Ravenna Revealed: Curious Clues

The mosaics of San Giovanni Evangelista provide some very curious clues.

Introduction
In 1900 it was said Modern History begins “with the Germans”.

The names of the early Visigoth kings sound like they have been “pulled straight from the medieval folklore of Germany”.

See: https://malagabay.wordpress.com/2018/05/24/latin-languages-vanished-visigoths/

When the fantastic tales of Germanic dominance and derring-do are stripped away from this 1900 version of history then it becomes a Persian narrative that ends in the 16th century.

https://archive.org/details/greatestnations03elli/page/n250

Edward Sylvester Ellis (1840-1916) was an American author who was born in Ohio and died at Cliff Island, Maine. Ellis was a teacher, school administrator, journalist, and the author of hundreds of books and magazine articles that he produced by his name and by a number of noms de plume.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Edward_S._Ellis

https://archive.org/details/greatestnations03elli/page/n152

Justinian had been dead only three years, when Italy, still governed by an exarch living at Ravenna, was overrun by the third and last of the Teutonic invasions.

The Lombards or Longobardi, thus named perhaps from their long beards, came from Central Europe, swarmed through the Alp, and, sweeping into the valley of the Po, occupied the extensive district still known as Lombardy, with Pavia as its capital.

They were cruel in their treatment of the Italians, and committed so many atrocities that a large number of Roman families removed to the islands and lagoons at the head of the Adriatic, where, as we have learned, the foundations of Venice had been laid not long before.

The Story of the Greatest Nations – Edward Sylvester Ellis – 1900
https://archive.org/details/greatestnations03elli/page/449

The Byzantine–Lombard wars were a protracted series of conflicts which occurred from AD 568 to 750 between the Byzantine Empire and a Germanic tribe known as the Lombards. The wars began primarily because of the imperialistic inclinations of the Lombard king Alboin, as he sought to take possession of Northern Italy.

The conflicts ended in a Byzantine defeat, as the Lombards were able to secure large parts of Northern Italy at first, eventually conquering the Exarchate of Ravenna in 750.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Byzantine%E2%80%93Lombard_wars

The Lombards were a Germanic people who ruled most of the Italian Peninsula from 568 to 774.

The Lombard historian Paul the Deacon wrote in the Historia Langobardorum that the Lombards descended from a small tribe called the Winnili, who dwelt in southern Scandinavia (Scadanan) before migrating to seek new lands.

In the 1st century AD, they formed part of the Suebi, in north-western Germany.

By the end of the 5th century, they had moved into the area roughly coinciding with modern Austria and Slovakia north of the Danube river, where they subdued the Heruls and later fought frequent wars with the Gepids.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lombards

Unsurprisingly there are some curious clues that support the Persian narrative.

The Missing Mosaics
It’s said the mosaics were “stripped” from San Giovanni Evangelista in 1747.

In 1747 the church was almost entirely stripped of its mosaics; the only remaining are two fragments of the original 5th-century floor, with the first recorded Christian use of hooked crosses.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/San_Giovanni_Evangelista,_Ravenna

A century ago they said the “columns were raised” in the 18th century.

https://archive.org/details/lombardicarchite01rivouoft/page/21

In Italian it’s said that mosaics were discovered under the floor in 1736.

Translation by Deepl.com

In 1213, at the time when the monastery was led by Abbot William, the mosaic floor was laid. … In the eighteenth century they were under the floor.

Discovered in 1736, they were extracted and reassembled into quadrangular panels.

After 1763 the panels were placed along the two aisles of the Basilica, where they can still be seen today (panels with geometric figures in the right aisle, animals in the left one).

https://it.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chiesa_di_San_Giovanni_Evangelista_%28Ravenna%29

In German it’s said a mosaic floor was found two metres down.

https://cmc.byzart.eu/items/show/21538/

Google Translate

On the walls of the aisles are fragments of a mosaic floor, which lay at a level about two meters lower.

