in sizable fragments. … The structural examination indicates that the Cape York material has been through a molten stage on a parent planet with a gravity field.

Chemically, it is closely related to Casas Grandes [Mexico – 1,545 kg], Rowton [UK – 3.5 kg], Willamette [Oregon – 14,150 kg], Merceditas [Chile – 42.9 kg] and
Sacramento Mountains [New Mexico – 237.2 kg].

Vagn F. Buchwald – Handbook of Iron Meteorites – 1975



Large quantities of impact-related microspherules have been found in fine-grained sediments retained within seven out of nine, radiocarbon-dated, Late Pleistocene mammoth (Mammuthus primigenius) and bison (Bison priscus) skull fragments.

The well-preserved fossils were recovered from frozen “muck” deposits (organic-rich silt) exposed within the Fairbanks and Klondike mining districts of Alaska, USA, and the Yukon Territory, Canada.

In addition, elevated platinum abundances were found in sediment analysed from three out of four fossil skulls.

Impact-related microspherules in Late Pleistocene Alaskan and Yukon “muck” deposits signify recurrent episodes of catastrophic emplacement
J T Hagstrum, R B Firestone, A West, J C Weaver & T E Bunch
Nature – Scientific Reports 7, Article number: 16620 – 2017


On a journey to track down this mystery I visited Rick Firestone at Berkeley National Laboratories.

Many of the mammoth tusks were peppered with tiny iron particles driven deep into the ivory.

More they were surrounded with nano diamonds, carbon spherules and radioactive (isotopic) beryllium, iridium and other evidence of a devastating and deadly atomic fusillade.

Thunderbolts, Mammoths and Mass Destruction
Peter Mungo Jupp – 5 Nov 2012

Thunderbolts, Mammoths and Mass Destruction

The Willamette Meteorite, officially named Willamette, is an iron-nickel meteorite found in the U.S. state of Oregon. It is the largest meteorite found in North America and the sixth largest in the world. There was no impact crater at the discovery site

Prime Suspect #5 Kreutz Sungrazers

The Kreutz sungrazers are a family of sungrazing comets, characterized by orbits taking them extremely close to the Sun at perihelion.

By far the best candidate for the progenitor comet was that seen in 1106 (Great Comet of 1106): Ikeya–Seki’s derived orbital period gave a previous perihelion almost exactly at the right time, and while the Great Comet of 1882’s derived orbit implied a previous perihelion a few decades later, it would only require a small error in the orbital elements to bring it into agreement.


The important point to remember with these lists of prime suspects is that it’s very unlikely any of them will be reduced to a single actor scenario such as “Comet Venus” in “Solar Orbit” with “Thunderbolts”.

This entry was posted in Alaskan Muck, Astrophysics, Atomic Comet, Books, Catastrophism, Comets, Earth, Electric Universe, Glaciology, Greenland, Hecker Horizon, Heinsohn Horizon, History, Old Japanese Cedar Tree, Uniformitarianism, Vitrified Hill Forts, Water. Bookmark the permalink.

5 Responses to Alaskan Muck: Prime Suspects

  1. Quote ““The flesh of many of the animals found in the muck must have been very rapidly and deeply frozen, for its cells [had] not burst. Frozen-food experts have pointed out that to do this, starting with a healthy, live specimen, you would have to drop the temperature of the air surrounding it to a point well below minus 150 degrees Fahrenheit.”

    1 Polar bears (and well lagged humans) survive North pole temp at -40F. A mammoth can survive too; and it is generating internal heat as long as it is alive.
    2 Air is a thermal insulator.

    A drowned mammoth, soaked thoroughly, with freezing sea water, freezes allover including its wetted coat. Heat transfer to water is more rapid. Very dry freezing air depletes further a frozen body encased in ice ( as per wetted vegetables in arctic air; they have to be wetted – evaporating the water saps the veggies of any heat)
    So the guess is: drowned in freezing sea water, mangled from both Dorian like event plus a seismic topping; and shifted from summer high tilt (prairie cond with buttercups growing) to winter low tilt earth orientation. [ ie earth obliquity shift hi>lo and gyroscopic orientation change; the gyro effect].

    Note: same effect as at Quelccaya glacier that covered rooted growing plants. link
    Note Quelccaya change date to earth tilt as per Dodwell (lo>hi but here it is at the old tropic, near 14deg, ; tilt was near 14.5 measured from ancient calendars; = max abrupt temp drop).

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  3. craigm350 says:


    Mysterious Ice Age structure made from hundreds of mammoth bones discovered in Russia

    (CNN)Around 25,000 years ago, hunter-gatherers used the bones from 60 mammoths to build a large circular structure in Russia.

