Buckle-up for a bumpy ride managing your cognitive dissonance as the Alaskan Muck series ends with a bang as the Solar Parallax and Sol Invictus fall into place.
The history of the Solar Parallax is a curious tale.
Parallax is a displacement or difference in the apparent position of an object viewed along two different lines of sight, and is measured by the angle or semi-angle of inclination between those two lines.
The tale of the Solar Parallax begins with Hipparchus [190-120 BC] who “could not find any parallax for the Sun” i.e. it seemed to be at an “infinite distance”.
Hipparchus of Nicaea (c. 190 – c. 120 BC) was a Greek astronomer, geographer, and mathematician. He is considered the founder of trigonometry but is most famous for his incidental discovery of precession of the equinoxes.
In the first book, Hipparchus assumes that the parallax of the Sun is 0, as if it is at infinite distance.
Possibly some of the Arab astronomers were influenced by Hipparchus, who could not find any parallax for the Sun, and left the problem unsolved. (See Dreyer, Planetary Systems, 1906, p. 184)
Observations of The Obliquity of The Ecliptic Made by The Mediaeval Arabs And Persians – The Obliquity of The Ecliptic – George F Dodwell – 1963
Hipparchus could only measure a parallax greater than 7 arc minutes.
This would correspond to a parallax of 7′, which is apparently the greatest parallax that Hipparchus thought would not be noticed (for comparison: the typical resolution of the human eye is about 2′; Tycho Brahe made naked eye observation with an accuracy down to 1′).
Hipparchus couldn’t measure the current Solar Parallax of 8.79 arc seconds.
The currently accepted value of solar parallax is 8″.794 143.
Hipparchus lived when Apollo was associated with the “Sun” we know today.
Apollo is one of the most important and complex of the Olympian deities in classical Greek and Roman religion and Greek and Roman mythology. The national divinity of the Greeks, Apollo has been recognized as a god of archery, music and dance, truth and prophecy, healing and diseases, the Sun and light, poetry, and more. Apollo is the son of Zeus and Leto, and has a twin sister, the chaste huntress Artemis. Seen as the most beautiful god and the ideal of the kouros (a beardless, athletic youth), Apollo is considered to be the most Greek of all gods.
Apollo is known in Greek-influenced Etruscan mythology as Apulu.
The Sol Invictus Sun
The narrative fun begins after Hipparchus.
In the era of Ptolemy the Solar Parallax was 2 arc minutes 51 arc seconds.
Ptolemy had adopted 1210 Earth-radii for the distance of the Sun, corresponding to Solar parallax 2’ 51”.
Observations of The Obliquity of The Ecliptic Made by The Mediaeval Arabs And Persians – The Obliquity of The Ecliptic – George F Dodwell – 1963
Claudius Ptolemy (c. AD 100 – c. 170) was a mathematician, astronomer, geographer and astrologer. He lived in the city of Alexandria in the Roman province of Egypt, under the rule of the Roman Empire, had a Latin name, which several historians have taken to imply he was also a Roman citizen, cited Greek philosophers, and used Babylonian observations and Babylonian lunar theory.
Ptolemy wasn’t measuring the parallax of the Apollo “Sun”.
It was long thought that Rome actually had two different, consecutive sun gods.
The Almagest is a 2nd-century Greek-language mathematical and astronomical treatise on the apparent motions of the stars and planetary paths, written by Claudius Ptolemy (c. AD 100 – c. 170). One of the most influential scientific texts of all time, it canonized a geocentric model of the Universe that was accepted for more than 1200 years from its origin in Hellenistic Alexandria, in the medieval Byzantine and Islamic worlds, and in Western Europe through the Middle Ages and early Renaissance until Copernicus.
Ptolemy was measuring the parallax of the Sol Invictus “Sun”.
Sol is the personification of the Sun and a god in ancient Roman religion.
Only in the late Roman Empire, scholars argued, did solar cult re-appear with the arrival in Rome of the Syrian Sol Invictus, perhaps under the influence of the Mithraic mysteries.
Sol Invictus (“Unconquered Sun”) was the official sun god of the later Roman Empire and a patron of soldiers.