These are not artistically demanding achievements, but rather cartoon-like, sketchy representations.

https://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/San_Giovanni_Evangelista_%28Ravenna%29

The old mosaic floor currently adorns the walls of San Giovanni Evangelista.

Dating The Mosaics
The official narrative states the mosaics were laid in 1213 AD.

Translation by Deepl.com

In 1213, at the time when the monastery was led by Abbot William, the mosaic floor was laid.

https://it.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chiesa_di_San_Giovanni_Evangelista_%28Ravenna%29

The floor of the church was raised again in 1213, probably because of the constantly rising level of the ground water. … The floor was possibly raised in 1560 and again in 1765.

The Side Chambers of San Giovanni Evangelista in Ravenna:
Church Libraries of the Fifth Century
Janet Charlotte Smith – Gesta – Vol. 29 No. 1 – 1990

https://www.jstor.org/stable/767103

Whether there’s reliable evidence supporting this dating is anyone’s guess.

However, it’s likely brick churches only appeared in the 2nd millennium.

The Basilica of San Francesco is a major church in Ravenna.

In the second half of the 9th century and over the course of the 10th century, the earlier church was demolished to build a larger one and a tall bell tower, both of which survive.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Basilica_of_San_Francesco,_Ravenna

Note
The older churches developed in two stages:

1) Stand-alone curvilinear and polygonal towers.
2) The towers were appropriated as “bell towers” and “apses”.

See: https://malagabay.wordpress.com/2019/10/14/ravenna-revealed/

See: https://malagabay.wordpress.com/2016/02/27/the-heinsohn-horizon-and-the-round-towers/

See: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Round_tower_churches

It’s likely the “1213 AD” mosaics represent the original church floor.

Dante Alighieri’s funeral was held in the church in 1321 and his remains still rest next to the church in the Tomb of Dante.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Basilica_of_San_Francesco,_Ravenna

And more generally:

It’s evident Islamic architecture in Europe has been rebranded Christian.

The Mosque–Cathedral of Córdoba, also known as the Great Mosque of Córdoba and the Mezquita, whose ecclesiastical name is the Cathedral of Our Lady of the Assumption (Spanish: Catedral de Nuestra Señora de la Asunción), is the Catholic cathedral of the Diocese of Córdoba dedicated to the Assumption of the Virgin Mary and located in the Spanish region of Andalusia.

The structure is regarded as one of the most accomplished monuments of Moorish architecture.

In 784 Abd al-Rahman I ordered construction of the Great Mosque, which was considerably expanded by later Muslim rulers.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mosque%E2%80%93Cathedral_of_C%C3%B3rdoba

Characteristic elements of Moorish architecture include muqarnas, horseshoe arches, voussoirs, domes, crenellated arches, lancet arches, ogee arches, courtyards, and decorative tile work known as zellij in Arabic or azulejo in Spanish and Portuguese.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Moorish_architecture

https://archive.org/details/lombardicarchite01rivouoft/page/n7

Some of the late Lombard structures of the 9th and 10th centuries have been found to contain elements of style associated with Romanesque architecture and have been so dubbed “first Romanesque”. These edifices are considered, along with some similar buildings in southern France and Catalonia, to mark a transitory phase between the Pre-Romanesque and full-fledged Romanesque.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lombardic_architecture

Byzantine appears to be a euphemism for Moorish architecture or [more accurately] Islamic architecture that’s experienced Biblical Branding.

This Byzantine style, with increasingly exotic domes and ever-richer mosaics, traveled west to Ravenna and Venice and as far north as Moscow. Most of the churches and basilicas have high-riding domes. As result, they created vast open spaces at the centres of churches, heightening the sense of grace and light. The round arch is a fundamental of Byzantine style.

In the East, Byzantine architectural tradition exerted a profound influence on early Islamic architecture. During the Umayyad Caliphate era (661-750), as far as the Byzantine impact on early Islamic architecture is concerned, the Byzantine artistic heritage formed a fundamental source to the new Islamic art, especially in Syria and Palestine.

