Parallax Problems

The second step towards solving the puzzle of the Stellar Parallax Clusterfuck involves trying to discover which pieces of the puzzle are mangled or missing.

Deprecated, Discredited, Disappeared and Very Disquieting
A curious aspect of the official historical narrative is that all Stellar Parallax observations before 1838 have [for one reason or another] been deprecated or discredited.

The first successful measurements of stellar parallax were made by Friedrich Bessel in 1838 for the star 61 Cygni using a heliometer.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Parallax#Stellar_parallax

Amazon US: https://www.amazon.com/dp/0716737116
Amazon UK: https://www.amazon.co.uk/dp/0716737116

Alan Hirshfeld is Professor of Physics at the University of Massachusetts Dartmouth and an Associate of the Harvard College Observatory. He received his undergraduate degree in astrophysics from Princeton University in 1973 and his Ph.D. in astronomy from Yale in 1978.

University of Massachusetts Dartmouth – Faculty Pages
http://www.faculty.umassd.edu/alan.hirshfeld/

Even John Brinkley’s Stellar Parallax observation that broke the arc-second-barrier in 1815 has [for one reason or another] disappeared.

Transactions of the Royal Irish Academy – Volume XII – 1815
https://archive.org/details/transactionsofro012oya/page/n151

The retrospective deprecating, discrediting, and disappearing of Stellar Parallaxes goes back to [at least] Robert Hooke’s observations of gamma Draconis in 1669.

In 1669 the English scientist Robert Hooke attempted to measure the annual parallax of the star gamma Draconis.

Hooke chose gamma Draconis because it passes nearly overhead in London, so his observations would not be significantly affected by atmospheric refraction.

To carry out his measurement, Hooke built a zenith telescope into his Gresham College apartments. To use this telescope Hooke had to lay down below the eyepiece on the ground floor and look up through holes in the upper floor and roof, and finally through an objective lens in a tube that jutted from the top of the building.

With this zenith telescope Hooke measured the angle between the zenith point (straight up) and gamma Draconis when that star crossed the meridian (the north‐south line in the sky).

Seeing Earth’s Orbit in the Stars: Parallax and Aberration
Todd K Timberlake – The Physics Teacher v. 51 p. 478 – 2013

https://arxiv.org/abs/1208.2061

Coordinates: 17h 56m 36.37s, +51° 29′ 20.02″

Gamma Draconis is a star in the northern constellation of Draco.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gamma_Draconis

Coordinates: 51° 30′ 26″N 0° 7′ 39″ W

London is the capital and largest city of England and the United Kingdom.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/London

γ lies almost exactly in the zenith of Greenwich, in fact, has there been called the Zenith-star; and, being circumpolar, descends toward the horizon, but, without disappearing, rises easterly, and thus explains the poet’s line:

the East and the West meet together.

It was nearer the pole than any other bright star about 4000 years ago.

Its minute companion, 21ʺ distant, at a position angle of 152°, was discovered by Burnham.

Richard Hinckley Allen: Star Names – Their Lore and Meaning
http://penelope.uchicago.edu/Thayer/E/Gazetteer/Topics/astronomy/_Texts/secondary/ALLSTA/home.html

Star-Names and Their Meanings – Richard Hinckley Allen – 1899
https://archive.org/details/starnamesandthe00allegoog/page/n237

The mainstream reject Robert Hooke’s observations for couple of reasons.

Firstly, the mainstream “know” his equipment was “far too imprecise”.

The Gresham Committee very generously gave Robert Hooke £40 to renovate his rooms at the College. Typical to that great scientist, he had a hole knocked through his roof and had a telescope platform installed. It was thanks to this that he was able to carry on his groundbreaking work in astronomy (work that included one of the first observations of a double-star system).

Gresham College – Our History
https://www.gresham.ac.uk/about/history/

An Attempt to prove the Annual Motion of the Earth
Lectiones Cutlerianae – Robert Hooke – 1679

https://archive.org/details/LectionesCutler00Hook/page/n14

Robert Hooke FRS (1635-1703) was an English natural philosopher, architect and polymath.

It is now known that Hooke’s equipment was far too imprecise to allow the measurement to succeed.[58]

58. Hirshfeld, Alan W. (2001). Parallax, The Race to Measure the Cosmos. New York: W. H. Freeman. pp. 144–149. ISBN 978-0716737117.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Robert_Hooke#Astronomy

This rejection rationale rests upon the mainstream’s dubious determination [1838] that Stellar Parallaxes are only “successful” when they break the arc second barrier.