On 25 December AD 274, the Roman emperor Aurelian made it an official cult alongside the traditional Roman cults.
The identity of Aurelian’s Sol Invictus has long been a subject of scholarly debate.
The Sol Invictus “Sun” was an entirely new celestial object.
The Circus Maximus (Latin for greatest or largest circus; Italian: Circo Massimo) is an ancient Roman chariot-racing stadium and mass entertainment venue located in Rome, Italy.
Sun and Moon cults were probably represented at the Circus from its earliest phases.
Their importance grew with the introduction of Roman cult to Apollo, and the development of Stoic and solar monism as a theological basis for the Roman Imperial cult.
In the Imperial era, the Sun-god was divine patron of the Circus and its games.
His sacred obelisk towered over the arena, set in the central barrier, close to his temple and the finishing line.
The Sun-god was the ultimate, victorious charioteer, driving his four-horse chariot (quadriga) through the heavenly circuit from sunrise to sunset.
His partner Luna drove her two-horse chariot (biga); together, they represented the predictable, orderly movement of the cosmos and the circuit of time, which found analogy in the Circus track.
The cogitative dissonance produced by the Two Suns concept has bent out of shape the thinking of countless generations of academics and clergymen.
In their turn these academics and clergymen have produced bent out of shape narratives as they struggle to preserve their preordained perspectives.
And, finally, students that have totally mastered their Cogitative Dissonance will not notice the incongruous chronological wrinkles that were created when the “Solar symbolism” of Constantine & Co was “sporadically” sprinkled onto the storyline.
The Sol Invictus “Sun” arrived as [what’s now called] the Great Comet of 44 BC and it’s first close encounters with the Earth align with the Arabian Horizon centred on 637 CE.
If you have long suspected the mainstream is being less than honest [or simply delusional] when they describe Comets as “dirty snowballs” or [more recently] “icy dirtballs” then you might be interested to discover Close Cometary Encounters are associated with sudden spikes in the level of Thorium 232.
637 CE – Caesar’s Comet
The largest Thorium 232 peak aligns with the Arabian Horizon and this has been associated with the “seven-day visitation” of possibly the “brightest daylight comet in recorded history”.
Caesar’s Comet (numerical designation C/-43 K1) was perhaps the most famous comet of antiquity. Its seven-day cometary outburst was interpreted by Romans as a sign of the deification of recently assassinated dictator, Julius Caesar (100–44 BC). It became known as the Sidus Iulium (“Julian Star”); Caesaris astrum (“Star of Caesar”); Comet Caesar; or the Great Comet of 44 BC.
The comet approached Earth both inbound in mid-May and outbound in early August.
At magnitude −4 it would have been as impressive as Venus.
As a result of the cometary outburst in late July, Caesar’s Comet is one of only five comets known to have had a negative absolute magnitude (for a comet, this refers to the apparent magnitude if the comet had been observed at a distance of 1 AU from both the Earth and the Sun) and may have been the brightest daylight comet in recorded history.
The historical narrative enters a twilight zone were confusion reigns supreme.
On the Catastrophist side of the street:
Immanuel Velikovsky takes the [“impressive as Venus”] Great Comet of 44 BC for a spin in the history books of the 15th century BC as Comet Venus.
Worlds in Collision is a book by Russian-American independent scholar Immanuel Velikovsky published in 1950.
The book postulates that around the 15th century BC, the planet Venus was ejected from Jupiter as a comet or comet-like object and passed near Earth (an actual collision is not mentioned). The object allegedly changed Earth’s orbit and axis, causing innumerable catastrophes that are mentioned in early mythologies and religions from around the world.
On the Gradualist side of the street:
Academics [shuffle about, shrug, put their hands in their pockets, start to whistle tunelessly, furtively look the other way and, above all else, they try to] pretend nothing has changed as Lunar Calendars appear because the Earth doen’t orbit the [Sol Invictus] “Sun”.
But beneath all the fevered speculation about intercalary months lies a 2nd century AD calendar from Roman Gaul that “yields a total of 354 or 355 days” just like the Islamic lunar calendar.
The Islamic, Muslim, or Hijri calendar is a lunar calendar consisting of 12 lunar months in a year of 354 or 355 days.