The tile work, geometric patterns, multiple arches, domes, and polychrome brick and stone work that characterize Islamic and Moorish architecture were influenced to some extent by Byzantine architecture.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Byzantine_architecture

The Curious Clues
It’s said the mosaics “depict the Fourth Crusade” [1202–1204].

Other mosaic fragments found under the bombs belong to 13th-century floor and depict the Fourth Crusade. Two of the four bells dates 1208. Heavily bombed during World War II, the building was later restored.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/San_Giovanni_Evangelista,_Ravenna

Translation by Deepl.com

The iconography reflected various themes: from the epic to the legends, from the naval battles to the Crusades. Some mosaics refer to two historical episodes of the Fourth Crusade (1202-1204): the siege of Zadar and the taking of Constantinople.

https://it.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chiesa_di_San_Giovanni_Evangelista_%28Ravenna%29

The Fourth Crusade (1202–1204) was a Latin Christian armed expedition called by Pope Innocent III. The stated intent of the expedition was to recapture the Muslim-controlled city of Jerusalem, by first conquering the powerful Egyptian Ayyubid Sultanate, the strongest Muslim state of the time. However, a sequence of economic and political events culminated in the Crusader army sacking the city of Constantinople, the capital of the Greek Christian-controlled Byzantine Empire.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fourth_Crusade

What’s not mentioned is the distinct lack of Biblical Branding.

These mosaics were made in 1213 and include a seemingly disparate collection of images from line ‘drawings’ describing the Fourth Crusade to signs of the zodiac, an upside down angel and strange mythical beasts.

The curious mosaics of San Giovanni Evangelista, Ravenna.
Helen Miles Mosaics – Helen Miles – 14 May 2017

https://helenmilesmosaics.org/blog/mosaics-of-san-giovanni-evangelista/

Some of the imagery aligns with the Signs of the Zodiac.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Astrological_sign

Some of the imagery is subject to interpretation.

And some of the mosaics provide very curious clues.

Curious Clue #1: Female Headdress
It’s evident the Christian and Islamic faiths share a female headdress heritage.

A hijab in common English usage is a veil worn by some Muslim women in the presence of any male outside of their immediate family, which usually covers the head and chest.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hijab

A wimple is an ancient form of female headdress, formed of a large piece of cloth worn around the neck and chin, and covering the top of the head. Its use developed in early medieval Europe. At many stages of medieval Christian culture it was unseemly for a married woman to show her hair.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wimple

Curious Clue #2: The Unicorn
It’s evident a Unicorn trail stretches from India to Scotland via Ravenna.

A number of seals seemingly depicting unicorns have been found from the Indus Valley Civilisation.

Unicorns are not found in Greek mythology, but rather in the accounts of natural history, for Greek writers of natural history were convinced of the reality of unicorns, which they believed lived in India, a distant and fabulous realm for them. … Ctesias got his information while living in Persia.

Unicorns on a relief sculpture have been found at the ancient Persian capital of Persepolis in Iran.

Cosmas Indicopleustes, a merchant of Alexandria who lived in the 6th century, made a voyage to India and subsequently wrote works on cosmography. He gives a description of a unicorn based on four brass figures in the palace of the King of Ethiopia.

The unicorn also figured in courtly terms: for some 13th-century French authors such as Thibaut of Champagne and Richard de Fournival, the lover is attracted to his lady as the unicorn is to the virgin.

In heraldry the unicorn is best known as a symbol of Scotland

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Unicorn

Medieval knowledge of the fabulous beast stemmed from biblical and ancient sources, and the creature was variously represented as a kind of wild ass, goat, or horse.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Unicorn

The monuments of Ravenna propel the visitor into the strange domain of cultural appropriation where one man’s glorious restoration is another’s heinous desecration.

