The fourth step towards solving the puzzle of the Stellar Parallax Clusterfuck involves comparing parallax distances with an established distance proxy.
Visual Clue: Vanishing Point
The vanishing point is an everyday clue that helps assess distance.
This clue isn’t infallible – but it does provide good general guidance that the apparent size and brightness of an object decreases as it moves away towards the vanishing point.
A vanishing point is a point on the image plane of a perspective drawing where the two-dimensional perspective projections (or drawings) of mutually parallel lines in three-dimensional space appear to converge.
The Disorderly Neighbourhood
The vanishing point clue [that suggests stars will generally become dimmer with distance] appears to fail miserable when the apparent magnitudes of stars are plotted by their assigned distances according to the mainstream.
This is a list of stars down to magnitude +2.50, as determined by their maximum, total, or combined visual magnitudes as viewed from Earth. Although several of the brightest stars are known binary or multiple star systems and are relatively close to Earth, they appear to the naked eye as single stars.
In the above graphs the reverse logarithmic scale of Apparent magnitudes doesn’t reveal the true level of disconnect between dimming and established distance measures.
Plotting the Brightness Relative to Vega reveals the abject failure of the vanishing point clue that stellar brightness is determined by distance.
On the other hand:
Maybe the mainstream distance estimates are an abject failure.
The Orderly Neighbourhood
An alternate approach abandons altogether the mainstream measures of distance.
In this scenario the Brightness Relative to Vega is a proxy for distance.
This serially sequenced Stellar Neighbourhood is remarkably orderly.
The vanishing point clue isn’t infallible but the high coefficient of correlation associated with the Brightness Relative to Vega distance proxy suggests the mainstream measures of distance are far too random to be real.
This serially sequenced Stellar Neighbourhood echoes the Inverse-Square Law.
The inverse-square law, in physics, is any physical law stating that a specified physical quantity or intensity is inversely proportional to the square of the distance from the source of that physical quantity. The fundamental cause for this can be understood as geometric dilution corresponding to point-source radiation into three-dimensional space.
In this serially sequenced Stellar Neighbourhood the visible night sky is populated with “stars”, “planets”, and “comets” with fluorescing atmospheres.
In this serially sequenced Stellar Neighbourhood the pantomime White Dwarfs are more likely to be fluorescing “planets” than “stellar core” remnants.
The Hertzsprung–Russell diagram, abbreviated as H–R diagram, HR diagram or HRD, is a scatter plot of stars showing the relationship between the stars’ absolute magnitudes or luminosities versus their stellar classifications or effective temperatures.
A white dwarf, also called a degenerate dwarf, is a stellar core remnant composed mostly of electron-degenerate matter. A white dwarf is very dense: its mass is comparable to that of the Sun, while its volume is comparable to that of Earth.
A white dwarf’s faint luminosity comes from the emission of stored thermal energy; no fusion takes place in a white dwarf.
The nearest known white dwarf is Sirius B, at 8.6 light years, the smaller component of the Sirius binary star. There are currently thought to be eight white dwarfs among the hundred star systems nearest the Sun. The unusual faintness of white dwarfs was first recognized in 1910. The name white dwarf was coined by Willem Luyten in 1922.
The Seven Dwarfs are a group of seven fictional dwarfs that appear in the fairy tale Snow White and others.
In this serially sequenced Inverse-Square Law universe the astronomer’s can KISS goodbye to their entire pantomime cast of Giants that are more likely to be Main Sequence Stars the hypermetropic astronomers have been obliged to mathematically enlarge because they’ve exaggerated [to some degree] the distances to these “stars”.
KISS, an acronym for “keep it simple, stupid” or “keep it stupid simple”, is a design principle noted by the U.S. Navy in 1960.
A hypergiant (luminosity class 0 or Ia+) is among the very rare kinds of stars that typically show tremendous luminosities and very high rates of mass loss by stellar winds. The term hypergiant is defined as luminosity class 0 (zero) in the MKK system. However, this is rarely seen in the literature or in published spectral classifications, except for specific well-defined groups such as the yellow hypergiants, RSG (red supergiants), or blue B(e) supergiants with emission spectra.
Supergiants are among the most massive and most luminous stars. Supergiant stars occupy the top region of the Hertzsprung–Russell diagram with absolute visual magnitudes between about −3 and −8.
The luminosity class II in the Yerkes spectral classification is given to bright giants. These are stars which straddle the boundary between ordinary giants and supergiants, based on the appearance of their spectra.
A giant star is a star with substantially larger radius and luminosity than a main-sequence (or dwarf) star of the same surface temperature.
A yellow giant is a luminous giant star of low or intermediate mass (roughly 0.5–11 solar masses (M)) in a late phase of its stellar evolution. The outer atmosphere is inflated and tenuous, making the radius large and the surface temperature as low as 5,200-7500 K. The appearance of the yellow giant is from white to yellow, including the spectral types F and G. About 10.6 percent of all giant stars are yellow giants.
A red giant is a luminous giant star of low or intermediate mass (roughly 0.3–8 solar masses (M☉)) in a late phase of stellar evolution. The outer atmosphere is inflated and tenuous, making the radius large and the surface temperature around 5,000 K (4,700 °C; 8,500 °F) or lower. The appearance of the red giant is from yellow-orange to red, including the spectral types K and M, but also class S stars and most carbon stars.
In astronomy, a blue giant is a hot star with a luminosity class of III (giant) or II (bright giant). In the standard Hertzsprung–Russell diagram, these stars lie above and to the right of the main sequence.
Blue giant is not a strictly defined term and it is applied to a wide variety of different types of stars.
A subgiant is a star that is brighter than a normal main-sequence star of the same spectral class, but not as bright as giant stars.
Far-sightedness, also known hypermetropia, is a condition of the eye in which light is focused behind, instead of on, the retina. This results in close objects appearing blurry, while far objects may appear normal.
“Jack the Giant Killer” is an English fairy tale and legend about a young adult who slays a number of bad giants during King Arthur’s reign.
In this orderly Pareto Principle universe the very visually under-emphasised Red Dwarfs account for “roughly eighty percent of all the stars in the universe”.
Mathematically, the 80/20 rule is roughly followed by a power law distribution (also known as a Pareto distribution) for a particular set of parameters, and many natural phenomena have been shown empirically to exhibit such a distribution.
Red dwarfs are by far the most common type of star in the Milky Way, at least in the neighborhood of the Sun, but because of their low luminosity, individual red dwarfs cannot be easily observed.
From Earth, not one that fits the stricter definitions of a red dwarf is visible to the naked eye. Proxima Centauri, the nearest star to the Sun, is a red dwarf, as are fifty of the sixty nearest stars. According to some estimates, red dwarfs make up three-quarters of the stars in the Milky Way.
Roughly eighty percent of all the stars in the universe are red dwarfs, and the nearest star – Proxima – is a typical example.
The Universe within 12.5 Light Years
Atlas of the Universe – Richard Powell
But the astronomers will continue to ignore the elegance of our orderly universe because they’ve sacked their scholarly sticklers.
And the astronomers are very unlikely to employ some scholarly sticklers because they might discover some jiggery-pokery.