The Islamic calendar employs the Hijri era whose epoch was established as the Islamic New Year of 622 AD/CE.
A lunar calendar is a calendar based upon the monthly cycles of the Moon’s phases (synodic months), in contrast to solar calendars, whose annual cycles are based only directly upon the solar year. The most commonly used calendar, the Gregorian calendar, is a solar calendar system that originally evolved out of a lunar calendar system.
Back in the ancient world:
Astronomers tracked the movements of the Sol Invictus “Sun”.
Estimated Mean Distance:
1209 x 6371 = 7,702,539 km ≈ 20 Lunar distances
Earth: Mean radius: 6371.0 km
Moon: Semi-major axis: 384,399 km
The close orbital proximity [20 Lunar distances] of Sol Invictus locked the Earth’s axial-tilt so that the South Pole [Antarctica] was permanently pointing towards the Sol Invictus “Sun”.
This, in turn, raises the possibility that [for unknown reasons] the Earth’s southern pole was permanently tilted towards the Sun in the turbulent period between the Heinsohn Horizon and the Hecker Horizon.
One possible answer is a catastrophic tsunami [or series of tsunamis] depositing debris and the bodies of Northern Mammoths above the Arctic Circle where they were fast frozen in the frozen zone described by Ptolemy.
The emergence of Lunar calendars implies the Sol Invictus “Sun” was permanently eclipsing [blocking from view] the Apollo “Sun”.
The data indicates the Sol Invictus configuration began to unravel in 880 CE.
The Sol Invictus “Sun” began to explosively disintegrate in 1006 CE.
SN 1006 was a supernova that is likely the brightest observed stellar event in recorded history, reaching an estimated −7.5 visual magnitude, and exceeding roughly sixteen times the brightness of Venus.
Appearing between April 30 and May 1, 1006 AD in the constellation of Lupus, this “guest star” was described by observers across the modern day countries of China, Japan, Iraq, Egypt, and the continent of Europe, and possibly recorded in North American petroglyphs.
Some reports state it was clearly visible in the daytime.
Lupus coordinates: 15h 18m 00s, −45° 00′ 00″
Lupus is a constellation located in the deep Southern Sky.
Its name is Latin for wolf. Lupus was one of the 48 constellations listed by the 2nd-century astronomer Ptolemy, and it remains one of the 88 modern constellations, although it was previously an asterism associated with the neighboring constellation Centaurus.
The disintegration of the Sol Invictus “Sun” is associated with:
1) The deposition of ice and Alaskan Muck between 900 and 1400 CE.
The mainstream was stunned into silence when they discovered the ice wedges in North Alaska were between 500 and 1,000 years old at the beginning of the 20th century.
Leffingwell’s dating aligns perfectly with the 500 turbulent years between 900 and 1400 CE.
2) The Earth-Moon system experiencing a ‘square wave’ in the “accelerations”.
This confusion is combined with a form of gradualist amnesia that forgets the Earth-Moon system experienced a “‘square wave’ in the accelerations” between [about] 700 and 1300 CE.
3) Comet Halley experiencing extended orbital periods.
In general terms, the head and shoulders pattern for Comet Halley ranges between 77 and 79 years while the body ranges between 75 and 77 years i.e. a two year difference in ranges.
4) Remnants of the Sol Invictus “Sun” drifting away from the Earth.
Digging into the Alaskan Muck has unearthed two pieces of the puzzle.
#1 Periods of violent erosion followed periods of quiescence.
#2 These violent oscillations occurred between 900 and 1400 CE.
The Aleppo Regime history suggests “periods of violent erosion” initially occurred [roughly] every 35 years before drifting out to every 55 years and then every 77 years.
5) The unlocking of the burning zone axial-tilt configuration.
6) The [eventual] reinstatement of heliocentric science.
Nicolaus Copernicus (1473-1543) was a Renaissance-era mathematician and astronomer, who formulated a model of the universe that placed the Sun rather than Earth at the center of the universe, in all likelihood independently of Aristarchus of Samos, who had formulated such a model some eighteen centuries earlier.