Where the venerable art of photo-shopping mosaics was developed.

See: https://malagabay.wordpress.com/2017/05/22/ravenna-revisited-basilica-of-san-vitale/

See: https://malagabay.wordpress.com/2017/06/02/ravenna-revisited-the-deja-vu-dodo/

Curious Clue #3: The Griffin
It’s evident the symbolism of the Griffin connects Ravenna [and Pisa] to Persia.

The griffin, griffon, or gryphon is a legendary creature with the body, tail, and back legs of a lion; the head and wings of an eagle; and sometimes an eagle’s talons as its front feet. Because the lion was traditionally considered the king of the beasts, and the eagle the king of the birds, by the Middle Ages the griffin was thought to be an especially powerful and majestic creature. Since classical antiquity, griffins were known for guarding treasures and priceless possessions.

In Greek and Roman texts, griffins and Arimaspians were associated with gold deposits of Central Asia. Indeed, as Pliny the Elder wrote, “griffins were said to lay eggs in burrows on the ground and these nests contained gold nuggets.”[

In medieval heraldry, the griffin became a Christian symbol of divine power and a guardian of the divine.

Representations of griffin-like hybrids with four legs and a beaked head appeared in Ancient Iranian and Ancient Egyptian art dating back to before 3000 BC.

Griffin images appeared in art of the Achaemenid Persian Empire.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Griffin

The Pisa Griffin is a large bronze sculpture of a griffin, a mythical beast, which has been in Pisa in Italy since the Middle Ages, though it is of Islamic origin. It is the largest medieval Islamic metal sculpture known, at over three feet tall (42.5 inches, or 1.07 m.), and was probably created in the 11th century in Al-Andalus (Islamic Spain).

Locating the area where the griffin was made has been the subject of considerable debate, with Al-Andalus, Egypt, Sicily, North Africa and other places suggested at various points.

The griffin is generally agreed to have arrived in Pisa at some point during the late 11th or early 12th century, and may have been a spoil of one of the many successful “wars” or raids conducted by the Republic of Pisa against Islamic states at this period, when the small city was at the height of its power as a maritime republic. The successful attack in 1087 on Mahdia in modern Tunisia, capital of the local Zirid dynasty is one candidate.

The griffin is the largest of a group of surviving Islamic bronze animals, most of which are much smaller and functioned as aquamaniles, incense-burners and the like, and whose origin goes back to pre-Islamic Sassanian vessels.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pisa_Griffin

Curious Clue #4: The Dhow
It’s evident the mosaic imagery connects Ravenna to the Indian Ocean.

A lateen (from French latine, meaning “Latin”) or latin-rig is a triangular sail set on a long yard mounted at an angle on the mast, and running in a fore-and-aft direction.

Dating back to Roman navigation, the lateen became the favorite sail of the Age of Discovery, mainly because it allows a boat to tack “against the wind.” It is common in the Mediterranean, the upper Nile River, and the northwestern parts of the Indian Ocean, where it is the standard rig for feluccas and dhows.

By the 6th century, the lateen sail had largely replaced the square sail throughout the Mediterranean, the latter almost disappearing from Mediterranean iconography until the mid-13th century.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lateen

Dhow is the generic name of a number of traditional sailing vessels with one or more masts with settee or sometimes lateen sails, used in the Red Sea and Indian Ocean region. Historians are divided as to whether the dhow was invented by Arabs or Indians. … Most scholars believe that it originated in India between 600 BC to 600 AD.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dhow

Curious Clue #5: Hand Hewing
It’s evident the Christian and Islamic faiths share a hand hewing heritage.

DRANCAE ==>> Persian or Bactrian tribe
AD      ==>> to, toward
CEDO    ==>> to go from, remove…
CAEDO   ==>> to cut, hew, cut off …
EM      ==>> of wonder or emphasis, there!