The first determination of a stellar parallax was made by F. W. Bessel in the years 1837-1840, using a heliometer. He chose for his purpose the binary star 61 Cygni, which was the star with the most rapid apparent motion then known and therefore likely to be fairly near us, although only of the sixth magnitude. He found for it a parallax of 0.35″ a value which agrees well with more modern determinations.

Encyclopædia Britannica – 1911 – Volume 25 – Star
https://archive.org/details/encyclopaediabri25chisrich/page/789

Before 1838 Stellar Parallaxes were reported in arc seconds.

An Attempt to prove the Annual Motion of the Earth
Lectiones Cutlerianae – Robert Hooke – 1679

https://archive.org/details/LectionesCutler00Hook/page/n47

Transactions of the Royal Irish Academy – Volume XII – 1815
https://archive.org/details/transactionsofro012oya/page/n151

See: https://malagabay.wordpress.com/2019/12/02/parallax-prelude/

Secondly, the mainstream casts doubts upon the integrity of Hooke’s observations because Bradley found his results were suspiciously out of phase by about three months.

R. Hooke, in 1674, published his observations of γ Draconis, a star of the second magnitude which passes practically overhead in the latitude of London, and whose observations are therefore singularly free from the complex corrections due to astronomical refraction, and concluded that this star was 23″ more northerly in July than in October.

Encyclopædia Britannica – 1911 – Volume 1 – Aberration
https://archive.org/details/encyclopaediabri01chisrich/page/54

In 1725, Samuel Molyneux and James Bradley set out to repeat Hooke’s measurements of gamma Draconis by constructing a zenith telescope in Molyneux’s mansion at Kew near London.

They found that the star varied its position, but not in the way reported by Hooke.

Seeing Earth’s Orbit in the Stars: Parallax and Aberration
Todd K Timberlake – The Physics Teacher v. 51 p. 478 – 2013

https://arxiv.org/abs/1208.2061

This rejection rationale fails to recognise that the 60 year period between the Hooke [1669] and Bradley [1729] observations covers the minimum of the Maunder Minimum that marked the beginning of a new Great Mutation Cycle.

Therefore, it’s very possible, the observations of Hooke and Bradley actually document a change in the Earth’s orbital dynamics caused by the Great Mutation Cycle transition.

See: https://malagabay.wordpress.com/2019/05/16/fiery-trigons-3rd-millennium-prognosis/

See: https://malagabay.wordpress.com/2019/05/08/fiery-trigons-great-mutation-cycle/

James Bradley in Wonderland
The further adventures of James Bradley in astronomy have a distinctly surreal quality.

James Bradley FRS (1693–1762) was an English astronomer and priest who served as Astronomer Royal from 1742.

In 1742, Bradley was appointed to succeed Edmond Halley as Astronomer Royal; his reputation enabled him to apply successfully for a set of instruments costing £1,000; and with an 8-foot quadrant completed for him in 1750 by John Bird, he accumulated at Greenwich in ten years materials of inestimable value for the reform of astronomy.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/James_Bradley

The good news for James Bradley was that he saw the signature “sinusoidal variation” he suspected would be associated with Stellar Parallaxes.

Reduction of the observations made by Bradley – August Ludwig Busch – 1838
https://archive.org/details/reductionobserv00buscgoog/page/n10

Bradley followed up on this work by measuring several more stars using a shorter zenith telescope in his residence at Wanstead.

The data show the sinusoidal variation expected for parallax, but the phase is 3 months off from the predictions…

Seeing Earth’s Orbit in the Stars: Parallax and Aberration
Todd K Timberlake – The Physics Teacher v. 51 p. 478 – 2013

https://arxiv.org/abs/1208.2061

The bad news for James Bradley was that the timing of the observed “sinusoidal variation” did not agree with his calculated predictions.

The data show the sinusoidal variation expected for parallax, but the phase is 3 months off from the predictions

Seeing Earth’s Orbit in the Stars: Parallax and Aberration
Todd K Timberlake – The Physics Teacher v. 51 p. 478 – 2013

https://arxiv.org/abs/1208.2061

Calculation showed that if there had been any appreciable motion due to parallax, then the star should have reached its most southerly apparent position in December, and its most northerly apparent position in June.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/James_Bradley#Works

Therefore, in an act of supremely surreal silliness, Bradley decided his infallible predictions meant the “sinusoidal variation” could not “be accounted for by parallax”.