The publication of Copernicus’ model in his book De revolutionibus orbium coelestium (On the Revolutions of the Celestial Spheres), just before his death in 1543, was a major event in the history of science, triggering the Copernican Revolution and making a pioneering contribution to the Scientific Revolution.
7) The clergy coming to terms with the uncomfortable reality that Sol Invictus [“Unconquered Sun”] was conquered by an almighty explosion in 1006 CE.
The Galileo affair was a sequence of events, beginning around 1610, culminating with the trial and condemnation of Galileo Galilei by the Roman Catholic Inquisition in 1633 for his support of heliocentrism.
At the instance of Roger Boscovich, the Catholic Church’s 1758 Index of Prohibited Books omitted the general prohibition of works defending heliocentrism, but retained the specific prohibitions of the original uncensored versions of De revolutionibus and Galileo’s Dialogue Concerning the Two Chief World Systems. Those prohibitions were finally dropped from the 1835 Index.
8) The clergy resurrecting Apollo as a new and improved Son of God.
The assimilation of the Earth into the Solar System was marked by the veneration of the Sun God Apollo who subsequently morphed into the Son of God [with welcoming Persian astrologers and star] during the 2nd millennium.
As always, review the evidence and draw your own conclusions.
Super Nova Footnote
The mainstream suggest the “guest star” of 1006 CE was a Type Ia Supernova.
Egyptian astrologer and astronomer Ali ibn Ridwan, writing in a commentary on Ptolemy’s Tetrabiblos, stated that the “spectacle was a large circular body, 2½ to 3 times as large as Venus. The sky was shining because of its light. The intensity of its light was a little more than a quarter that of Moon light” (or perhaps “than the light of the Moon when one-quarter illuminated”). Like all other observers, Ali ibn Ridwan noted that the new star was low on the southern horizon. Some astrologers interpreted the event as a portent of plague and famine.
The most northerly sighting is recorded in the annals of the Abbey of Saint Gall in Switzerland, at a latitude of 47.5° North. Monks at St Gall provide independent data as to its magnitude and location in the sky, writing that “[i]n a wonderful manner this was sometimes contracted, sometimes diffused, and moreover sometimes extinguished… It was seen likewise for three months in the inmost limits of the south, beyond all the constellations which are seen in the sky”.
This description is often taken as probable evidence that the supernova was of Type Ia.
Some sources state that the star was bright enough to cast shadows; it was certainly seen during daylight hours for some time.
According to Songshi, the official history of the Song Dynasty (sections 56 and 461), the star seen on 1 May 1006 appeared to the south of constellation Di, east of Lupus and one degree to the west of Centaurus. It shone so brightly that objects on the ground could be seen at night.
By December, it was again sighted in the constellation Di. The Chinese astrologer Zhou Keming, who was on his return to Kaifeng from his duty in Guangdong, interpreted the star to the emperor on May 30 as an auspicious star, yellow in color and brilliant in its brightness, that would bring great prosperity to the state over which it appeared. The reported color yellow should be taken with some suspicion however, because Zhou may have chosen a favorable color for political reasons.
There appear to have been two distinct phases in the early evolution of this supernova. There was first a three-month period at which it was at its brightest; after this period it diminished, then returned for a period of about eighteen months.
They suggest the 1006 CE “guest star” was an explosive White Dwarf.
A type Ia supernova (read “type one-a”) is a type of supernova that occurs in binary systems (two stars orbiting one another) in which one of the stars is a white dwarf.
The other star can be anything from a giant star to an even smaller white dwarf.
Physically, carbon–oxygen white dwarfs with a low rate of rotation are limited to below 1.44 solar masses (M☉).
Beyond this, they reignite and in some cases trigger a supernova explosion.
A white dwarf, also called a degenerate dwarf, is a stellar core remnant composed mostly of electron-degenerate matter. A white dwarf is very dense: its mass is comparable to that of the Sun, while its volume is comparable to that of Earth.
A white dwarf’s faint luminosity comes from the emission of stored thermal energy; no fusion takes place in a white dwarf.
White dwarfs are thought to be the final evolutionary state of stars whose mass is not high enough to become a neutron star, that of about 10 solar masses. This includes over 97% of the other stars in the Milky Way.