A Latin Dictionary – Charlton T Lewis and Charles Short
https://www.perseus.tufts.edu/hopper/text?doc=Perseus:text:1999.04.0059
via: https://www.lexilogos.com/english/latin_dictionary.htm

The siege and sack of Constantinople occurred in April 1204 and marked the culmination of the Fourth Crusade. Crusader armies captured, looted, and destroyed parts of Constantinople, the capital of the Byzantine Empire.

The Crusaders’ decision to attack the world’s largest Christian city was unprecedented and immediately controversial. Reports of Crusader looting and brutality scandalised and horrified the Orthodox world; relations between the Catholic and Orthodox churches were catastrophically wounded for many centuries afterwards, and would not be substantially repaired until modern times.

The Byzantine Empire was left much poorer, smaller, and ultimately less able to defend itself against the Turkish conquests that followed; the actions of the Crusaders thus directly accelerated the collapse of Christendom in the east, and in the long run facilitated the expansion of Islam into Europe.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sack_of_Constantinople_%281204%29

Safavid dynasty 1501–1736
The Safavid dynasty was one of the most significant ruling dynasties of Iran, often considered the beginning of modern Iranian history. The Safavid shahs ruled over one of the gunpowder empires and one of the greatest Iranian empires after the 7th-century Muslim conquest of Iran. They established the Twelver school of Shia Islam as the official religion of the empire, marking one of the most important turning points in Muslim history.

Criminal justice was entirely separate from civil law and was judged upon common law administered through the Minister of Justice, local governors and the Court minister (the Nazir). Despite being based on urf, it relied upon certain sets of legal principles. Murder was punishable by death, and the penalty for bodily injuries was invariably the bastinado. Robbers had their right wrists amputated the first time, and sentenced to death on any subsequent occasion.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Safavid_dynasty

A traditional form of punishment, under Sharia, Islamic law, and in Medieval Europe involved publically amputating a criminal’s body part, often the one used to commit a crime. The pain of the amputation and the shame of the permanent mark served as punishment for the criminal, while display of the severed limb functioned as a sinister warning to all onlookers-follow in this guy’s footsteps and you will suffer a similar fate.

A criminal’s relic: The macabre history of severed hands
Srangeremains – 6 April 2014

https://strangeremains.com/2014/04/06/a-criminals-relic-the-macabre-history-of-severed-hands/

Curious Clue #6: Male Headdress
It’s evident the red triangular hats in the San Giovanni Evangelista mosaics connect Christian hats with Persian caps.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cardinal_%28Catholic_Church%29

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Camauro

Byzantine art usually depicts the Magi in Persian clothing which includes breeches, capes, and Phrygian caps.

In contrast, many Syrian Christians name the Magi Larvandad, Gushnasaph, and Hormisdas. These names have a far greater likelihood of being originally Persian, though that does not guarantee their authenticity.

The Magi are popularly referred to as wise men and kings.

The term refers to the Persian priestly caste of Zoroastrianism.

The word magi is the plural of Latin magus, borrowed from Greek μάγος (magos), as used in the original Greek text of the Gospel of Matthew (in the plural: μάγοι, magoi). Greek magos itself is derived from Old Persian maguŝ from the Avestan magâunô, i.e., the religious caste into which Zoroaster was born (see Yasna 33.7: “ýâ sruyê parê magâunô” = “so I can be heard beyond Magi”).

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Biblical_Magi

As such, Old Avestan is quite close in grammar and lexicon with Vedic Sanskrit, the oldest preserved Indo-Aryan language.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Avestan

Early Christian art (and continuing well into the Middle Ages) build on the same Greco-Roman perceptions of (Pseudo-)Zoroaster and his “Magi” as experts in the arts of astrology and magic, and routinely depict the “three wise men” (that follow a star) with Phrygian caps.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Phrygian_cap

The Christian Heritage
Overall, the mosaics suggest Christianity branched away from Shia Islam.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Shia_Islam

The Twelve Imams are the spiritual and political successors to the Islamic prophet Muhammad in the Twelver or Athnā‘ashariyyah branch of Shia Islam, including that of the Alawite and the Alevi sects.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Twelve_Imams

In Christian theology and ecclesiology, apostles, particularly the Twelve Apostles (also known as the Twelve Disciples or simply the Twelve), were the primary disciples of Jesus according to the New Testament and the Qur’an.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Apostles

More specifically:

Christianity branched off the Alevi [Kuzul Bash] tradition of Shia Islam.

