Solving the Stellar Parallax Clusterfuck suggests Gamma Draconis is about 10,850 AU distant and that Sirius is [only] about 360 AU away.
Gamma Draconis Revisited
There are some very good reasons why the Gamma Draconis parallax measurements made by James Bradley [between 1725 and 1728] should be taken seriously.
Firstly, Gamma Draconis “passes nearly overhead in London”.
In 1669 the English scientist Robert Hooke attempted to measure the annual parallax of the star gamma Draconis.
Hooke chose gamma Draconis because it passes nearly overhead in London, so his observations would not be significantly affected by atmospheric refraction.
In 1725, Samuel Molyneux and James Bradley set out to repeat Hooke’s measurements of gamma Draconis by constructing a zenith telescope in Molyneux’s mansion at Kew near London.
Seeing Earth’s Orbit in the Stars: Parallax and Aberration
Todd K Timberlake – The Physics Teacher v. 51 p. 478 – 2013
Secondly, the simplified parallax trigonometry employed by the mainstream can be used to produce a reasonable distance approximation for Gamma Draconis because the Solar System is travelling towards Vega [and it’s relatively close neighbour Gamma Draconis].
The Apex of the Sun’s Way, or the solar apex, is the direction that the Sun travels relative to other nearby stars. This motion is towards a point in the constellation Hercules, near the star Vega.
Thirdly, the data collected by James Bradley very clearly reveals an annual “sinusoidal variation” with peaks in September and March that confirm the Solar System is travelling towards Vega [and it’s relatively close neighbour Gamma Draconis].
The good news for James Bradley was that he saw the signature “sinusoidal variation” he suspected would be associated with Stellar Parallaxes.
The bad news for James Bradley was that the timing of the observed “sinusoidal variation” did not agree with his calculated predictions.
Therefore, in an act of supremely surreal silliness, Bradley decided his infallible predictions meant the “sinusoidal variation” could not “be accounted for by parallax”.
The Gamma Draconis distance approximation based upon James Bradley’s 1730 parallax measurement of 19 arc seconds is 10,856.05 AU i.e. 0.17 light years.
Semi-major axis: 1.000001018 AU
If the mainstream is correct and the Solar System is travelling towards Gamma Draconis at a speed of 28.19 kilometres per second then the Solar System is scheduled to experience a Close Encounter with Gamma Draconis in [about] 3,555 CE i.e. 1,825 years after 1730.
Radial velocity (Rv) –28.19 ± 0.36 km/s
In 1.5 million years, Gamma Draconis will pass within 28 light years of Earth. For a period, if its current absolute magnitude does not change, it will be the brightest star in the night sky, nearly as bright as Sirius is at present.
Whether the Solar System will merge [gradually or catastrophically] with Gamma Draconis [and/or it’s red dwarf companion] is unknown.
Gamma Draconis has six companions listed in double star catalogues.
All were discovered by Sherburne Wesley Burnham.
The closest may be physically associated and would be separated by about 1,000 AU. The luminosity of this object suggests it is a red dwarf star.
The others are all much more distant stars unrelated to Gamma Draconis.
The Gamma Draconis distance calculation based upon James Bradley’s 1730 parallax measurement provides further evidence mainstream star sizes are totally tonto.
The vanishing point clue isn’t infallible but the high coefficient of correlation associated with the Brightness Relative to Vega distance proxy suggests the mainstream measures of distance are far too random to be real.
Gamma Draconis is an evolved giant star with a stellar classification of K5 III. Since 1943, the spectrum of this star has served as one of the stable anchor points by which other stars are classified.
It has 72% more mass than the Sun and it has expanded to around 48 times the Sun’s girth.
It is radiating about 471 times as much luminosity as the Sun from its outer atmosphere at an effective temperature of 3,930 K. This is cooler than the Sun, giving this star the orange-hued glow of a K-type star.
The radius of VY CMa is about 1,420 times that of the Sun (R☉), which is close to the Hayashi limit and corresponds to a volume about 3 billion times bigger than the Sun.
Spanish Language: Tonto
English Translation: Stupid, Idiot
Overall, the evidence indicates the mainstream should go back to the drawing board to:
a) Correct their parallax angle measurement methodologies
b) Develop three dimensional trigonometry solutions that seriously attempt to account for the movements of the Earth, Sun, and Target Star.
Trigonometry With Tables
Alvin M Welchons and William R Krickenberger – 1957
c) Abandon Aberration and all the associated Einstein Idiocy.