A carbon-oxygen white dwarf that approaches this mass limit, typically by mass transfer from a companion star, may explode as a type Ia supernova via a process known as carbon detonation;
SN 1006 is thought to be a famous example.
And very remarkably:
The mainstream suggest the remnant of the “guest star” of 1006 CE is a multimillion degree ball of gas 7,200 light-years away.
Carbon Comets Footnote
One of the more interesting evolutionary routes towards becoming an explosive White Dwarf begins with “sooty” Carbon Stars like CW Leonis whose luminosity varies over the course of a 649-day pulsation cycle.
A carbon star is typically an asymptotic giant branch star, a luminous red giant, whose atmosphere contains more carbon than oxygen. The two elements combine in the upper layers of the star, forming carbon monoxide, which consumes all the oxygen in the atmosphere, leaving carbon atoms free to form other carbon compounds, giving the star a “sooty” atmosphere and a strikingly ruby red appearance.
There are also some dwarf and supergiant carbon stars, with the more common giant stars sometimes being called classical carbon stars to distinguish them.
Most classical carbon stars are variable stars of the long period variable types.
CW Leonis: the most studied carbon star, and also the brightest star in the sky at N-band
IRC +10216 or CW Leonis is a well-studied carbon star that is embedded in a thick dust envelope.
Its energy is emitted mostly at infrared wavelengths. At a wavelength of 5 μm, it was found to have the highest flux of any object outside the Solar System.
CW Leonis is believed to be in a late stage of its life, blowing off its own sooty atmosphere to form a white dwarf in a distant future.
Its bolometric luminosity varies over the course of a 649-day pulsation cycle, ranging from a minimum of about 6,250 times the Sun’s luminosity up to a peak of around 15,800 times. The overall output of the star is best represented by a luminosity of 11,300 L☉.
The carbon-rich gaseous envelope surrounding this star … various chemical elements and about 50 molecules have been detected in the outflows from CW Leonis, among others nitrogen, oxygen and water, silicon and iron.
One theory was that the star was once surrounded by comets which melted once the star started expanding, but water is now thought to form naturally in the atmospheres of all carbon stars.
The size of the bubble (called the “astrosheath”) has allowed astronomers to estimate that CW Leo has been shedding its atmosphere for about 70,000 years. This is part of the star’s natural life cycle as it runs out of hydrogen fuel and gradually throws off its outer layers to expose its bare, dying core. This core is called a white dwarf, and is the end product of all low-mass stars like our sun.
NASA/JPL-Caltech – CW Leo – 16 May 2012
And one of the more special spectral characteristics shared by Carbon Stars, Comets and Burning Hydrocarbons are Swan Bands.
Swan bands are a characteristic of the spectra of carbon stars, comets and of burning hydrocarbon fuels.
They are named for the Scottish physicist William Swan who first studied the spectral analysis of radical Diatomic carbon C2 in 1856.
In other words:
Disintegrating Carbon Stars create cascades of Carbon Comets.
Tin Foil Footnote
Aficionados of misdirection might like to look in the opposite direction when it comes to Immanuel Velikovsky’s Comet Venus i.e. the remnant of the Great Comet of 44 BC crashed into Jupiter during the 15th century CE.
Comet Shoemaker–Levy 9 (formally designated D/1993 F2) was a comet that broke apart in July 1992 and collided with Jupiter in July 1994, providing the first direct observation of an extraterrestrial collision of Solar System objects.
Orbital studies of the new comet soon revealed that it was orbiting Jupiter rather than the Sun, unlike all other comets known at the time. Its orbit around Jupiter was very loosely bound, with a period of about 2 years and an apoapsis (the point in the orbit farthest from the planet) of 0.33 astronomical units (49 million kilometres; 31 million miles). Its orbit around the planet was highly eccentric (e = 0.9986).
The Great Red Spot is a persistent high-pressure region in the atmosphere of Jupiter, producing an anticyclonic storm, the largest in the Solar System, 22 degrees south of Jupiter’s equator. It has been continuously observed since 1830. Earlier observations from 1665 to 1713 are believed to be of the same storm; if this is correct, it has existed for at least 350 years.