What Bradley found instead was an apparent motion that reached its most southerly point in March, and its most northerly point in September; and that could not be accounted for by parallax: the cause of a motion with the pattern actually seen was at first obscure.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/James_Bradley#Works

Instead, in an act of supremely surreal science, Bradley decided to discover aberration.

Bradley’s discovery of the aberration of light was made while attempting to detect stellar parallax. Bradley worked with Samuel Molyneux until Molyneux’s death in 1728, trying to measure the parallax of Gamma Draconis.

This stellar parallax ought to have shown up, if it existed at all, as a small annual cyclical motion of the apparent position of the star. However, while Bradley and Molyneux did not find the expected apparent motion due to parallax, they found instead a different and unexplained annual cyclical motion.

Shortly after Molyneux’s death, Bradley realised that this was caused by what is now known as the aberration of light.

The basis on which Bradley distinguished the annual motion actually observed from the expected motion due to parallax, was that its annual timetable was different.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/James_Bradley#Works

In astronomy, aberration (also referred to as astronomical aberration, stellar aberration, or velocity aberration) is a phenomenon which produces an apparent motion of celestial objects about their true positions, dependent on the velocity of the observer.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aberration_of_light

Bradley’s dysfunctional discovery of aberration removed [up to] 40 arc seconds from the domain of the annual parallax i.e. [up to] 20 arc seconds from the quoted Stellar Parallax.

Aberration causes objects to appear to be displaced towards the direction of motion of the observer compared to when the observer is stationary. The change in angle is typically very small — of the order of v/c where c is the speed of light and v the velocity of the observer. In the case of “stellar” or “annual” aberration, the apparent position of a star to an observer on Earth varies periodically over the course of a year as the Earth’s velocity changes as it revolves around the Sun, by a maximum angle of approximately 20 arcseconds in right ascension or declination.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aberration_of_light

It’s worth noting that the discovery of aberration might have been retrospectively awarded to Bradley as a posthumous prize by Friedrich Bessel.

The publication of Bradley’s observations was delayed by disputes about their ownership; but they were finally issued by the Clarendon Press, Oxford, in two folio volumes (1798, 1805).

The insight and industry of Friedrich Bessel were, however, needed for the development of their fundamental importance.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/James_Bradley#Works

A booby prize is a joke prize usually given in recognition of a terrible performance or last-place finish. A person who finishes last, for example, may receive a booby prize such as a worthless coin. Booby prizes are sometimes jokingly coveted as an object of pride. Booby prizes may also be given as consolation prizes to all non-placing participants of a competition.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Booby_prize

Either way:

The “insight and industry” of Bessel broke the arc-second-barrier in 1838.

The first successful measurements of stellar parallax were made by Friedrich Bessel in 1838 for the star 61 Cygni using a heliometer.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Parallax#Stellar_parallax

But Bessel’s “insight and industry” didn’t fix the baseline problem.

Stellar Parallax Baseline Problem
It’s claimed the distance to a star can be calculated by configuring a right-angled triangle with an apex angle equal to the Stellar Parallax and a baseline of one astronomical unit.

Stellar parallax is the apparent shift of position of any nearby star (or other object) against the background of distant objects.

Created by the different orbital positions of Earth, the extremely small observed shift is largest at time intervals of about six months, when Earth arrives at opposite sides of the Sun in its orbit, giving a baseline distance of about two astronomical units between observations.

The parallax itself is considered to be half of this maximum, about equivalent to the observational shift that would occur due to the different positions of Earth and the Sun, a baseline of one astronomical unit (AU).

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Stellar_Parallax

Star distances are computed using the annual parallax produced by viewing the displacement, as the Earth orbits the Sun, of any nearby star against the background of very distant stars. The parallax measurement involves measuring minute angle at the apex of an isosceles triangle whose base is the diameter of the Earth’s orbit about the Sun [21].

21. In practice, the parallax is half of the annual angular displacement of the star, and the base of the triangle, now right angled, is one astronomical unit.

Solaria Binaria – Alfred De Grazia and Earl R. Milton – 1984
https://grazian-archive.com/quantavolution/QuantaHTML/vol_05/solaria-binaria_03.htm

Proxima Centauri is a small, low-mass star located 4.244 light-years (1.301 pc) away from the Sun in the southern constellation of Centaurus.