Aberration causes objects to appear to be displaced towards the direction of motion of the observer compared to when the observer is stationary.
The aberration of light, together with Lorentz’s elaboration of Maxwell’s electrodynamics, the moving magnet and conductor problem, the negative aether drift experiments, as well as the Fizeau experiment, led Albert Einstein to develop the theory of special relativity in 1905, which presents a general form of the equation for aberration in terms of such theory.
Annual aberration is caused by the motion of an observer on Earth as the planet revolves around the Sun. … Its accepted value is 20.49552 arcseconds (at J2000).
Albert Einstein (1879 – 1955) was a German-born theoretical physicist who developed the theory of relativity, one of the two pillars of modern physics (alongside quantum mechanics). … In 1933, while Einstein was visiting the United States …
In popular usage the term “central casting” has come to denote an unspecified source of stereotypical types for film or television, as in a character being “straight out of central casting“.
It was in this year that Albert Einstein, aged 26, published important discoveries concerning the photoelectric effect, Brownian motion, the special theory of relativity, and the famous E = mc2 equation. His four articles, collectively known as his Annus Mirabilis papers, were published in Annalen der Physik in 1905.
Overall, Albert Einstein’s contribution in 1905 was to encourage Settled Science to retreat from reality into a mathematical world of models.
Einstein’s explanation of Brownian Motion is miraculous because it doesn’t require a constant input of energy i.e. Brownian Motion is perpetual motion!
And, just to confuse matters even further, the Einstein Franchise equation promoted by Time magazine was not the equation Einstein published in 1905.
In the meantime, inhabitants of the real world who believe in observational science can calibrate the Brightness Relative To Vega proxy to obtain some ballpark distances.
The distance calculation for Gamma Draconis based upon James Bradley’s 1730 data provides a calibration point on the Brightness Relative To Vega proxy curve whereby 0.1284 the brightness of Vega is deemed to be at a distance of 10,856.05 AU.
a very rough approximation.
A simple proportional calibration of the entire Brightness Relative To Vega proxy curve suggests Sirius is [only] at a distance of 362.45 AU i.e. 0.0057312 light years.
Brightness Relative To Vega = 1394.1 ÷ AU Distance
Sirius (designated α Canis Majoris (Latinized to Alpha Canis Majoris, abbreviated Alpha CMa, α CMa)) is the brightest star in the night sky.
Apparent magnitude (V) −1.46 … Distance 8.60 ± 0.04 ly
Light-year: 63,241 AU
The calibration of the proxy curve generates a very curious coincidence whereby the proxy formula constant of 1394.1 is remarkably close [1.98% difference] to the mainstream Extraterrestrial Solar Radiation constant of 1367 watts per square metre.
AU Distance = 1394.1 ÷ Brightness Relative To Vega
The total amount of energy received at ground level from the Sun at the zenith depends on the distance to the Sun and thus on the time of year.
It is about 3.3% higher than average in January and 3.3% lower in July (see below).
If the extraterrestrial solar radiation is 1367 watts per square meter (the value when the Earth–Sun distance is 1 astronomical unit), then the direct sunlight at Earth’s surface when the Sun is at the zenith is about 1050 W/m2, but the total amount (direct and indirect from the atmosphere) hitting the ground is around 1120 W/m2.
This coincidence suggests:
1) Stars on the proxy curve are very similar to the Sun
2) Stellar brightness is a very useful [but fallible] distance proxy.
3) Mainstream star distances are totally tonto.
4) The Cosmic Distance Ladder is totally tonto.
Each rung of the ladder provides information that can be used to determine the distances at the next higher rung.
Stellar parallax remains the standard for calibrating other measurement methods.
The radius of the observable universe is therefore estimated to be about 46.5 billion light-years…
If you like Light Years then enjoy your Double Fudge Sundae.
The shenanigans start with the Stellar Parallax [aka Trigonometric Parallax].
This is where the fudge starts to hit the fan as the astroturfing astronomers stoop to scoop up their deliciously deceptive Double Fudge Sundae.
The Double Fudge Sundae is designed to smooth over the astronomical unit kludge because the astronomers need to sweet talk you into swallowing the absurd assertion that their conceptually crippled Stellar Parallax triangle has “equal length legs”.
The Double Fudge Sundae is also intended to sweet talk you into swallowing their misdirection that determining the distance to a Star is “essentially similar” to a land survey.
Sirius is currently travelling towards the Solar System at 5.50 km/s.