Alevism (also called Qizilbash) is a syncretic, heterodox, and local Islamic tradition, whose adherents follow the mystical teachings of Ali, the Twelve Imams and a descendant— the 13th century Alevi saint Haji Bektash Veli.

Alevis are found primarily in Turkey among ethnic Turks and Kurds, and make up somewhere between 10 and 20% of Turkey’s population, they are the largest sect of Islam in Turkey after Sunni Islam.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alevi

The believers are called Alevis both by themselves and by the Muslims.

The name Kuzul Bash (u as in “cut”), which means “Red Head” and is often used as a term of reproach, is said to have originated at the battle of Siffin.

Ali said, “Tie red upon your heads, so that ye slay not your own comrades in the thick of the battle.”

The Alevis, or Deifiers of Ali
Stephen Van Rensselaer Trowbridge – 1909

https://archive.org/details/jstor-1507112/page/n1

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Haji_Bektash_Veli

Haji Bektash Veli was born about a.h. 730 (a.d. 1329/30) in the city of Nishabur [former capital of Khorasan Province].

He was the son of Imam Riza, and a direct descendant of Ali.
When he journeyed into Ottoman territory, he brought the Alevi faith for the first time into Asia Minor. He lived to see five hundred converts ; and before his death, near the city of Angora, instituted the order of dervishes which is known as Bektashi. The members of this order are all of his faith, and they earnestly preach this teaching as they go about the country.

Celibacy is the rule of this order.

The Alevis, or Deifiers of Ali
Stephen Van Rensselaer Trowbridge – 1909

https://archive.org/details/jstor-1507112/page/n3

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nishabur

The Bektashi Order, short for Shī‘ah Imāmī Alevī-Bektāshī Ṭarīqah is a Sufi dervish order (tariqat) named after the 13th century Alevi Wali (saint) Haji Bektash Veli from Khorasan, but founded by Balım Sultan.

The order, whose headquarters is in Tirana, Albania, is mainly found throughout Anatolia and the Balkans, and was particularly strong in Albania, Bulgaria, and among Ottoman era Greek Muslims from the regions of Epirus, Crete and Macedonia.

The telling of jokes and humorous tales is an important part of Bektashi culture and teaching.


An imam was preaching about the evils of alcohol and asked “If you put a pail of water and a pail of rakı in front of a donkey, which one will he drink from?”

A Bektashi in the congregation immediately answered. “The water!”

“Indeed,” said the imam, “and why is that?”

“Because he’s an ass.”

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bektashism

In this scenario the Sultan of Rome eventually becomes the Bishop of Rome and the Sultan of Venice becomes the Doge of Venice.

A doge was an elected lord and chief of state in many of the Italian city-states during the medieval and renaissance periods. Such states are referred to as “crowned republics”.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Doge

In this scenario the Roman Caliphate is divided into the Roman Church and the Orthodox Church by the destruction and disruption of the Hecker Horizon.

Sultanate of Rum 1077-1308

The Sultanate of Rûm was a Turko-Persian Sunni Muslim state established in the parts of Anatolia which had been conquered from the Byzantine Empire by the Seljuk Empire, which was established by the Seljuk Turks.

The name Rûm was a synonym for Greek, as it remains in modern Turkish, although it derives from the Arabic name for Romans, ar-Rūm, itself a loan from Greek Ῥωμαῖοι, “Romans”; ie. citizens superordinate to Latin-speakers.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sultanate_of_Rum

See: https://malagabay.wordpress.com/2019/01/07/the-hecker-horizon/

This continuity means Hagia Sophia encapsulates Vedic design principles.