Parallax (π) 768.5 ± 0.2 mas

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Proxima_Centauri

Unfortunately, the baseline of one astronomical unit is a totally flawed concept because Stellar Parallaxes are [ideally] derived from pairs of observations made “six months” apart.

https://archive.org/details/in.ernet.dli.2015.149397/page/n315

https://archive.org/details/SphericalAstronomy/page/n229

During those “six months” the target Star moves.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Barnard%27s_Star

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/61_Cygni

During those “six months” the Earth moves halfway around the Sun.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Earth%27s_orbit

And, more importantly:

During those “six months” the Sun moves towards Vega.

The Apex of the Sun’s Way, or the solar apex, is the direction that the Sun travels relative to other nearby stars. This motion is towards a point in the constellation Hercules, near the star Vega.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sun

The Sun moves at about 220 km/s in a polar orbit around the Milky Way.

The plan view of the Earth’s orbit reveals that Aphelion [which occurs in early July] aligns with M54 at the “core” of the Sagittarius Dwarf Spheroidal Galaxy.

Secondly, the side elevation [aka cross section] of the Earth’s orbit reveals that the Sun [and hence the Solar System] is “travelling in a polar orbit (i.e. an orbit passing over the Milky Way’s galactic poles)” and this trajectory clearly suggests the Sagittarius Dwarf Spheroidal Galaxy wins the Our Galaxy designation competition.

See: https://malagabay.wordpress.com/2016/06/01/lawler-alignments-galactic-roller-coaster/

Watch the associated YouTube video by clicking here.

See: https://malagabay.wordpress.com/2018/06/11/electric-universe-spinning-up-gravity/

The Sagittarius Dwarf Spheroidal Galaxy (Sgr dSph), also known as the Sagittarius Dwarf Elliptical Galaxy (Sgr dE or Sag DEG), is an elliptical loop-shaped satellite galaxy of the Milky Way.

It consists of four globular clusters, the main cluster having been discovered in 1994. Sgr dSph is roughly 10,000 light-years in diameter, and is currently about 70,000 light-years from Earth, travelling in a polar orbit (i.e. an orbit passing over the Milky Way’s galactic poles) at a distance of about 50,000 light-years from the core of the Milky Way (about ⅓ of the distance of the Large Magellanic Cloud).

In its looping, spiraling path, it has passed through the plane of the Milky Way several times in the past.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sagittarius_Dwarf_Elliptical_Galaxy

Robert Vanderbei’s superb composite image illustrates how the [continuously moving] Earth, Sun, and Barnard’s Star conspire [in three dimensions] to create a Stellar Parallax.

Click to access BS.pdf

Radial velocity (Rv)      −110.6     km/s
Proper motion   (μ) RA:   −802.803  mas/yr
                    Dec: 10362.542  mas/yr
Parallax        (π)        547.4506 mas
Distance                     5.958   ly

Barnard’s Star is a red dwarf about 6 light-years away from Earth in the constellation of Ophiuchus.

It is the fourth nearest known individual star to the Sun after the three components of the Alpha Centauri system and the closest star in the Northern Celestial Hemisphere.

Despite its proximity, the star has a dim apparent magnitude of +9.5 and is invisible to the unaided eye; it is much brighter in the infrared than in visible light.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Barnard%27s_Star

In essence, Stellar Parallaxes are a three body phenomena that produce an observable net result that obscures the individual contributions of the Earth, Sun, and Star.

The mainstream have fictionalised their Stellar Distance calculations by pretending they can solve this three dimensional problem with a two dimensional trigonometric solution that:

1) Pretends the Stellar Parallax is always less than one arc second.
2) Pretends the Sun is a stationary object.
3) Pretends the baseline is a constant astronomical unit.

Their concepts and calculations are a titanic trigonometrical tragedy.

Bessel’s “insight and industry” transformed this three body tragedy into a five body fudge with his “most memorable” addition of two neighbouring stars.

The Earth, Sun, and 61 Cygni

Plus Two Neighbouring Stars

Equals a Five Body Fudge

Bessel’s five body fudge creates a fantastic fiction.

A fantastic fiction for all to see

Gallery | This entry was posted in Astrophysics, Books, Parallax, Science, Solar System, Uniformitarianism. Bookmark the permalink.

9 Responses to Parallax Problems

  1. Pingback: Parallax Prelude | MalagaBay

  2. johnm33 says:

    That’s going to take a few reads to digest, though I begin to suspect that the real situation is that the local stars orbit neither the milky way nor M54 or any other galaxy but are simply and slowly moving away from their rapidly rotating centers contained in strings of birkland currents, and that the series of disasters that have occurred to ‘our’ home planet are a consequence of the slow passage of the galactic discs through one another, and the catastrophic interference that takes place as those electric strings interfere and react.