In 1717, Edmond Halley discovered the proper motion of the hitherto presumed “fixed” stars after comparing contemporary astrometric measurements with those from the second century AD given in Ptolemy’s Almagest. The bright stars Aldebaran, Arcturus and Sirius were noted to have moved significantly; Sirius had progressed about 30 arc minutes (about the diameter of the Moon) to the southwest.
In 1868, Sirius became the first star to have its velocity measured, the beginning of the study of celestial radial velocities.
Sir William Huggins examined the spectrum of the star and observed a red shift.
He concluded that Sirius was receding from the Solar System at about 40 km/s.
Compared to the modern value of −5.5 km/s, this was an overestimate and had the wrong sign; the minus sign (−) means that it is approaching the Sun.
It is possible that Huggins did not account for the Earth’s orbital velocity, which would cause an error of up to 30 km/s.
If Sirius is [roughly] 362.45 AU distant then the Solar System should have it’s Closest Encounter with Sirius in [roughly] 2332 CE.
These ballpark estimates don’t preclude the possibility that Sirius is associated with the Great Mutation Cycle.
A Great Mutation Cycle that reflects the period of a Sun-Sirius binary system.
The brightest star in the night sky, Sirius is recorded in some of the earliest astronomical records.
Its displacement from the ecliptic causes its heliacal rising to be remarkably regular compared to other stars, with a period of almost exactly 365.25 days holding it constant relative to the solar year.
This rising occurs at Cairo on 19 July (Julian), placing it just prior to the onset of the annual flooding of the Nile during antiquity.
Owing to the flood’s own irregularity, the extreme precision of the star’s return made it important to the ancient Egyptians, who worshipped it as the goddess Sopdet (Ancient Egyptian: Spdt, Greek: Sō̂this), guarantor of the fertility of their land.
The Egyptian civil calendar was apparently initiated to have its New Year “Mesori” coincide with the appearance of Sirius, although its lack of leap years meant that this congruence only held for four years until its date began to wander backwards through the months.
The Egyptians continued to note the times of Sirius’s annual return, which may have led them to the discovery of the 1460-year Sothic cycle and influenced the development of the Julian and Alexandrian calendars.
The ancient Greeks observed that the appearance of Sirius heralded the hot and dry summer and feared that it caused plants to wilt, men to weaken, and women to become aroused.
Due to its brightness, Sirius would have been seen to twinkle more in the unsettled weather conditions of early summer.
To Greek observers, this signified emanations that caused its malignant influence.
Anyone suffering its effects was said to be “star-struck”.
It was described as “burning” or “flaming” in literature.
The season following the star’s reappearance came to be known as the “dog days”.
The inhabitants of the island of Ceos in the Aegean Sea would offer sacrifices to Sirius and Zeus to bring cooling breezes and would await the reappearance of the star in summer.
If it rose clear, it would portend good fortune; if it was misty or faint then it foretold (or emanated) pestilence.
Coins retrieved from the island from the 3rd century BC feature dogs or stars with emanating rays, highlighting Sirius’s importance.
The Romans celebrated the heliacal setting of Sirius around April 25, sacrificing a dog, along with incense, wine, and a sheep, to the goddess Robigo so that the star’s emanations would not cause wheat rust on wheat crops that year.
Ptolemy of Alexandria mapped the stars in Books VII and VIII of his Almagest, in which he used Sirius as the location for the globe’s central meridian. He depicted it as one of six red-coloured stars (see the Colour controversy section below). The other five are class M and K stars, such as Arcturus and Betelgeuse.
Bright stars were important to the ancient Polynesians for navigation of the Pacific Ocean.
They also served as latitude markers; the declination of Sirius matches the latitude of the archipelago of Fiji at 17°S and thus passes directly over the islands each night.
Sirius served as the body of a “Great Bird” constellation called Manu, with Canopus as the southern wingtip and Procyon the northern wingtip, which divided the Polynesian night sky into two hemispheres.
Just as the appearance of Sirius in the morning sky marked summer in Greece, it marked the onset of winter for the Māori, whose name Takurua described both the star and the season.
A Sun-Sirius binary system would help explain why Sirius was once described as “burning” and “flaming” and [possibly] the appearance of the Roman god Sol Invictus.
Sol Invictus (“Unconquered Sun”) was the official sun god of the later Roman Empire and a patron of soldiers. On 25 December AD 274, the Roman emperor Aurelian made it an official cult alongside the traditional Roman cults.
The data indicates the Sol Invictus configuration began to unravel in 880 CE.
Sirius shows how important Light Years are for the Gradualist mindset.