This continuity suggests Christianity has a Vedic heritage.

A Vedic heritage with clear Persian influences.

See: https://malagabay.wordpress.com/2019/10/14/ravenna-revealed/

See: https://malagabay.wordpress.com/2016/07/29/catastrophic-english-mother-tongue-and-mtdna/

See: https://malagabay.wordpress.com/2019/06/02/hecker-horizon-ho-ho-ho-history/

See: https://malagabay.wordpress.com/2016/07/17/catastrophic-english-christianity-as-a-vedic-cult-2/

However:

Unscrambling the Roman Chronology [Omelette] is a major challenge.

The Roman Caliphate gradually civilised Europe, and the barbarous hordes who had overrun it, through Christianity ; and in Christianising Europe, Rome reconquered it.

In extending Christianity, the Roman Caliphs felt they were not only widening civilisation but elevating their own power, — a sacred and stately fabric of power, of which the various peoples of Europe were the arches and pillars, and of which Rome was the dome and the Vatican the gilded pinnacle.

The New Golden Age – Robert Hogarth Patterson – 1882
https://archive.org/details/newgoldenageand04pattgoog/page/n321

Venatio was a type of entertainment in Roman amphitheaters involving the hunting and killing of wild animals.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Venatio

The first use of the term “Byzantine” to label the later years of the Roman Empire was in 1557, when the German historian Hieronymus Wolf published his work Corpus Historiæ Byzantinæ, a collection of historical sources.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Byzantine_Empire#Nomenclature

See: https://malagabay.wordpress.com/2017/05/31/ravenna-revisited-a-byzantine-birth/

Given the scale of the scrambling it’s necessary to examine the possibility [for example] the Antonine Plague is the Black Death between 1347 and 1351.

The Black Death, also known as the Great Plague or the Plague, or less commonly the Black Plague, was one of the most devastating pandemics in human history, resulting in the deaths of an estimated 75 to 200 million people in Eurasia and peaking in Europe from 1347 to 1351.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Black_Death

See: https://malagabay.wordpress.com/2019/01/21/the-hecker-horizon-coincidental-catastrophe/

Marcus Aurelius (Latin: Marcus Aurelius Antoninus Augustus; 121-180) was Roman emperor from 161 to 180 and a Stoic philosopher.

The Antonine Plague broke out in 165 or 166 and devastated the population of the Roman Empire, causing the deaths of five million people.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Marcus_Aurelius

See: https://malagabay.wordpress.com/2019/10/14/ravenna-revealed/

327 – Chapter IX – Coins Found At Wroxeter

It is a frequent subject of wonder why, whenever we dig upon a Roman site, we almost invariably find the Roman money scattered about everywhere.

This is eminently the case at Wroxeter, where, for centuries the Roman coins have been picked up in abundance by the peasantry, who gave them the local name of dinders, which represents the Anglo-Norman denier, and the Latin denarius.

The word itself is a proof of the length of time during which it has been customary to pick up the Roman coins here, for no doubt it was derived from the Anglo-Norman language, when that language was commonly talked on our border.

In many parts of England the peasantry were so surprised at finding the Roman coins thus scattered about, that it became a part of their superstitions, and they called them fairy money.

At the first glance, indeed, one is almost led to suppose that, before the Romans left the place, they amused themselves with throwing their money about.

Uriconium – Thomas Wright – 1872
https://archive.org/details/cu31924027950264/page/n354

John Leland tells of the discovery by a shepherd in his time of the shank-bone of a horse, the mouth closed with a peg, which was filled with Roman silver coins ; and in much more recent times, a shepherd boy found, in the neighbourhood of High Wycombe in Buckinghamshire, ten British gold coins inclosed in a hollow flint.