    And no one knows why.
    Researchers have excavated the site in an attempt to understand it, but they don’t know why the structure was built, according to a new study.
    This isn’t the first “mammoth house” to be found in Russia, but it is the oldest and largest, measuring 41 feet across.
    In the 1960s and ’70s, researchers found similar, smaller buildings at the site, which they dubbed Kostenki 11. It’s 310 miles south of Moscow and now home to a museum, the State Archaeological Museum-Reserve Kostenki.

    In 2014, researchers found evidence of this structure at the site and began excavation in 2015, which took three years. A study detailing their findings published this week in the journal Antiquity

    From the paper which I’ve only parsed but worth a look. Plenty of images:

    The chronology and function of a new circular mammoth-bone structure at Kostenki 11

    Alexander J.E. Pryor (a1), David G. Beresford-Jones (a2), Alexander E. Dudin (a3), Ekaterina M. Ikonnikova (a4) …

    The mammoth-bone circle is large, with a diameter of approximately 12.5m and is positioned on an east-facing slope with an incline of approximately six degrees. The bones form a continuous circle that has no obvious entrance. A large area of combustion deposits was discovered in the south-east quadrant of the structure, comprising layers of rubified loess mixed with burnt bone and charcoal (Figure 3). At least three large pits 1–2m in diameter were discovered on the south-eastern margins of the circle, each containing large mammoth bones (Figure 4). The lithic assemblage collected in 2015 from the vicinity of the structure comprises 1275 pieces of which 190 (15 per cent) are retouched (Fedyunin 2016). This assemblage is similar to that found associated with the first mammoth-bone structure at Kostenki
    11, and has been attributed to the Zamyatnin Culture (Rogachev & Popov 1982)—a poorly defined grouping of lithic assemblages that show clear differences from earlier Gravettian industries (Popov et al. 2004; Sinitsyn 2015; Bessudnov 2016). Although a detailed faunal report for the third structure is not yet available, an initial assessment indicates that the assemblage consists almost exclusively of mammoth bones, with other species only rarely represented. A preliminary examination of the third circular structure and its interior at the end of the 2015 season identified 51 mammoth mandibles and 64 crania (Fedyunin 2016), indi-
    cating a minimum number of individuals considerably higher than the >40 animals represented at the first mammoth-bone feature (Popov et al. 2004).

    Charcoal assemblage
    Fragments of degraded charcoal and microcharcoal were recovered from all sampled contexts, representing the first such evidence from K11-Ia. The abundance of charcoal is positively correlated with the abundance of bone residue in every sampled context located inside the mammoth-bone circle (r2 = 0.73, p = 0.002), with clear concentrations of both charcoal and bone in the hearth and around the middle and northern edges of the circle (sondages 2 and 5), respectively. Meanwhile, the samples from sondages 1, 3 and 4 towards the western and eastern periphery of the circle produced much lower concentrations of material (Figure S4). The co-occurrence of bone and charcoal residues and their dispersal throughout the site suggests that they were subject to similar depositional and post-depositional processes, potentially including hearth rake-out and trampling. No significant differences were observed between charcoal concentration in samples taken from the pits and those collected from inside the mammoth-bone feature (p = 0.502). Only a trace amount of charcoal was recovered from the sondages dug outside the mammoth-bone circle.
    The charcoal assemblage includes 474 fragments sized >2mm. While the largest fragment measures >10mm on its longest axis, most are much smaller, around 3mm3. The assemblage includes no vitrified remains, although many pieces show significant distortion of the internal
    structures caused by burning at high temperatures (Théry-Parisot 2002). Charcoal preservation is nonetheless sufficient to allow for 409 pieces to be identified as belonging to coniferous tree species, including Pinus spp. and Picea/Larix sp. No charcoals from deciduous hardwood species were identified. Conifer charcoal fragments preserving sufficient transverse sections show consistently narrow growth rings of between 0.10 and 0.20mm wide
    (Figure 6A–B), suggesting generally difficult growing conditions for the trees
    (Beresford-Jones et al. 2011). Charcoal fragments with wider growth rings (up to 0.45mm and many cells wide) were occasionally observed, suggesting that some trees were able to grow more quickly in the vicinity of Kostenki in the prelude to the Last Glacial Maximum. Twelve charcoal fragments deriving from the central part of stems or from narrow-stemmed wood (that may have been used as kindling; Figure 6C) exhibit tightly curved growth rings, although the lack of outer cortex elements precludes any distinction between the two.

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