  3. cadxx says:

    The diameter of the Earth’s helix through space is larger than the diameter of the Earth’s Earth/Sun orbit.
    When I was at work I sometimes had non standard threads and needed a helix angle in order to produce them. As I never had any help in such things I worked it out for myself. I found if I worked-out the length of one thread and measured the distance between threads I could make a right angled triangle and thereby find the helix angle.
    It’s not difficult once you know how to do it but astronomers love complexity all of them being mathematicians at heart.
    I’m told that schoolkids are no longer taught trigonometry at school – all part of the dumbing down process I guess?

  4. Yry says:

    1
    Astronomer William Herschel on March 6, 1783 CE.
    – Object: “That several of the fixed stars have a proper motion is now already so well confirmed that it will admit of no further doubt.”

    “Does it not seem very natural, that so many changes among the stars, –many increasing their magnitude, while numbers seem gradually to vanish…: — I say, does it not seem natural that these observations should cause a strong suspicion that most probably every star in the heaven is more or less in motion? […] yet we may well suppose, that motion is some way or other concerned in producing these effects. [e.g. occasional occultations – periodical return of large spots – body flattened by a quick rotation – translation of the (star) center “]

    – See Article “On the proper Motion of the Sun and Solar System…” by William Herschel March 6, 1783.
    From pages 247 to 274 and a postscript in pages 274 to 283. Vol v.73(1783): Philosophical transactions of the Royal Society of London by Pearson, Richard, 1765-1836. https://archive.org/details/philosophicaltra7317roya

    —————————————————–
    2
    “The Sun [and hence the Solar System] moves at about 220 km/s in a polar orbit around the Milky Way (i.e. an orbit passing over the Milky Way’s galactic poles)” and this trajectory clearly suggests the Sagittarius Dwarf Spheroidal Galaxy wins the Our Galaxy designation competition.”

    ==> to Tim:

    – 2.1) I don’t understand what is meant by “galactic poles” which the Solar System orbits.
    Could you elaborate more?

    – 2.2) Dwarf Spheroidal Galaxy winning an “our Galaxy designation…”: could you elaborate more?

    – 2.3) So far I haven’t come across what could be regarded as a proper galaxy regarding the Milky Way
    and for the better part the “stars” are something else.

    —————————————————-
    3
    “The Sun is like a Comet, dragging the planets in its wake”, by DJ Sadhu on YouTube.

    – 3.1 ==> This is an impressive video. There is also a manuscript in latin, dated 901-1000 CE/AD from the french BnF showing essentially the same phenomenum as a full page diagram.
    (there is another latin manuscript with basically the same diagram in my archives).
    Cfer: – Varia de computo – BnF ID: ark:/12148/btv1b105419933
    Views 38r and 39r https://manuscrits-france-angleterre.org/view3if/pl/ark:/12148/btv1b105419933

    – 3.2 ==> to Tim: am I right in saying these monks had already found out ca 1000 years ago about the Sun dragging its whirling planets?

    ——————————————————
    4
    @ johnm33:

    ” twin Birkeland current filaments can create structures that resemble spiral galaxies as easily demonstrated in laboratory experiments.” — Stephen Smith, The Thunderbolts Project ™:
    https://www.thunderbolts.info/wp/2019/09/18/dark-horizon-2/

    ——————————————————
    5
    @ cadxx

    no more philosophy, no music classes, no latin, no greek, no more morale, no more syllabic teaching, no more History, no more geography, no more chemistry, no artwork… did I miss something?

    ——————————————————-

    More and more fascinating by the week, can’t wait! – Gratefully, Yry.

  5. Boris Tabaksplatt says:

    There is a systemic problem in astronomy and in many other sciences, in that they fail to appreciate that dynamic systems, like our galaxy, cannot treated the same way as invariant static systems. This excellent post shows how easy it is to apply the wrong tools and get the wrong result. I’m looking forwards to the next helping of Christmas fudge. Thanks.

  6. malagabay says:

    Yry: I’m trying to express the idea that the orbit of the Solar System is going up and over the North Pole of the Milky Way. Tim

    See: https://malagabay.wordpress.com/2016/06/01/lawler-alignments-galactic-roller-coaster/

  7. Pingback: Parallax Patterns | MalagaBay

  8. Pingback: Parallax Perspective | MalagaBay

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