These singular methods of keeping money appear to have prevailed to a comparatively recent period.

At the close of the month of May, 1863, a workman employed in excavations at the Castlegate, in the town of Malton in Yorkshire, found the remains of a beast’s horn, which appeared to have been filled with coins of the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries, for amongst those examined were some from the mints of kings John, Edward I., and Edward II.

Uriconium – Thomas Wright – 1872
https://archive.org/details/cu31924027950264/page/n357

See: https://malagabay.wordpress.com/category/wroxeter-chronicles/

Similarly:

Unscrambling the Roman Narrative [Omelette] is a major challenge.

See: https://malagabay.wordpress.com/2019/01/14/roads-to-rome/

Pentre Halkyn is a small village in Flintshire, Wales.

Lead ore was first mined in Roman times and was then smelted at Flint.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pentre_Halkyn

In the year 1783 a Roman pig of lead, with an inscription, was dug up in Hampshire, which is represented in the accompanying cut.

The inscription on the top may be read without difficulty, intimating that it came from the mines in the country of the Kiangi, or Cangi, in the year when Nero was consul for the fourth time.

I have already pointed out that the tribe of the Cangi must have occupied the district bordering on the northern coast of Wales, and this pig very probably came from the vast Roman mines under Castell-Caws behind Abergele, which have left that mountain almost cut into two.

But it is a still more interesting circumstance, that Nero was consul for the fourth time the year before that of the insurrection of Boadicea and of the conquest of Anglesey, so that we are fully assured that the Roman mining operations in the country of the Cangi were in activity at this early period.

Uriconium; A Historical Account of the Ancient Roman City – Thomas Wright – 1872
https://archive.org/details/cu31924027950264

FFOS-Y-BLEIDDIAID (Abergele Urban Ph.) SH/935769

The vein carries galena and some sphalerite in a calcite gangue and has been worked for lead ore upon a fairly substantial scale at various times.

The earliest workings of Roman age due to the finding of some relics there.

The Non-Ferrous Mines of Denbighshire – J.R. Foster-Smith – 1972
Northern Cavern & Mine Research Society

Click to access op5lookinside.pdf

Abergele is a community and small market town, situated on the north coast of Wales between the holiday resorts of Colwyn Bay and Rhyl, in Conwy County Borough.

Recent genetic studies as part of the Genetic history of Europe on the y-chromosomes of men in Abergele have revealed that there is a significant percentage of E1b1b1a2 haplogroup in Abergele.

Membership in Y chromosome haplogroup E1b1b1a2 (E-V13) was found to average at 38.97% in a small sample of 18 male y-chromosomes in Abergele.

This genetic marker is found at its highest concentrations in the Balkans at over 40% in areas, but at much lower percentages in Northern Europe at less than 5%.

The reason for drastically higher levels of E1b1b in Abergele is most likely due to the heavy Roman Army presence in Abergele as most of the Roman Soldiers that came to Britain did not come from Italy, rather from other parts of the Roman Empire.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Abergele#History

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/E1b1b1a#Roman_soldiers_in_Britain

See: https://malagabay.wordpress.com/2016/04/23/the-wroxeter-chronicles-losing-the-legion/

Hopefully, a reliable version of Modern History will eventually emerge.

But don’t hold your breath given the state of academia.

Gallery | This entry was posted in Arabian Horizon, Books, Catastrophism, Hecker Horizon, Heinsohn Horizon, History, Old Japanese Cedar Tree, Ravenna Revisited, Roman Chronology, Round Towers, Wroxeter Chronicles. Bookmark the permalink.

7 Responses to Ravenna Revealed: Curious Clues

  1. johnm33 says:

    More Nabatean than Nazarean then?
    I wonder how many of these migrating ‘tribes’ are armies who arrived too late to a now lost cause and decided their best option was to skidaddle? Then finding themselves without women begged borrowed and stole and found great fertility in their diversity outcompeting the locals.

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